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AP Psychology Intro To Psychology.

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1 AP Psychology Intro To Psychology

2 What is psychology all about?
Memory Stress Therapy Love Persuasion Hypnosis Perception Death Conformity Creativity Learning Personality Aging Intelligence Sexuality Emotion happiness …menal illness Sensation Biological elements Treatment of disorders

3 Psychology Psych is a science and a profession-
Uses Scientific collection/observation of data In order to answer questions about behavior. “Scientific Study of behavior and mental processes.” To answer questions about the mind and behavior. Psychologists try to solve problems.

4 Psychologists Describe (observe) Understand Behavior Predict Control
(Causes) Predict (Forecast) Control

5 Behavior Is anything you do, eating, sleeping, talking (Psychology endeavors to explain behavior, causes, motivations) Overt behavior- Observable actions & responses Covert behavior- Private internal activities (thinking remembering)

6 Psychologists/Researchers
Use Scientific Method- Observation Hypotheses Gather evidence Test hypotheses Publish Results Look for cause and effect relationships in for behavior

7 Approaches to Psychology (AP Outline)
Biological Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic Psychodynamic Socio-cultural Evolutionary

8 History of Psych: Family Album
1879- Wilhelm Wundt- “Father of Psychology” Identified Introspection (looking inward) as a way to understand sensation, feelings, images, personal experiences Used experimental self-observation- made psychology a science

9 History of Psych: Family Album
1880’s Edward Titchener Followed up Wundt’s ideas and found Structuralism- “of the mind” A structure of mental life, “building blocks” Identified parts of the mind. Will later be discredited

10 History of Psych: Family Album
1890- William James- founded Functionalism- “of the mind” Questioned, how the mind helped us survive, adapt- habits, perceptions, emotions, related to survival? Adapt, consciousness

11 Behaviorism The study of observable behavior
1958- John B. Watson- Rejected introspection Believed in observing behavior Stimuli: i.e., environmental aspects Responses: muscles, glands Believed in Pavlov’s experiments with dogs- concept of Classical Conditioning to explain behavior (1849

12 Behaviorism B. F. Skinner- 1950’s
Ignored the role of thinking and mental processes Found environmental factors Reward = positive reinforcers Related to learning Found laws of behavior apply to animals and humans

13 “Skinner Box” Used experiments to study behavior of rats
Operant Conditioning- “A behavioral response has an environmental outcome” Push a button -----get some food.

14 Cognitive Behaviorism
Includes thinking Example: + conditioning Expectations pleasure

15 Behavior Modification
Uses conditioning principles Concept says, problems are the product of learned habits Learned habits can be un-learned by behavioral methods. Stimulus and response

16 Gestalt Psychology= Max Wertheimer
Said it was a “mistake to analyze psychological events into pieces.” “the whole pattern or form” – German Approach to psychology where the whole of psychology is used to understand behavior. Uses thinking, learning, problem solving, social behavior, and perception to understand behavior “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”

17 Neo-Freudians Psychoanalytical- exploring the unconscious causes of behavior Adler Horney Jung Rank Erikson

18 Humanistic Psychology
Tries to understand subjective human experience Problems, ideals and potentials Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow Stress free will= choice Not deterministic Environment does impact behavior but people can improve Attainment of needs are the basis of healthy psych

19 Humanistic Each of us is motivated by needs.
Needs for- love, self esteem, belonging,

20 Eclectic Psychology Psychodynamic Behavioristic Humanistic Cognitive

21 Psycho-Dynamic Psychology

22 Cultural Issues in Psychology
Psychology is dependent on culture Cultural Relativity: Behavior that is acceptable in one culture may be abnormal in another. Social Norms- impact the view of behavior. Rules that define acceptable behavior

23 Cognitive Psychology Study- Problems Solving Thinking processes
Know and why Consciousness Mental Processes Perceptions Memory

24 Scientific Method Making observations Defining a problem
Proposing a hypothesis Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis Naturalistic Observation, Survey, Experiments Publishing results Theory building


26 Research Methods in Psychology (AP Outline)
Experiential Correlational Experimental Statistics Ethics in Research

27 Observer Effect Observer Effect: Problem when subjects are aware of the observation, behavior may be influenced. Example: People being observed for study habits when they know they are being observed will tend to do more (thus changing their behavior, which will skew the study)

28 Observation Bias Problem when researchers consciously or inadvertently influence the collection of data or observations. Example: Researcher is trying to proove their theory by shaping the collection of data.

