Presentation on theme: "Whats so special about water? Its a great solvent. It holds tons of heat. It has high surface tension. Its less dense as a solid than a liquid. Water,"— Presentation transcript:
Whats so special about water? Its a great solvent. It holds tons of heat. It has high surface tension. Its less dense as a solid than a liquid. Water, pH and Biological Molecules
Water as a Solvent Dissolving table salt (sodium chloride)
Water Is Lighter as Solid than as a Liquid This means that ice forms an insulating blanket over water.
Water Has High Surface Tension The attraction of one water molecule for another also accounts for ability to hold huge amounts of heat.
pH is a Big Deal pH is a measure of proton (hydrogen ion or H + ) concentration. In biology, keeping H + levels within a narrow range is critically important. Low pH = lots of H + s, high pH = few H + s.
Acids and Bases An acid produces H+A base absorbs H+
Carbons Cool Because carbon contains 4 electrons in its outer shell, it can pair in many ways with many different atoms in an attempt to fill its outer shell. Carbon is the central atom of life.
Carbon is the Central Atom of Life. glucose amino acids fat
Some Useful Nomenclature
In Biology, Shape Matters Its not just chemical formula, its the shape of the molecule that lets it do its job. Never forget the axiom – structure dictates function. Some biological molecules.
Ah, That Smell! Once again, shape matters. Its the good fit between odorant and receptor molecule that lets us detect aromas.
Molecules of Life Start with water, add lots of small carbon-containing molecules and ……. Four Major Classes of Biological Molecules How do you build a cell?
Rules of the Game Macromolecules are built by linking a set of building blocks (monomers) together into long chains (a polymer). Each hexagon is this figure is a monomeric building block linked together to form a polymer.
Macromolecules Are Built By Linking a Set Of Building Blocks (Monomers) Together Into Long Chains (A Polymer).
Glucose: A Simple Carbohydrate Used For Energy Production and as a Building Block For Complex Carbohydrates
Linking Simple Sugars – the First Step to a Polymer and the Last Step to Some Familiar Compounds
Some Familiar and Important Complex Carbohydrates Note the way complex macromolecule are built by linking simple repeating units.
Carbohydrates are Central Players in Energy Production and Storage
Lipids are Hydrophobic Molecules That Exist In Three Primary Forms Sterol Fat Phospholipid
Fats Are Made By Linking Fatty Acid Chains to Glycerol, a Three Carbon Molecule Space-filling model of a fat A fatty acid
Fats are Used in Energy Storage and Production
The Degree Of Saturation In A Fat Affects Its Physical And Nutritional Properties Where are the double bonds?
The Degree Of Saturation In A Fat Affects Its Physical And Nutritional Properties Where are the double bonds? saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated
Sterols Are Part of Cellular Membranes and Act as Hormones Note the four ring structure common to all sterols.
Sterols As Hormones Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, and corticosteriods (cortisol) are all steroid hormones.
Sterols As Hormones Designer steroids are major sporting news where they have been used illegally in track and field, baseball, football and countless other sports. A heavily muscled Linford Christie who was disqualified from international competition after testing positive for a banned steroid.
Phospholipids are Building Blocks of Cellular Membranes The hydrophilic head group and hydrophobic tails are the keys to phospholipid function.
Hydrophilic Head Group And Hydrophobic Tails Are The Keys To Phospholipid Function Phospholipids have a Jekyll and Hyde personality.
Phospholipids Form Biological Membranes
Protein Proteins are THE key elements of life. Forget DNA, proteins rule. Remember the principle - structure determines function. Since proteins are the key players of the cell, it follows that protein structure determines cell function.
Some of the Diverse Functions of Proteins
Strands of the Protein Keratin Create Hair
Proteins are Linear Chains of Linked Amino Acids
A Common Thread and a Unique Identity
Amino Acids, Peptide Bonds, Polypeptides, Protein Peptide bonds Proteins are linear chains of 20 different building blocks called amino acids. Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds – a form of covalent bond.
Proteins are Folded Structures Whose Shape (and therefore function) Depends on Amino Acid Sequence
Nucleic Acids There are two kinds of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Both are involved in the storage and flow of information from gene to gene product. DNA
Nucleotides are DNA and RNA Building Blocks
Nucleotides fuel the cell and coordinate its metabolism. Nucleotides are Important in Their Own Right ATP, the cells primary energy currency.