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AP Psychology Intro To Psychology. What is psychology all about? Memory Memory Stress Stress Therapy Therapy Love Love Persuasion Persuasion Hypnosis.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Intro To Psychology. What is psychology all about? Memory Memory Stress Stress Therapy Therapy Love Love Persuasion Persuasion Hypnosis."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Psychology Intro To Psychology

2 What is psychology all about? Memory Memory Stress Stress Therapy Therapy Love Love Persuasion Persuasion Hypnosis Hypnosis Perception Perception Death Death Conformity Conformity Creativity Creativity Learning Learning Personality Personality Aging Aging Intelligence Intelligence Sexuality Sexuality Emotion happiness Emotion happiness …menal illness …menal illness Sensation Sensation Biological elements Biological elements Treatment of disorders Treatment of disorders

3 Psychology Psych is a science and a profession- Psych is a science and a profession- Uses Scientific collection/observation of data Uses Scientific collection/observation of data In order to answer questions about behavior. In order to answer questions about behavior. Scientific Study of behavior and mental processes. Scientific Study of behavior and mental processes. To answer questions about the mind and behavior. To answer questions about the mind and behavior. Psychologists try to solve problems. Psychologists try to solve problems.

4 Psychologists Describe (observe) Describe (observe) Understand Behavior Understand Behavior (Causes)(Causes) Predict Predict (Forecast)(Forecast) Control Control

5 Behavior Is anything you do, eating, sleeping, talking (Psychology endeavors to explain behavior, causes, motivations) Is anything you do, eating, sleeping, talking (Psychology endeavors to explain behavior, causes, motivations) Overt behavior- Overt behavior- Observable actions & responses Observable actions & responses Covert behavior- Covert behavior- Private internal activities (thinking remembering) Private internal activities (thinking remembering)

6 Psychologists/Researchers Use Scientific Method- Use Scientific Method- Observation Observation Hypotheses Hypotheses Gather evidence Gather evidence Test hypotheses Test hypotheses Publish Results Publish Results Look for cause and effect relationships in for behavior Look for cause and effect relationships in for behavior

7 Approaches to Psychology (AP Outline) Biological Biological Behavioral Behavioral Cognitive Cognitive Humanistic Humanistic Psychodynamic Psychodynamic Socio-cultural Socio-cultural Evolutionary Evolutionary

8 History of Psych: Family Album 1879- Wilhelm Wundt- Father of Psychology 1879- Wilhelm Wundt- Father of Psychology Identified Introspection (looking inward) as a way to understand sensation, feelings, images, personal experiences Identified Introspection (looking inward) as a way to understand sensation, feelings, images, personal experiences Used experimental self-observation- made psychology a science Used experimental self-observation- made psychology a science

9 History of Psych: Family Album 1880s Edward Titchener 1880s Edward Titchener Followed up Wundts ideas and found Structuralism- of the mind Followed up Wundts ideas and found Structuralism- of the mind A structure of mental life, building blocks A structure of mental life, building blocks Identified parts of the mind. Identified parts of the mind. Will later be discredited Will later be discredited

10 History of Psych: Family Album 1890- William James- founded Functionalism- of the mind 1890- William James- founded Functionalism- of the mind Questioned, how the mind helped us survive, adapt- habits, perceptions, emotions, related to survival? Questioned, how the mind helped us survive, adapt- habits, perceptions, emotions, related to survival? Adapt, consciousness Adapt, consciousness

11 Behaviorism The study of observable behavior The study of observable behavior 1958- John B. Watson- Rejected introspection 1958- John B. Watson- Rejected introspection Believed in observing behavior Believed in observing behavior Stimuli: i.e., environmental aspects Stimuli: i.e., environmental aspects Responses: muscles, glands Responses: muscles, glands Believed in Pavlovs experiments with dogs- concept of Classical Conditioning to explain behavior (1849 Believed in Pavlovs experiments with dogs- concept of Classical Conditioning to explain behavior (1849

12 Behaviorism B. F. Skinner- 1950s B. F. Skinner- 1950s Ignored the role of thinking and mental processes Ignored the role of thinking and mental processes Found environmental factors Found environmental factors Reward = positive reinforcers Reward = positive reinforcers Related to learning Related to learning Found laws of behavior apply to animals and humans Found laws of behavior apply to animals and humans

13 Skinner Box Used experiments to study behavior of rats Used experiments to study behavior of rats Operant Conditioning- A behavioral response has an environmental outcome Operant Conditioning- A behavioral response has an environmental outcome Push a button ----- get some food. Push a button ----- get some food.

