3 NUMBERS: the basic rules (memorize them!) Spell out one through nineNumerals for any number larger than 10Yes, it is the numeral 10, (NOT TEN)!Commas in numerals such as 5,234Ex) Grace Calhoun has two sisters.Grace Calhoun has 1,256 admirers.
4 NUMBERS: Numeric Words -Most other forms of numeric words follow the general rules:third place, 11th placefourth grade, 12th gradeThey have Comp Lit fifth period.
5 NUMBERS: Millions and Billions 2 million, 8 trillion(notice that we use the numerals 2 and 8,not two and eight)Ex)47 billion, 11 million, 55 quadrillion, etc…Note: we do not do this for the thousands!
6 NUMBERS: Decimals and Fractions Spell out clean fractions less than 1 WITH HYPHENone-half, one-third, two-thirds, one-fourth, three-fourths- For any fractional numbers greater than 1, use NUMERALS ONLY1.5, 3.75, 15.1For any non-clean fractions less than 1, use numbers with a 0 preceding the decimal point:0.44, 0.791
7 Numbers: Percent Always spell out percent, never use % sign. (This is a text rule— graphics can use the % sign if needed)50 percent, 25 percent, 0.10 percent, 255 percent
8 NUMBERS: Important Exception A numeral cannot begin a sentence, no matter how big that numeral is.Eight hundred protesters froze to death yesterday night.Three million people wanted to touch Kelly Wilkerson’s jacket.
9 Ages: the basic rule -Always use NUMERALS for ages: The boy is 9 years old, the baby is 2 months old.The kindergartner, 6, went home early.This rule applies to ALL ANIMATE OBJECTS. Dogs, cats, humans, babies all take numeralsTrees, buildings, schools, DO NOT.
10 Ages: Hyphenation- Hyphenate ages when used as a compound adjective or as a noun.Ex) 18-year-old Daniel TuttThe 18-year-old is editor-in-chief ofThe HUB.But some forms don’t require the hyphenEx) Daniel Tutt is 18 years old.
11 Numeric Exception: Age -The numeric exception for the beginning of the sentence APPLIES to ages.Five years old, the toddler threw up on his mother.Seventeen-year-old Chris Garrison is in a bromance with 18-year-old Nick Juanitas.
12 Money: the basic rules Use the $ sign, never spell out ‘dollars’ Ex) $3.23, $6.50-If it is a clean $ amount, do not put .00Ex) $5 (NOT $5.00 or five dollars)If something is in a CENTS amount, use $ sign and place a 0 before the decimal point.$0.50, $0.05, $0.75, etc.
13 Money: Millions and Billions How do we write $3,200,000?$3.2 millionHow do we write $4,432,234,591?…about $4.4 billion (we just approximate to a clean number)NOTE: WE DO NOT DO THIS WITH AMOUNTS IN THE THOUSANDS!!
14 Numeric Exception: Money -The numeric exception for the beginning of the sentence does NOT apply to money.$5 is required to enter the dance.$3.2 million dollars will be raised from the parcel tax.
15 UNIT II: AP Style, Various Rules Time and DatesAddressesTitlesSpeech TagsList SeparationClasses vs. Subject AreasCapitalization RulesSportsMiscellaneous Rules
16 Time Use numerals and a.m. or p.m. 4:30 a.m., 6:15 p.m. IF it is exactly on the hour… NO :005 p.m., 7 a.m.Except: spell out noon and midnight
17 Dates -Abbreviate: Jan.-Feb. and Aug.-Dec. -Easy rule: If the month has more than five letters, abbreviate it-The date is always just a numeral, never “the third of March”Jan. 14, May 17, Dec. 25
18 Dates: When Months Stand Alone If there is no specific date, no abbreviation:Anna Sturla’s birthday is in January.BUT: Anna Sturla’s birthday is Jan. 21
19 Capitalization of Expressions of Time Capitalize:MonthsDays of Week: Monday, SaturdayDO NOT CAPITALIZE:Seasons: summer, spring, winter, autumn
20 Addresses Abbreviate street if in numbered address: 315 W. 14th St. But if there is no address…W. 14th StreetSpell out First through Ninth Street when used as street names. 10th Street, etc. for the following numeric addresses
21 Titles: class rank -senior, junior, sophomore. NO CAPS Combine titles when more than one senior, etc.The HUB’s photographers consist of junior Lani Chang and seniors Peter Lin, Jenny Davisson and Anders Young.
