2The Five W’s Where- *Who-are the cases *What-are the variables ( gives information about each of the cases)*Why-helps us to decide which way to treat the variableWhen-Where-*hoW- can make the difference between insight and nonsense
3Classification of Variables Categorical variables- indentify a category for each case. ( usually think about counts of cases that fall into each category) or a variable that names categories can by with numerals or wordsQuantitative variables- record measurements or amounts of something. Must have units or a variable in which the numbers act as numerical values
4VocabularyContext-The context ideally tells Who was measured, What was measured , How the data were collected, and the when and the why the study was performed.Data-Systematically recorded information, whether number or labels, together with its context.
5Vocabulary ContinuedData Table- An arrangement of data in which each row represents a case and each column represents a variable.Case- is an individual about whom or which we have data.Population- all cases we wish we knew aboutSample-the cases we actually examine in seeking to understand the much larger population
6Vocabulary ContinuedVariable- hold the information about the same characteristic for many cases.Units- a quantity or amount adopted as a standard measurement, such as dollars, hours or grams
7Our data collectionWhat are some of the things you learned about the class by inspecting our data?
8Our data Student Gender Length height # letters states siblings politicalpennystat1F31.25710MA420.2511170.512LK81451521916C130.750.12525180.65196
9Example 2Consider the numbers 17, 21, 44, 76. Are those data?
10Example 2 con’t17, 21, 44, 76Context is critical- they could be test score, ages in a golf foursome, or uniform numbers of the starting backfield on the football team.Our reaction changes
11Example 3 What are the five W’s of the following data A consumer repots article on energy bars gave the name brand, flavor, price, number of calories, and grams of protein and fat.Who:What:When:Where:How :Why: