21. How can the Renaissance be used as a springboard for defining modernity?
3Public DutyThe Renaissance saw a secular attitude—this shift was from heaven to earth.Renaissance patrons built orphanages, plazas, a sense of public duty.This sense of public duty extends to modern era with the reformers of the progressive (Industrial Revolution age). Think parliamentary reform, lower work hours, the building of parks, the “clean up” of crowded cities.
4Education in the Renaissance. The Renaissance had a lasting effect on education.Secondary education still prepares young people for university.A “liberal arts” college is an ancestor of Renaissance thought—studying about different topics widens the mind.Languages were emphasized as a means of communication—the Latin of today is now English, or even the internet.Education trains us for a life of social duty and personal influence.
5Renaissance Politics Machiavelli separated politics from morality Effective rulers act in their own political interests—influenced Bismarck, and even the three dictators, Hitler, Stalin and MussoliniMachiavelli predicted an age where nation states would act in their own self interests.
6#2. Compare and Contrast the Northern and Italian Renaissances Both had merchant families who loaned money to princes and rulers: South—Medici, North—FuggersThe North excelled in technical inventiveness—mining, printing, mathematics, astronomyThe South excelled in artistic endeavors, painting and sculpture.The Northern Renaissance was more religious, with Mysticism, the belief that one could commune with God.The Northern Renaissance helped lay the foundation for the Reformation with Mystics and Erasmus’ criticism of the of the clergy (but not Church doctrine)Universities in the North had more concentration on the emerging sciences and mathematics.
7Question 3: Compare and Contrast Mart Luther and John Calvin from economic, religious, and social perspectives.
8Religion: Luther and Calvin believed in Salvation by Faith alone Both believed Bible source of authorityCalvinism believed in pre-destination—how do you know you are predestined? You work hard and act like you are!Luther addressed the people of Germany—but Calvin exported his religion to the world: Huguenots, Puritans, Presbyterians are all Calvinist religions!Lutheranism and Calvinism all rejected the idea of purgatory, saints, cult of Virgin Mary, elaborate churches, incense and mysterious “catholic” beliefs.
9Economics:In both religions, the number one influence was the belief that economic success and hard work reflected personal righteousness.Economic success, without ostentatious display, meant one might be pre-destinedSober simplicity in dress, manners, and church architecture.Protestant states, England, Holland, Germany gained economic wealth.
10SocialBoth religions strongly promoted marriage and family as ideal institution for clergy and members.Parenthood became honorable. Women were seen as devout homemakers.Calvinists did not recognize the subordination of church to state. Calvinists were less subjected to state authority.Good Lutherans owed perfect obedience to the established authority. Lutherans saw state as a sacred institution in its own right.
114. Trace the development of the Commercial Revolution
12There were gradual price increases Larger population put more pressure on resources.More money went into circulationFlow of gold and silver from South America also had impact.Merchants could count on customers, kings stabilized government, less risk for business ventures.A town centered economy now becomes a nation centered economy.
13New industries emerge: Guilds continue, but decline in powerLarge industries require investment on a massive scale: mining, printing, shipbuilding.The new states outfit their armies on a massive scale requiring mass production;Banking and loans become established
14MercantilismNations build up wealth by producing products that must be paid for in gold or silverGood thing: Nation builds up gold and silver reservesBad thing: other nations become poorer over time, as their gold and silver leaves!For the time, it did build up industry, but free trade was needed to produce continued growth.
15Question 4: Assess the similarities and differences between 16th century and 19th century imperialism.
16Old Imperialism: Gold , Glory, God Gold and silver mines, spices and slaves were all highly desired.Glory—how many countries could countries such as Spain, England and France claim as their own.Missionaries were active in South America (Jesuits) and Indonesia. Natives were sometimes slaughtered if they didn’t convert.Early Imperialism was less intrusive or dominant than later imperialism.
17New Imperialism: Raw Materials (Gold), Rival Colonies (Glory), and Western Civilization (God). Investment of massive capital required political and territorial dominationTropical regions provide rubber and petroleum for Industrial RevolutionColonies are seen as a reflection of Mother Country’s power—Sun never sets on British EmpireImperialism seen as “White Man’s burden” –spread the benefits of Western Civilization while looking down at the lowly natives.
18Question 5: Trace the development of the English Parliament during the 17th Century.
19THE RULERS:Elizabeth I was a politique who kept religious lines vague and ambiguous to limit conflictJames I declared that kings draw their power from “divine right” clashed with parliament over money.Charles I faces Puritans in parliament, dissolves parliament, again over money disputes and power.Civil War erupts between Cavaliers (royalists) and roundheads (Puritans).Charles I beheadedPuritan Commonwealth under Cromwell—Many religious groups such as Diggers, Levelers and Quakers cause headaches for Cromwell.Charles II comes back to claim his father’s throne. Commonwealth ends. Restoration beginsJames II, a Catholic, has Catholic son by second marriage. He flees England.Son in law and daughter (William and Mary) come to England to claim throne under restrictions. This is the Glorious Revolution.
20The steps toward Constitutional Monarchy: Test Act of 1673: Only Anglicans can hold office.1689: Bill of Rights: no taxes, right to fair trial, right to assemble1689 Toleration Act: Freedom of Religion1701 Act of Settlement: No Catholic can inherit the throne1707 United Kingdom of Great Britain
21#6: Compare 17th century French absolutism with 17th Century Eastern European Absolutism.
22Absolutism in France Law and Force embodied by King War is an activity of StateNobles occupied at VersaillesIntendents (Governors) represent King’s will in France and North AmericaKing taxes without consent—as long as nobles aren’t taxed.Edict of Nantes is revoked to show strength of Monarchy: Huguenots flee France for America, England, and Prussia.
23Absolutism in Eastern Europe German states each have a mini-court like Versailles. Germany is a kind of miniature “League of Nations.”Poland cannot agree on rulers—they dissolve their governments through the “liberum veto”—Poland is too weak to avoid partition.Hapsburgs face challenges with polyglot state—and Turkish invasion.Eastern Europe does not develop absolutism as much as France. It is more agricultural with landlords and serfs and little “merchant class.”
24Question 7: What connection exists between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution?
25Question 8: Trace the long term effects of Napoleon I
26Napoleon and FranceSigns Concordat, which recognizes French supremacy to govern affairs of state without Catholic influenceEstablishes a meritocracy: talent over pedigree or noble birthAll are equal before the law: Napoleonic CodeEstablished Bank of France to maintain credit and financing.Fosters industry for the glory of France
27Napoleon and Europe Combines German states into Confederation of Rhine Classes are to be wiped out—spread equality before the law. Nobility loses privileges.Church loses position besides state: toleration increases.Taxes and finances modernized: Kings are placed on civil lists with set payments for “ruling.”
28Question 9: Assess the differences between Charles Fourier, Louis Blanc, Karl Marx, and Robert Owen.
29Lois Blanc, French, wanted a bold economic program with national workshps to teach skills—the workshops were just extensive “make work” projects similar to FDR’s during the Great Depression. 1848Charles Fourier ( ) Society should be organized into small utopian communities called phalansteries, each doing work and contibuting to the group.Robert Owen, Scotland, ( ) established a model community for his employees. He spent his life campaigning for social reforms.Karl Marx, a German Communist, spent most of his life in England writing about “Communism” a system where all was equal, and property was owned by the state. He addressed the alienation of labor.
30Of the three—Marx wanted dramatic change and sweeping revolution Of the three—Marx wanted dramatic change and sweeping revolution. Owen and Fourier wanted small Utopian communities. Blanc wanted National attention and restructuring of the government programs. All were concerned about the conditions of workers during the Industrial Revolution.