22 Capitalization rules for titles -Capitalize “important” titles when they come before the name:Principal Jacquelyn MooreVice Principal Tom McHaleSchool Board President Sheila AllenNo caps for “unimportant” titles no matter where they are:head coach Dan Gonzalez, teacher Kelly WilkersonExample: Principal Jacquelyn Moore praised her vice principals and Sheila Allen, the president of the school board.
23 Reference RulesFirst name and last on first reference, then last name throughout. Exception: family members.Junior Annamarie Pilon, a graphic artist for The HUB, is rapidly learning AP style. Pilon believes she can ace the test on Friday.“No biggie,” Pilon said.
24 Titles: Other RulesNever use Mr. or Mrs. when referencing teachers. It’s just: journalism teacher Kelly Wilkerson, biology teacher Ann MoriartyOnly use Dr. for medical doctors, not just Ph.D holders. We DO NOT SAY Dr. Moore!!! We do NOT say Dr. John Smith, a professor of chemistry at UC Davis…
25 Speech Tags Always use the formula: Person said Ex) “I love you,” junior Shauna Simon said.COMMA GOES INSIDE QUOTATIONIn fact, ALL punctuation goes inside quotation
26 Try Splitting Quotes!Instead of: “I like to eat food. I wouldn’t live without it. I’m a food monster,” junior Lani Chang said.Try this:“I like to eat food,” junior Lani Chang said. “I wouldn’t live without it. I’m a food monster.”
27 List Separation Rule No comma before last item of a list Senior Peter Lin likes to eat hamburgers, cheeseburgers, turkey burgers, salmon burgers, steak burgers, McDonald’s burgers, Burger King burgers and Habit Burger burgers.
28 Classes vs. Subject Areas Only capitalize official course titles, not subject areas:historyEuropean HistoryFrench classHe is a professor of chemistry.Biology I studentsI like to study biology.biology testeconomics assignmentAlgebra II/Trig classHonors Physics labmath testEconomics II
29 Capitalization Rules: Media CAPITALIZE these items because they are PROPER NOUNS.-Facebook, Wikipedia, Google, Twitter, Tumblr, Internet, etc…DO NOT CAPITALIZE:, websiteApple devices: The i is LOWERCASE, the next letter is CAPITALIZED:iPod Touch, iPhone 4S, iPad, iMac, etc…
30 Capitalization Rules: DHS-related Always Capitalize:Student GovernmentEx) Members of Student Government are meeting today at lunch.Do Not Capitalize:yearbookEx) Those losers are yearbook staff members.
31 AP/HUB Style for Sports JV and varsitymen’s and women’s (no cap)Do not capitalize names of sports!And we don’t capitalize the title ‘coach’It is no. 1, NOT #1. Includes no. 2, no. 3, etc.Ex) Junior Glenn Hull plays no. 1 on the men’s varsity tennis team, according to head coach Dale Hersch.
32 Miscellaneous AP No ‘s’ in toward, backward, forward, etc. ADVISER, not advisorQuotations: when referring to all works of art, literature, plays, movies, songs, etc.Ex) “Inception,” “Catcher in the Rye,” “Don’t Stop Believing”
33 Unit III: Grammar Erratic Words Ellipses Possessives Singular vs. PluralHyphensClass PeriodsHowever
34 Erratic Word Set #1 Since/Because - ‘Since’ is only an expression of time, as in:I have not slept since Monday. ‘Since’ cannot be used to replace ‘because’INCORRECT: I don’t want to sleep since I’m not tired.CORRECT: I don’t want to sleep because I’m not tired.