14 Cognitive Behaviorism Includes thinking Example: + conditioning + conditioning Expectationspleasure

15 Behavior Modification Uses conditioning principles Uses conditioning principles Concept says, problems are the product of learned habits Concept says, problems are the product of learned habits Learned habits can be un-learned by behavioral methods. Learned habits can be un-learned by behavioral methods. Stimulus and response Stimulus and response

16 Gestalt Psychology= Max Wertheimer Said it was a mistake to analyze psychological events into pieces. Said it was a mistake to analyze psychological events into pieces. the whole pattern or form – German the whole pattern or form – German Approach to psychology where the whole of psychology is used to understand behavior. Approach to psychology where the whole of psychology is used to understand behavior. Uses thinking, learning, problem solving, social behavior, and perception to understand behavior Uses thinking, learning, problem solving, social behavior, and perception to understand behavior The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

17 Neo-Freudians Psychoanalytical- exploring the unconscious causes of behavior Psychoanalytical- exploring the unconscious causes of behavior Adler Adler Horney Horney Jung Jung Rank Rank Erikson Erikson

18 Humanistic Psychology Tries to understand subjective human experience Tries to understand subjective human experience Problems, ideals and potentials Problems, ideals and potentials Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow Stress free will= choice Stress free will= choice Not deterministic Not deterministic Environment does impact behavior but people can improve Environment does impact behavior but people can improve Attainment of needs are the basis of healthy psych Attainment of needs are the basis of healthy psych

19 Humanistic Each of us is motivated by needs. Each of us is motivated by needs. Needs for- love, self esteem, belonging, Needs for- love, self esteem, belonging,

20 Eclectic Psychology Psychodynamic Psychodynamic Behavioristic Behavioristic Humanistic Humanistic Cognitive Cognitive Bio-psychological Bio-psychological

21 Psycho-Dynamic Psychology

22 Cultural Issues in Psychology Psychology is dependent on culture Psychology is dependent on culture Cultural Relativity: Behavior that is acceptable in one culture may be abnormal in another. Cultural Relativity: Behavior that is acceptable in one culture may be abnormal in another. Social Norms- impact the view of behavior. Social Norms- impact the view of behavior. Rules that define acceptable behavior Rules that define acceptable behavior

23 Cognitive Psychology Study- Problems Solving Study- Problems Solving Thinking processes Thinking processes Know and why Know and why Consciousness Consciousness Mental Processes Mental Processes Perceptions Perceptions Memory Memory

24 Scientific Method Making observations Making observations Defining a problem Defining a problem Proposing a hypothesis Proposing a hypothesis Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis Naturalistic Observation, Survey, Experiments Naturalistic Observation, Survey, Experiments Publishing results Publishing results Theory building Theory building

25

26 Research Methods in Psychology (AP Outline) Experiential Experiential Correlational Correlational Experimental Experimental Statistics Statistics Ethics in Research Ethics in Research

27 Observer Effect Observer Effect: Problem when subjects are aware of the observation, behavior may be influenced. Observer Effect: Problem when subjects are aware of the observation, behavior may be influenced. Example: People being observed for study habits when they know they are being observed will tend to do more (thus changing their behavior, which will skew the study) Example: People being observed for study habits when they know they are being observed will tend to do more (thus changing their behavior, which will skew the study)

28 Observation Bias Problem when researchers consciously or inadvertently influence the collection of data or observations. Problem when researchers consciously or inadvertently influence the collection of data or observations. Example: Researcher is trying to proove their theory by shaping the collection of data. Example: Researcher is trying to proove their theory by shaping the collection of data.

29 Anthropomorphic Error or fallacy Error in identifying human attributes to animals Error in identifying human attributes to animals Example: identifying thoughts, feelings to behavior of animals Example: identifying thoughts, feelings to behavior of animals

30 Correlational Studies Studies that try to isolate behavior causation and the relationship between variables Studies that try to isolate behavior causation and the relationship between variables Finds the degree of relationship between two variables or traits. Finds the degree of relationship between two variables or traits. Results of data are expressed or reported in a Coefficient of Correlation Results of data are expressed or reported in a Coefficient of Correlation

31 Coefficient of Correlation Data that determines association of at least two variables Data that determines association of at least two variables Expressed: Expressed: If 0 = then association is nonexistent or weak If +1.00 = Perfect Positive Correlation= Increase in one trait correlates to increase in other. If -1.00 = Perfect Negative = increase in trait and decrease in the other trait

32 Experimental Psychology Used to answer the why questions in psych Used to answer the why questions in psych Experiments are formal trials to confirm or disconfirm hypothesis Experiments are formal trials to confirm or disconfirm hypothesis

33 Typical Experiment 2 groups of subjects 2 groups of subjects Experimental Group- exposed to the independent variable* that is being analyazed. AKA the cause of the behavior. Experimental Group- exposed to the independent variable* that is being analyazed. AKA the cause of the behavior. Control Group: exposed to all the conditions except the independent variable. Control Group: exposed to all the conditions except the independent variable. Provides a reference for comparison, isolates the impact of independent variable (the item being investigated)Provides a reference for comparison, isolates the impact of independent variable (the item being investigated) *Variable= is any condition that can change and might effect the outcome of the experiment.

