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Common Usage Terms K.M.H.S. AP World History

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1 Common Usage Terms K.M.H.S. AP World History
Print this presentation and keep it in the Reference Section of your portfolio.

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Incorporate the concepts and terms in this presentation throughout the course. Relate them to each theme and/or topic. Evaluate/describe: Political systems= [How do they govern? Who rules?] Economic systems= [How do they make a living? Technology?] Cultural systems= [Religions, Gender roles, etc.?] Biological systems= [Where do they live? Climate? Environmental interactions?] Utilize the example graphic organizer for each theme/topic studied. 4 Quadrant Organizer

3 Key Comparisons All key comparisons/contrasts must be:
Comprised of Venn Diagram Theme & Date Range Political Systems Economic Systems Cultural Systems Biological Systems Include small map on the back if applicable

4 Continuity & Change Continuities: Changes:
TRADITIONAL TENDENCIES WITHIN A SOCIETY Continuities: Long-standing cultural traditions within a society Stay the same over time or are recurring Changes: Cultural traditions that are newly adopted Identifies changes within society Example: Confucianism Example: Adoption of Buddhism

5 TIME MEASURES B.C.E. Before Current/Common Era
All measured time before the year 0 C.E. Current/Common Era All measured time from year 0 to present ALL DATES GIVEN ARE RELATIVE AND COULD BE QUOTED DIFFERENTLY IN OTHER SOURCES. World Historians prefer this secular designates for measuring time. Dates align with terms BC and AD.

6 CENTURY DESIGNATES Centuries are quoted thus:
1901 to 2001 = 20th Century 2001 to 2101 = 21st Century Thus the years cited would be designated the later [next] “century” Ex = 15th Century Ex = 18th Century While we don’t memorize dates, you must get this down because historians often reference dates as a given ‘century’.

7 CENTURY DESIGNATES 16th Century – Spain 17th Century – Dutch
18th Century – France 19th Century – Britain 20th Century – America 21st Century - ????? The 21st Century is open to debate.

Terms / concepts in the common language of historians. Using the vernacular implies that you will use the appropriate terms identified throughout the course. Doing this will get you points on the AP exam. AND MY EXAMS! Expected throughout the course.

9 OTHER ABBREVIATIONS Casualty Statistics: KIA MIA WIA Killed in action
Million M Thousand K Billion B Hundred C Circa [Latin term] c. [means around this time] Casualty Statistics: KIA Killed in action MIA Missing in action WIA Wounded in action Used later in the course Circa is a none specific date range. Number abbreviations are usually referencing population statistics.

10 LEGAL TERMS [Latin term]
Dejure` [Latin term] Means legal or legally recognized; based in law. Defacto Means in practice but not legally recognized or based in law. These terms are used throughout the course whenever and where ever applicable.

11 LATIN TERMS {Please Define}
Ad hoc Et al. et cetera Habeas corpus INRI Mare nostrum Modus operandi Pater Familias Pax Americana Romana Mongolia Per annum Per Capita Per diem Quid pro quo Sic. SPQR Status quo Terra incognita Vae victis Veni vidi vici Veto Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum (INRI)

12 WORLD RELIGIONS World religions are a crucial catalyst in history and we will not study them with an ethnocentric approach. We will withhold judgment. Central flame - Zoroastrianism Cross – Christianity Crescent Moon & Star – Islam Symbol of Hinduism Star of David – Judaism Ying & Yang – Daoism Wheel of Life - Buddhism


14 RELIGIONS Polytheism Monotheism Belief in only one god. Judaism
Belief in a pantheon of gods [many]. Mesopotamia Egypt Greece Rome Hinduism Monotheism Belief in only one god. Judaism Christianity Islam Always examine religions first as a type and then identify founder, tenets, region, purpose. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge. Buddhist epistemology does not support the existence of one or more gods.

15 Parallel Descent: [Inheritance]
SOCIETAL INFLUENCE MATRIARCHAL Early societies Female deities Female power base MATRILINEAL Inheritance through female PATRIARCHAL Agricultural societies Male power base Male deities PATRILINEAL Inheritance through male These terms will be used to identify every culture studied through modern times. Parallel Descent: [Inheritance]


17 PARALLEL DESCENT Is a form of cognatic descent in which individuals can select to trace descent either matrilineal or matrilineal.  The decision may be made each generation based  on the relative wealth and/or importance of the father's and the mother's family lines.

18 Two Important Terms [Will be used throughout course]
CULTURAL IMPERIALISM Degree to which one society adopts traditions of another culture Done by coercion not choice SYNCRETISM Degree to which one society adopts traditions of another culture Done by choice not coercion You must always address cultural diffusion as either syncretism or cultural imperialism.

Innovation that is new or original No outside influences involved. CULTURAL DIFFUSION Innovation that is introduced from another group or civilization Usually through trade or other interaction. Always look for connections that transfer innovations through trade and migration. Examine those innovations that have no connections with another region. This is also a consideration when considering the emergence of civilization. In Mesopotamia, China & Central America civilizations arose independent of outside influences.

20 Enduring Questions You must be able to evaluate trans-regional cultural diffusion. You must be able to identify the role of syncretization and cultural imperialism at work in that diffusion. ALL EVENTS STUDIED MUST BE ADDRESSED BY ANSWERING “WHY”. These concepts are designed to prepare you for using the vernacular in free response essays.

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