Presentation on theme: "Essential Questions for the AP Exam. 1. How can the Renaissance be used as a springboard for defining modernity?"— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions for the AP Exam
1. How can the Renaissance be used as a springboard for defining modernity?
Public Duty The Renaissance saw a secular attitudethis shift was from heaven to earth. Renaissance patrons built orphanages, plazas, a sense of public duty. This sense of public duty extends to modern era with the reformers of the progressive (Industrial Revolution age). Think parliamentary reform, lower work hours, the building of parks, the clean up of crowded cities.
Education in the Renaissance. The Renaissance had a lasting effect on education. Secondary education still prepares young people for university. A liberal arts college is an ancestor of Renaissance thoughtstudying about different topics widens the mind. Languages were emphasized as a means of communicationthe Latin of today is now English, or even the internet. Education trains us for a life of social duty and personal influence.
Renaissance Politics Machiavelli separated politics from morality Effective rulers act in their own political interestsinfluenced Bismarck, and even the three dictators, Hitler, Stalin and Mussolini Machiavelli predicted an age where nation states would act in their own self interests.
#2. Compare and Contrast the Northern and Italian Renaissances Both had merchant families who loaned money to princes and rulers: SouthMedici, NorthFuggers The North excelled in technical inventivenessmining, printing, mathematics, astronomy The South excelled in artistic endeavors, painting and sculpture. The Northern Renaissance was more religious, with Mysticism, the belief that one could commune with God. The Northern Renaissance helped lay the foundation for the Reformation with Mystics and Erasmus criticism of the of the clergy (but not Church doctrine) Universities in the North had more concentration on the emerging sciences and mathematics.
Question 3: Compare and Contrast Mart Luther and John Calvin from economic, religious, and social perspectives.
Religion: Luther and Calvin believed in Salvation by Faith alone Both believed Bible source of authority Calvinism believed in pre-destinationhow do you know you are predestined? You work hard and act like you are! Luther addressed the people of Germanybut Calvin exported his religion to the world: Huguenots, Puritans, Presbyterians are all Calvinist religions! Lutheranism and Calvinism all rejected the idea of purgatory, saints, cult of Virgin Mary, elaborate churches, incense and mysterious catholic beliefs.
Economics: In both religions, the number one influence was the belief that economic success and hard work reflected personal righteousness. Economic success, without ostentatious display, meant one might be pre-destined Sober simplicity in dress, manners, and church architecture. Protestant states, England, Holland, Germany gained economic wealth.
Social Both religions strongly promoted marriage and family as ideal institution for clergy and members. Parenthood became honorable. Women were seen as devout homemakers. Calvinists did not recognize the subordination of church to state. Calvinists were less subjected to state authority. Good Lutherans owed perfect obedience to the established authority. Lutherans saw state as a sacred institution in its own right.
4. Trace the development of the Commercial Revolution
There were gradual price increases Larger population put more pressure on resources. More money went into circulation Flow of gold and silver from South America also had impact. Merchants could count on customers, kings stabilized government, less risk for business ventures. A town centered economy now becomes a nation centered economy.
New industries emerge: Guilds continue, but decline in power Large industries require investment on a massive scale: mining, printing, shipbuilding. The new states outfit their armies on a massive scale requiring mass production; Banking and loans become established
Mercantilism Nations build up wealth by producing products that must be paid for in gold or silver Good thing: Nation builds up gold and silver reserves Bad thing: other nations become poorer over time, as their gold and silver leaves! For the time, it did build up industry, but free trade was needed to produce continued growth.
Question 4: Assess the similarities and differences between 16 th century and 19 th century imperialism.
Old Imperialism: Gold, Glory, God Gold and silver mines, spices and slaves were all highly desired. Gloryhow many countries could countries such as Spain, England and France claim as their own. Missionaries were active in South America (Jesuits) and Indonesia. Natives were sometimes slaughtered if they didnt convert. Early Imperialism was less intrusive or dominant than later imperialism.
New Imperialism: Raw Materials (Gold), Rival Colonies (Glory), and Western Civilization (God). Investment of massive capital required political and territorial domination Tropical regions provide rubber and petroleum for Industrial Revolution Colonies are seen as a reflection of Mother Countrys powerSun never sets on British Empire Imperialism seen as White Mans burden –spread the benefits of Western Civilization while looking down at the lowly natives.
Question 5: Trace the development of the English Parliament during the 17 th Century.
THE RULERS: Elizabeth I was a politique who kept religious lines vague and ambiguous to limit conflict James I declared that kings draw their power from divine right clashed with parliament over money. Charles I faces Puritans in parliament, dissolves parliament, again over money disputes and power. Civil War erupts between Cavaliers (royalists) and roundheads (Puritans). Charles I beheaded Puritan Commonwealth under CromwellMany religious groups such as Diggers, Levelers and Quakers cause headaches for Cromwell. Charles II comes back to claim his fathers throne. Commonwealth ends. Restoration begins James II, a Catholic, has Catholic son by second marriage. He flees England. Son in law and daughter (William and Mary) come to England to claim throne under restrictions. This is the Glorious Revolution.
The steps toward Constitutional Monarchy: Test Act of 1673: Only Anglicans can hold office. 1689: Bill of Rights: no taxes, right to fair trial, right to assemble 1689 Toleration Act: Freedom of Religion 1701 Act of Settlement: No Catholic can inherit the throne 1707 United Kingdom of Great Britain
#6: Compare 17 th century French absolutism with 17 th Century Eastern European Absolutism.
Absolutism in France Law and Force embodied by King War is an activity of State Nobles occupied at Versailles Intendents (Governors) represent Kings will in France and North America King taxes without consentas long as nobles arent taxed. Edict of Nantes is revoked to show strength of Monarchy: Huguenots flee France for America, England, and Prussia.
Absolutism in Eastern Europe German states each have a mini-court like Versailles. Germany is a kind of miniature League of Nations. Poland cannot agree on rulersthey dissolve their governments through the liberum veto Poland is too weak to avoid partition. Hapsburgs face challenges with polyglot stateand Turkish invasion. Eastern Europe does not develop absolutism as much as France. It is more agricultural with landlords and serfs and little merchant class.
Question 7: What connection exists between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution?
Question 8: Trace the long term effects of Napoleon I
Napoleon and France Signs Concordat, which recognizes French supremacy to govern affairs of state without Catholic influence Establishes a meritocracy: talent over pedigree or noble birth All are equal before the law: Napoleonic Code Established Bank of France to maintain credit and financing. Fosters industry for the glory of France
Napoleon and Europe Combines German states into Confederation of Rhine Classes are to be wiped outspread equality before the law. Nobility loses privileges. Church loses position besides state: toleration increases. Taxes and finances modernized: Kings are placed on civil lists with set payments for ruling.
Question 9: Assess the differences between Charles Fourier, Louis Blanc, Karl Marx, and Robert Owen.
Lois Blanc, French, wanted a bold economic program with national workshps to teach skillsthe workshops were just extensive make work projects similar to FDRs during the Great Depression Charles Fourier ( ) Society should be organized into small utopian communities called phalansteries, each doing work and contibuting to the group. Robert Owen, Scotland, ( ) established a model community for his employees. He spent his life campaigning for social reforms. Karl Marx, a German Communist, spent most of his life in England writing about Communism a system where all was equal, and property was owned by the state. He addressed the alienation of labor.
Of the threeMarx wanted dramatic change and sweeping revolution. Owen and Fourier wanted small Utopian communities. Blanc wanted National attention and restructuring of the government programs. All were concerned about the conditions of workers during the Industrial Revolution.