29 Anthropomorphic Error or fallacy
Error in identifying human attributes to animals Example: identifying thoughts, feelings to behavior of animals

30 Correlational Studies
Studies that try to isolate behavior causation and the relationship between variables Finds the degree of relationship between two variables or traits. Results of data are expressed or reported in a Coefficient of Correlation

31 Coefficient of Correlation
Data that determines association of at least two variables Expressed: If 0 = then association is nonexistent or weak If = Perfect Positive Correlation= Increase in one trait correlates to increase in other. If = Perfect Negative = increase in trait and decrease in the other trait

32 Experimental Psychology
Used to answer the why questions in psych Experiments are formal trials to confirm or disconfirm hypothesis

33 Typical Experiment 2 groups of subjects
Experimental Group- exposed to the independent variable* that is being analyazed. AKA the cause of the behavior. Control Group: exposed to all the conditions except the independent variable. Provides a reference for comparison, isolates the impact of independent variable (the item being investigated) *Variable= is any condition that can change and might effect the outcome of the experiment.

34 3 Types of Experiment Variables
Independent Variables Suspected cause of behavior Conditions altered by experimenter Dependent Variables Measures the results of experiment Reveals the effects of Independent variable on behavior Extraneous Variable Outside variable – the researcher try to exclude from consideration

35 How can results of a study be evaluated?
Experiments that are labeled “Statistically significant” are studies that are reliable, because the independent variable will rarely occur by chance. Replicating Results indicate reliability of studies.

36 Meta-Analysis Multiple studies are combined to determine overall trends

37 Placebo Effect Drug studies may be influenced by suggestion
The act of taking a pill or injection may influence behavior= psychosomatic reaction. Expectation may be a factor To control the Placebo effect- single blind and double blind experiments could be used.

38 Single Blind and Double Blind
Single Blind- participants do not know if they are receiving a placebo or the drug Double Blind- Neither the subject or the patient know who has the drug or placebo

39 Clinical Studies Single Subject – person
In-depth study of all aspects of a single subject (not an experiment) Example of Phineas Gage-

40 When Dr. John Martyn Harlow arrived, Phineas was conscious and had a regular heartbeat, and both of his pupils reacted to light normally. He was reported to be "in full possession of his reason, and free from pain." He was under the care of Dr. Harlow for ten weeks, at which point he was sent home to Lebanon, New Hampshire. But while he was recovering, the doctor noted some changes in the man's demeanor and personality. People who had known him before the accident described him as hard-working, responsible, and popular with his workers, but after the traumatic injury, Phineas Gage was not the same man. In regards to his patient, Dr. Harlow wrote: Gage was fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans of future operations, which are no sooner arranged than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible. A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, although untrained in the schools, he possessed a well-balanced mind, and was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In this regard his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was 'no longer Gage'.

41 Survey Methods Polling psychological questions
Problem of wording- questions mus be clear and appropriate Pre-testing- questions may help insure good questions Sampling- representative sample- a small group represents the larger population Courtesy bias or Social desirability- people don’t respond truthfully when talking about some sensitive questions. Race and Gender bias- can skew results

42 Ethics in Psychology Do not harm Describe risks to subjects
Voluntary participation Minimize discomfort Maintain confidentiality No invasion of privacy Use deception only when necessary Debrief on events Provide results and interpretations Treat participants with dignity and respect

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