34 3 Types of Experiment Variables Independent Variables Independent Variables Suspected cause of behavior Suspected cause of behavior Conditions altered by experimenter Conditions altered by experimenter Dependent Variables Dependent Variables Measures the results of experiment Measures the results of experiment Reveals the effects of Independent variable on behavior Reveals the effects of Independent variable on behavior Extraneous Variable Extraneous Variable Outside variable – the researcher try to exclude from consideration Outside variable – the researcher try to exclude from consideration

35 How can results of a study be evaluated? Experiments that are labeled Statistically significant are studies that are reliable, because the independent variable will rarely occur by chance. Experiments that are labeled Statistically significant are studies that are reliable, because the independent variable will rarely occur by chance. Replicating Results indicate reliability of studies. Replicating Results indicate reliability of studies.

36 Meta-Analysis Multiple studies are combined to determine overall trends Multiple studies are combined to determine overall trends

37 Placebo Effect Drug studies may be influenced by suggestion Drug studies may be influenced by suggestion The act of taking a pill or injection may influence behavior= psychosomatic reaction. The act of taking a pill or injection may influence behavior= psychosomatic reaction. Expectation may be a factor Expectation may be a factor To control the Placebo effect- single blind and double blind experiments could be used. To control the Placebo effect- single blind and double blind experiments could be used.

38 Single Blind and Double Blind Single Blind- participants do not know if they are receiving a placebo or the drug Single Blind- participants do not know if they are receiving a placebo or the drug Double Blind- Neither the subject or the patient know who has the drug or placebo Double Blind- Neither the subject or the patient know who has the drug or placebo

39 Clinical Studies Single Subject – person Single Subject – person In-depth study of all aspects of a single subject (not an experiment) In-depth study of all aspects of a single subject (not an experiment) Example of Phineas Gage- http://www.damninteresting.com/ ?p=231 Example of Phineas Gage- http://www.damninteresting.com/ ?p=231 http://www.damninteresting.com/ ?p=231 http://www.damninteresting.com/ ?p=231

40 When Dr. John Martyn Harlow arrived, Phineas was conscious and had a regular heartbeat, and both of his pupils reacted to light normally. He was reported to be "in full possession of his reason, and free from pain." He was under the care of Dr. Harlow for ten weeks, at which point he was sent home to Lebanon, New Hampshire. But while he was recovering, the doctor noted some changes in the man's demeanor and personality. People who had known him before the accident described him as hard-working, responsible, and popular with his workers, but after the traumatic injury, Phineas Gage was not the same man. When Dr. John Martyn Harlow arrived, Phineas was conscious and had a regular heartbeat, and both of his pupils reacted to light normally. He was reported to be "in full possession of his reason, and free from pain." He was under the care of Dr. Harlow for ten weeks, at which point he was sent home to Lebanon, New Hampshire. But while he was recovering, the doctor noted some changes in the man's demeanor and personality. People who had known him before the accident described him as hard-working, responsible, and popular with his workers, but after the traumatic injury, Phineas Gage was not the same man. In regards to his patient, Dr. Harlow wrote: In regards to his patient, Dr. Harlow wrote: Gage was fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans of future operations, which are no sooner arranged than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible. A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, although untrained in the schools, he possessed a well- balanced mind, and was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In this regard his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was 'no longer Gage'. Gage was fitful, irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity (which was not previously his custom), manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice when it conflicts with his desires, at times pertinaciously obstinate, yet capricious and vacillating, devising many plans of future operations, which are no sooner arranged than they are abandoned in turn for others appearing more feasible. A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations, he has the animal passions of a strong man. Previous to his injury, although untrained in the schools, he possessed a well- balanced mind, and was looked upon by those who knew him as a shrewd, smart businessman, very energetic and persistent in executing all his plans of operation. In this regard his mind was radically changed, so decidedly that his friends and acquaintances said he was 'no longer Gage'.

41 Survey Methods Polling psychological questions Polling psychological questions Problem of wording- questions mus be clear and appropriate Problem of wording- questions mus be clear and appropriate Pre-testing- questions may help insure good questions Pre-testing- questions may help insure good questions Sampling- representative sample- a small group represents the larger population Sampling- representative sample- a small group represents the larger population Courtesy bias or Social desirability- people dont respond truthfully when talking about some sensitive questions. Courtesy bias or Social desirability- people dont respond truthfully when talking about some sensitive questions. Race and Gender bias- can skew results Race and Gender bias- can skew results

42 Ethics in Psychology Do not harm Do not harm Describe risks to subjects Describe risks to subjects Voluntary participation Voluntary participation Minimize discomfort Minimize discomfort Maintain confidentiality Maintain confidentiality No invasion of privacy No invasion of privacy Use deception only when necessary Use deception only when necessary Debrief on events Debrief on events Provide results and interpretations Provide results and interpretations Treat participants with dignity and respect Treat participants with dignity and respect


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