Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 The Nominal Group Plan for the class -The rank-scale reviewed -Difference between groups and phrases reviewed -Different types of groups and phrases."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 1 The Nominal Group Plan for the class -The rank-scale reviewed -Difference between groups and phrases reviewed -Different types of groups and phrases reviewed -Introducing the Nominal Group (NGp): definition, constituents and their functions, analysis, practice
The rank-scale reviewed The rank-scale is one of the dimensions of organization of the grammar whereby all the lexico-grammatical resources (clauses, groups/phrases, words and morphemes) are organized hierarchically, from higher-ranking units to lower-ranking units. The rank-scale we will be using in this course is the following: clause/clause complex group/phrase word morpheme
The rank-scale: principle of organiztion undelying it The principle of organization underlying the rankscale can be formulated as follows: the higher-ranking units are made up of units just below them. Thus, the clause is made up of groups and phrases and these, in turn, are made up of words, which, in turn, are made up of morphemes. The rank-scale, the, serves to represent the hierarchical status of the units and the realationship among them. In this course, we will focus on clauses and groups and phrases. This principle is illustrated in the next slide one. You won’t understand all the labels used for words at this stage, but soon you will. Take them just as words for the time being.
The principle underlying the rank-scale illustrated Noun Group Gps & Phrases made up of the words below Verb groupNoun Group Adv. Group Preposit. Phrase D Wd- rank EToxvDThpcv DT The young mother had been caressing the child lovingly for a while Higher-ranking unit – clause – is made up of the groups and phrases below
Difference between Groups and Phrases GROUPSPHRASES They make up clauses.They make up clauses too. This explains why they are both at the same rank. Groups are “extended words” or “extensions of words”. Thus, NGps, AdGps, AdvGps, VGps are extended nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs respectively. Phrases are structures of complementation and thus they are made up of a head (the preposition) and its complement (the completive, usually a Ngp). Just like verbs have complements and make up clauses together w/them, prepositions have complements. This is why they are called “mini-clauses”
Test to confirm differences between Gps and PPs If we progressively remove the elements in the pre-modification or post-modification structure of Groups as below, we get a single word, which proves that Groups are extended words. Nominal group (NGp): those three splendid express trains with pantographs, those three splendid express trains; those three express trains; those three trains, those trains, trains. Verbal group (VGp): must have been being understood, had been being understood; had been understood; had understood, understood This also applies to the Adjective and the Adverb Group, but look at what happens with the Prepositional Phrase in the next slide
Test to confirm differences between Gps and PPs They met at the new railway station. They met at the railway station. They met at the station. They met at … If we strip a PP of all the elements, as above, except for the Head (i.e., the Preposition), the structure that we obtain in the end is incomplete. This confirms the PP is a structure of complementation, that can only make sense if the Preposition is followed by a Complement that completes its meaning (this is why the Complement of a Preposition is also called a Completive).
The Nominal Group (NGp) Definition in terms of meaning extended nouns that name and describe people, places, things and events/qualities. Nominal groups can be defined in terms of the meanings they express/encode or the function they perform in the higher-ranking unit they make up. Meaningwise, they are extended nouns that name and describe people, places, things and events/qualities. They express experiential meaning (i. e. meaning about the world), as they represent things, people and places in the world, and indirectly realize field, i.e. the subject-matter of the text (a text with football as field/subject-matter will have very different NGps as a text with, say, art as field. Examples of the meanings made by BGps are shown below and in the next slide: (i) things: the child’s teddy-bear, some flour, those interesting history books over there; many large windows looking onto the street;
The Nominal Group (NGp) Definition in terms of meaning (ii) people: my mother, my dearest friend, the boss, the very capable German Prime Minister, the neighbour next door; (iii) places: the kitchen, those very ample rooms, the mountains, the country where she lived for so many years; (iv) events/qualities: the industrialization of Great Britain; Great Britain’s claim over the islands; his argument that nothing can be done about it; the beauty of the place
The NGp Definition in terms of function NGps typically, but not always, realize in the clause the participants of an action or process, though they can also be part of a circumstance in the clause In terms of their function in the higher-ranking unit they make up, the clause, NGps typically, but not always, realize in the clause the participants of an action or process, though they can also be part of a circumstance in the clause. The German Prime Minister did not attend the meeting (participants). The house had many windows looking onto the street. (participants). The industrialization of Britain started in the 18th c. (participant; part of a circumstance of time ). The visitors remarked on the beauty of the place (participant; part of a circumstance of matter).
The NGp Summing up definition NGps are extended nouns that represent experience by naming and describing people, objects, places and that typically, but not always, realize, in the clause, the participants of an action or process or are part of a circumstance in the clause.
