2 What is psychology all about? MemoryStressTherapyLovePersuasionHypnosisPerceptionDeathConformityCreativityLearningPersonalityAgingIntelligenceSexualityEmotion happiness…menal illnessSensationBiological elementsTreatment of disorders
3 Psychology Psych is a science and a profession- Uses Scientific collection/observation of dataIn order to answer questions about behavior.“Scientific Study of behavior and mental processes.”To answer questions about the mind and behavior.Psychologists try to solve problems.
4 Psychologists Describe (observe) Understand Behavior Predict Control (Causes)Predict(Forecast)Control
6 Psychologists/Researchers Use Scientific Method-ObservationHypothesesGather evidenceTest hypothesesPublish ResultsLook for cause and effect relationships in for behavior
7 Approaches to Psychology (AP Outline) BiologicalBehavioralCognitiveHumanisticPsychodynamicSocio-culturalEvolutionary
8 History of Psych: Family Album 1879- Wilhelm Wundt- “Father of Psychology”Identified Introspection (looking inward) as a way to understand sensation, feelings, images, personal experiencesUsed experimental self-observation- made psychology a science
9 History of Psych: Family Album 1880’s Edward TitchenerFollowed up Wundt’s ideas and found Structuralism- “of the mind”A structure of mental life, “building blocks”Identified parts of the mind.Will later be discredited
10 History of Psych: Family Album 1890- William James- founded Functionalism- “of the mind”Questioned, how the mind helped us survive, adapt- habits, perceptions, emotions, related to survival?Adapt, consciousness
11 Behaviorism The study of observable behavior 1958- John B. Watson- Rejected introspectionBelieved in observing behaviorStimuli: i.e., environmental aspectsResponses: muscles, glandsBelieved in Pavlov’s experiments with dogs- concept of Classical Conditioning to explain behavior (1849
12 Behaviorism B. F. Skinner- 1950’s Ignored the role of thinking and mental processesFound environmental factorsReward = positive reinforcersRelated to learningFound laws of behavior apply to animals and humans
13 “Skinner Box” Used experiments to study behavior of rats Operant Conditioning- “A behavioral response has an environmental outcome”Push a button -----get some food.
14 Cognitive Behaviorism Includes thinkingExample:+ conditioningExpectationspleasure
15 Behavior Modification Uses conditioning principlesConcept says, problems are the product of learned habitsLearned habits can be un-learned by behavioral methods.Stimulus and response
16 Gestalt Psychology= Max Wertheimer Said it was a “mistake to analyze psychological events into pieces.”“the whole pattern or form” – GermanApproach to psychology where the whole of psychology is used to understand behavior.Uses thinking, learning, problem solving, social behavior, and perception to understand behavior“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”
17 Neo-FreudiansPsychoanalytical- exploring the unconscious causes of behaviorAdlerHorneyJungRankErikson
18 Humanistic Psychology Tries to understand subjective human experienceProblems, ideals and potentialsCarl Roger and Abraham MaslowStress free will= choiceNot deterministicEnvironment does impact behavior but people can improveAttainment of needs are the basis of healthy psych
19 Humanistic Each of us is motivated by needs. Needs for- love, self esteem, belonging,
22 Cultural Issues in Psychology Psychology is dependent on cultureCultural Relativity: Behavior that is acceptable in one culture may be abnormal in another.Social Norms- impact the view of behavior.Rules that define acceptable behavior
24 Scientific Method Making observations Defining a problem Proposing a hypothesisGathering evidence/testing the hypothesisNaturalistic Observation, Survey, ExperimentsPublishing resultsTheory building
26 Research Methods in Psychology (AP Outline) ExperientialCorrelationalExperimentalStatisticsEthics in Research
27 Observer EffectObserver Effect: Problem when subjects are aware of the observation, behavior may be influenced.Example: People being observed for study habits when they know they are being observed will tend to do more (thus changing their behavior, which will skew the study)
28 Observation BiasProblem when researchers consciously or inadvertently influence the collection of data or observations.Example: Researcher is trying to proove their theory by shaping the collection of data.
29 Anthropomorphic Error or fallacy Error in identifying human attributes to animalsExample: identifying thoughts, feelings to behavior of animals
30 Correlational Studies Studies that try to isolate behavior causation and the relationship between variablesFinds the degree of relationship between two variables or traits.Results of data are expressed or reported in a Coefficient of Correlation
31 Coefficient of Correlation Data that determines association of at least two variablesExpressed:If 0 = then association is nonexistent or weakIf = Perfect Positive Correlation= Increase in one trait correlates to increase in other.If = Perfect Negative = increase in trait and decrease in the other trait
32 Experimental Psychology Used to answer the why questions in psychExperiments are formal trials to confirm or disconfirm hypothesis
33 Typical Experiment 2 groups of subjects Experimental Group- exposed to the independent variable* that is being analyazed. AKA the cause of the behavior.Control Group: exposed to all the conditions except the independent variable.Provides a reference for comparison, isolates the impact of independent variable (the item being investigated)*Variable= is any condition that can change and might effect the outcome of the experiment.
34 3 Types of Experiment Variables Independent VariablesSuspected cause of behaviorConditions altered by experimenterDependent VariablesMeasures the results of experimentReveals the effects of Independent variable on behaviorExtraneous VariableOutside variable – the researcher try to exclude from consideration
35 How can results of a study be evaluated? Experiments that are labeled “Statistically significant” are studies that are reliable, because the independent variable will rarely occur by chance.Replicating Results indicate reliability of studies.
36 Meta-AnalysisMultiple studies are combined to determine overall trends
37 Placebo Effect Drug studies may be influenced by suggestion The act of taking a pill or injection may influence behavior= psychosomatic reaction.Expectation may be a factorTo control the Placebo effect- single blind and double blind experiments could be used.
38 Single Blind and Double Blind Single Blind- participants do not know if they are receiving a placebo or the drugDouble Blind- Neither the subject or the patient know who has the drug or placebo
39 Clinical Studies Single Subject – person In-depth study of all aspects of a single subject (not an experiment)Example of Phineas Gage-
40 When Dr. John Martyn Harlow arrived, Phineas was conscious and had a regular heartbeat, and both of his pupils reacted to light normally. He was reported to be "in full possession of his reason, and free from pain." He was under the care of Dr. Harlow for ten weeks, at which point he was sent home to Lebanon, New Hampshire. But while he was recovering, the doctor noted some changes in the man's demeanor and personality. People who had known him before the accident described him as hard-working, responsible, and popular with his workers, but after the traumatic injury, Phineas Gage was not the same man.In regards to his patient, Dr. Harlow wrote:Gage was fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans of future operations, which are no sooner arranged than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible. A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, although untrained in the schools, he possessed a well-balanced mind, and was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In this regard his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was 'no longer Gage'.
41 Survey Methods Polling psychological questions Problem of wording- questions mus be clear and appropriatePre-testing- questions may help insure good questionsSampling- representative sample- a small group represents the larger populationCourtesy bias or Social desirability- people don’t respond truthfully when talking about some sensitive questions.Race and Gender bias- can skew results
42 Ethics in Psychology Do not harm Describe risks to subjects Voluntary participationMinimize discomfortMaintain confidentialityNo invasion of privacyUse deception only when necessaryDebrief on eventsProvide results and interpretationsTreat participants with dignity and respect