35 Erratic Word Set#2 Who/That ‘Who’ denotes a person, ‘that’ denotes a thing. Check all nouns/pronouns that replace people and make sure they use the ‘who’ form!!Incorrect: He is the player that scored the most points.Correct: He is the player who scored the most points.
36 Erratic Word Set#3 Over/more than ‘Over’ is a preposition; use ‘more than’ when talking about numbers.Incorrect: The team scored over 50 points.Correct: The team scored more than 50 points.
37 The Commonly Erratic Forms Be careful of form usage in these words:-They’re, their, there-Your, you’re-its, it’s
38 Possessive: with sUnlike in standard usage, AP style requires that a common singular noun ending in ‘s’ does not add an ‘s’ in its possessive form, but just carries an apostrophe.Ex) The albatross’ beakA plural noun just takes the apostropheEx) The students’ homeworkA proper noun ending in s just takes the apostropheEx) Tom Hoss’ pen
39 Careful with possessives! -The possessive of ‘student’ is commonly erratic! Check to see if you’re talking about one student vs. many!!Ex) At the basketball game, the students’ cheers deafened the crowd.Ex) One student’s cheer was very loud.
40 Singular vs. PluralThese words are SINGULAR subjects and take SINGULAR verbs and pronouns:group, team, class, familyEx) The family owns its own house.The team played its very best.BUT: The team members played their best.(What about “couple”? Singular or plural… your choice!)
41 Class Periods Standard numbering rule applies to period: Ex) It is first period right now. Because it is Thursday, I’m going to third period next.CAUTION: Hyphens— sometimes, class periods take the form of compound adjectives!Ex) My fifth-period class is AP Chemistry.Ex) She has Mr. van Muyden as her third-period chemistry teacher.
42 Unit IV: HUB Style The HUB DHS GPA University abbreviations Regions in DavisHUB Style for EditorsA little bit of grammar: compound adjectives!
43 HUB Style: The HUB This is the proper capitalization: The HUB (no quotations or italics)Other HUB-related words…HUBsterHUBpleHUBBQHUBNOMNOMHUBBA HUBBA
44 HUB Style: DHS In newspaper: It is always DHS on all references… On website: It is Davis High School on first reference, DHS on second referenceSide Note: Da Vinci Charter Academy on first reference, Da Vinci on repeated reference
45 HUB Style: GPA AP Stylebook says: grade-point-average However, we say: GPA on ALL references.Ex) His GPA is 4.33
46 HUB Style: Universities -First Reference: UC Davis, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Barbara-Repeated Reference: UCD, Cal, UCSB-UCLA is always UCLA-Other UCs are not as common so there is no second reference abbreviation (UC Merced, UC Santa Cruz)When we speak of the UC system (not a specific university), it is “University of California” on first reference, and UC on repeated references.Ex) University of California President Mark Yudof said the UC regents will be meeting to discuss the pepper-spray incident.
47 HUB Style: Regions in Davis Capitalize North Davis, South Davis, East Davis, West Davis, Central DavisNo capitalization:downtown Davis
48 Hyphens in compound adjectives We went on a 15-mile hike.BUT: The hike we went on was 15 miles.The two-hour talk showBUT: The talk show was two hours long.
49 More Hyphenated Expressions That was a one-time exception17-year-old Micaela EverittThe once-beautiful house is now ruined.The twice-bankrupt manNOTE: ‘ly’ words that come before a noun don’t follow this rule because they’re adverbs, not adjectivesEx) The exceptionally fast runner beat his record
50 Ellipses -Whenever we use … There are THREE dots, not four or two. In a quote, bracketed ellipses […] signify a jump to another portion of the interview.Unbracketed ellipses … in quotes signify a pause in their speech that you want to reflect in your writing.
51 HUB Style: For Editors -BYLINE TITLES HUB Staff or Editor-in-Chief or HUB Correspondent-Section editors use title in their section only, but there is no HUB in front of title:News Editor, Features Editor, In-Depth Editor-When there is a shared byline with two people of different titles, the title reverts to: HUB Staff