The NGp Elements/Functions in it In general, a NGp consists of a main noun or “head-word” (called the Thing) and has the potential to be expanded by adding information before the head-word (pre- modification) and after it (post-modification). For example, we could say: “I enjoy looking at trains”, where the NGp that is a completive of the PP is made up of only a head, or we could extend the NGp further by pre- and post-modification as in “Look at those two splendid electric trains with pantographs”. PRE.MOD POST-MOD
The Nominal Group Functions/Elements in it The table below provides a summary of the constituents of the NGp in pre- and post-modification position, with probe questions that reflect their function or meaning and can help in identifying them in the NGp. Function/Constituent (with the labels and abbreviations we will use) ExampleProbe Thing (T)trainsWhat (is being represented)? Deictic (D)those, these, the, etc.Which one/Whose (thing is this)? Numerative (N)twoHow many (members of the class of thing are involved)? Epithet (E)splendidWhat (is the Thing) like? Classifier (C)electricWhat kind (of Thing is it)? Qualifier (Q)with pantographs/fitted with pantographs/that have been fitted with pantographs Which one/ones? Adding more specification after the head
Functions in the NGp explained LabelFunctionExample Deictic (from Greek Deixis = pointing to) Points to or specifies the Thing; relates the Thing to the speaker-now, especially with demonstratives and possessives This, these, that, those; his, my, John’s; the; some (of), any (of), all (of), each (of), every, both (of), neither (of), one; a, an; other; Postdeictic: same, different, complete, entire, whole (to be reviewed, see slide 17-18) NumerativeGives specific or non- specific numerical information about quantity or information about order Six, four, first, several, many, few (See slide 19)
Functions in the NGp explained II EpithetDescribes what the Thing is like: aspects or qualities such as size, age, shape, colour, etc. (descriptive Epithet), or attitude, evaluation (attitudinal Epithet). Distinction between Ed and Ea not always clear-cut Descriptive: Green, tall, dusty, sharp, old, smelly; Attitudinal: important, fantastic, wonderful, splendid ClassifierIndicates sub-classComputer technology, fruit trees, native animals QualifierFurther restricts or qualifies the meaning or scope of meaning of the Thing (through a phrase or clause after it) the trees [in the garden] PP Qualifier; the man [[knocking at the door]]; the doctor [[appointed head of staff]]; Non-Finite clause Qualifier the roses [[that I bought yesterday]] Finite Clause Qualifier (slides 21-22)
The sequencing of elements in the Ngp The elements in the NGp have the following relatively fixed sequence. The relative sequencing of elements with respect to each other also helps distinguish among them. I a word that is not the head or Thing follows the Epithet, well, it’s likely to be another Epithet or a Classifier. The Ea ^ Ed sequencing is the only one that is not so fixed: Deictic ^ (PostDeictic) ^ Numerative (Ordinal ^ Cardinal) ^Epithet (attitudinal ^ descriptive) ^ Classifier ^ Head ^ Qualifier (I ate) the entire first three delicious hot chocolate muffins D PD No Nca Ea Ed Cl Th [[baked by her mother]] Q
Some clarifications: Why Post-Deictic? The Post-Deictic is a constituent we need to recognize in the NGp because the Deictic is sometimes followed by an element which is neither a Numerative, nor an Epithet or Classifier and that stands between the Deictic and one or some of these other constituents, as in the following example: “She had the same silly idea that I might be to blame” (Here “same” is obviously not a Numerative, because it does not express number or quantity, and it cannot be said to be an Epithet because it is neither describing the idea nor evaluating it or expressing an attitude to it). So, in cases like these, where there is a word after the Deictic that does not properly suit the function of the constituents we have identified, we speak of Post-Deictic. The only ones we will recognize for a start are the ones in the table (not all the ones provided by Gerot and Wignell in chapter 6 on NGp). See next slide for further clarification
Some clarifications: Why Post-Deictic? Some of the words we have included in the list of Post-deictic might make us wonder about their function. The following examples will hopefully provide clarification: “I’m talking about a different red dress” (= not the one you have in mind; Post-deictic and not Epithet, because it does not tell us what the dress is like but helps in identifying the dress by reference to another one) “This dress I like very much. It is a different kind of dress”. (It tells us what it is like and, as a quality, it could be intensified = it’s a very diferent kind of dress). “We ate the entire/whole two chocolate cakes” The elements “entire” and “whole” might be thought to be Numeratives, but notice how they can occur before Numeratives and show not so much number or quantity but the opposition whole/part. “I read the complete document” ( = the whole document; the entire document. It does not say anything about what the document is like and this is probably seen better if we look at the following example. It does not express quantity either but whole as opposed to part) “The very complete document you sent to me was extremely useful”, here “complete” is an Epithet
Some clarifications: Deictic or Numerative? The Numeratives indicate quantity or order in very specific terms (I have basically two problems; He was the first student to hand in the exam) or in non-specific terms (He has many/several/lots of problems). Many of the non-specific Numeratives can also be used as Deictic, in which case they precede other Deictics, usually the definite article and demonstratives Several/Many of the people I know will vote the Democratic Party. Note that the meaning here is partitive (part of a whole) as opposed to He has several/many/lots of problems. He cannot cope with the many/several problems he has. where the meaning made is that of non-specific quantity. So “several/many/lots of/some of” followed by “the/these/those/your/etc.” Deictics; “several/many/lots of” not followed by other deictics Numerative
Some clarifications: Classifier or Epithet? Classifiers can be nouns or adjectives (art gallery; native speakers). Since Epithets are also realized by adjectives, it is sometimes difficult to decide if a pre-modifying adjective is an Epithet or a Classifier. Some criteria that can help are: (i) A classifier comes from a finite set of options. There are any number of qualities which can be assigned to something but a more limited range of types or sub-sets (Consider excellent, expensive, fine, good, cheap (wine) as opposed to red, rosé, white wine ). (ii) A classifier cannot be intensified or compared (non-gradable), whereas an Epithet can. We can speak of ‘a very/more expensive wine’ but NOT of ‘a very/more red wine’ (iii) A classifier cannot be paraphrased by an attributive clause or a clause with “be + SC”, whereas an Epithet can: “a musical/metal instrument” (= * the instrument is musical/metal) as opposed to “a well-designed instrument” (= the instrument is well-designed)
Some clarifications: Qualifiers Qualifiers further restrict (qualify) the referent or the T of the Ngp. Grammatically speaking they can be of three kinds: - Prepositional Phrase: “The man [in the grey suit]” - Finite clause: “The man [[(that) I fell in love with]]” - Non-Finite reduced “ed-” or “ing-clause” or clause reduced from a clause with linking verb “The man [[killed yesterday]]”; “The man [[standing at the corner]]”; “The man [[responsible for the job]]” Note the use of single brackets for PP Qualifiers and of double brackets for clause- qualifiers
Qualifiers or Circumstances Since Qualifiers and Circumstances can both be realized by PPs, it could sometimes be difficult to decide whether a PP following a Noun is to be interpreted as a Qualifier of that Noun or as a Circumstance to a verb (of time, place, etc.). A test that can help is trying to move the PP around in the Clause. If the PP is mobile, this means it is not part of the structure of the NGp but part of the striucture of the Clause and thus a Circumstance. Look at the following examples: I talked to the girl in the red dress. (cannot be moved around; therefore a Qualifier of “girl” I talked to the girl during the trip (can be moved around (can be placed, e.g., at the beginning of the Clause = “During the trip I talked to the girl”) and is therefore a Circumstance of time: duration)
Qualifiers or Circumstances In some cases, as in the following, the structure could be ambiguous I talk to people on the radio. “On the radio” could be interpreted as a Circumstance (where from do you talk to people?) or as a Qualifier (people on the radio as opposed to other people) I the following context “on the radio” would be interpreted as Circumstance. In this case it would be mobile in the clause: Every day from 8 to 10 a.m. I talk to people on the radio In the following context “on the radio” would be interpreted as Qualifier. You can imagine the situation as a radio showperson is complaining that her/his familydo not talk to her/him: The only people I get to talk to are people on the radio, because people in my family will not talk to me.
NGps without Deictic When analysing nominal groups, we must also take account of groups without Deictic, usually with a mass noun or count noun in the plural as head, that express non-specific meaning (that is, which refer to all members or instances of a given class of people, objects or places): “I love literature.” “Water must be used rationally these days, as it is scarce.” “Evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe has been uncovered.” “Children of divorced parents often have difficulties at school.” “Officials in the Soviet Union refused to talk about the matter.”
NGp as an extended word revisited -journalist -the journalist (which? Deictic + Th) -the two journalists (which? how many? D + Numerative + Th) -the first two journalists (which? which by order? how many? D + No + Nca + Th) -the first two Russian journalists (which? which by order? how many? which by kind or class (nationality)? D + N + N + C + Th) -the first two Russian journalists [[to speak to people in Chernobyl/that spoke to people in Chernobyl]] (which? which by order? how many? which by class; the first to do what? Further specification as Non-Finite/Finite Clause-Qualifier D + N + N + C + Th + Qualifier)
The Ngp: Recognition and analysis practice Identify NGps and label their elements No more happy endings Some people like romantic films with happy endings but others find them irritating and say that life is complicated and sometimes fails and that this should be reflected more in the films we watch. It is Hollywood’s failure to make films which are true to life that led to the setting up of the highly successful Sundance institute by the American actor and film-director, Robert Redford. His aim has been to broaden the horizons of film-makers who dislike the restrictions imposed by large studios, and help them make films that are more credible. For example he doesn’t let any of his directors use special effects for their own sake and his refusal to accept scripts with happy endings means that the plots of these films grow out of the characters’ lives. [Bell, Jan and Roger Gower First Certificate Expert Coursework. Longman: 2003, p. 156]
The NGp: Recognition and analysis practice Origami Origami is the Japanese art of paper folding. You may at first think this does not sound very interesting, but when you see some of the amazing models that can be made from one sheet of paper, you start to appreciate it. First, you must learn the basic techniques and, when you know how to copy from other people’s designs, you can decide on a model of your own. But remember, you are not allowed to use scissors. Some people say origami began in China, soon after paper was invented by a Chinese court-official. It then spread to Korea and Japan. Other people claim that folding paper is such a natural thing to do that origami began independently. No-one really knows its origin, but what is certain is that the Japanese, who are often said to be gifted with their hands, were able to turn it into a decorative art. Today, origami is widely practised and there are thousands of known folds, attracting the interest of mathematicians and artists around the world. [Bell, Jan and Roger Gower First Certificate Expert Coursework. Longman: 2003, p. 120]