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Journal Publishing in the Global Age: An Editorial Perspective Tor D. Berg, Journal of Adolescent Health Donald Payne, MBBChir, MD, Archives of Disease.

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Presentation on theme: "Journal Publishing in the Global Age: An Editorial Perspective Tor D. Berg, Journal of Adolescent Health Donald Payne, MBBChir, MD, Archives of Disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 Journal Publishing in the Global Age: An Editorial Perspective Tor D. Berg, Journal of Adolescent Health Donald Payne, MBBChir, MD, Archives of Disease in Childhood Charles E. Irwin, Jr., MD, Journal of Adolescent Health

2  Disseminate findings  Replication  Inform clinical care  Inform interventions  Inform policy  Improve research methodology  Career considerations Why publish?

3  Choosing the type or form of the article  Observing the formal requirements of scientific publication  Writing or composing the article  Choosing a journal  Submitting your manuscript  Revising your manuscript  Accepting rejection  Arranging publication A Publication Strategy

4  Review articles  Full length empirical articles  Brief reports  Case studies or observational reports  Editorials, commentaries, and letters Choosing the Type of Article to Submit

5 The Formal Requirements of Scientific Publishing

6 International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts

7  Solving problems  Clarify your thoughts  Distill those thoughts and ideas  Identify the most important  Connecting with editors  Getting reviewed  Getting found  Getting read  Getting cited The Abstract: A Tool for Success

8 Structured vs. Unstructured Abstracts StructuredUnstructured

9 Section I: Introduction — Progress from the general to the specific Present the general subject or problem Review the literature Statement of hypothesis: Your argument in the context of other work What is the aim of the study? What is the point of all this?? The Structure of a Scientific Article

10 Section II: Methods Design Sample Context and setting Materials and Instruments Validity and reliability Protocols and IRB The Structure of a Scientific Article

11 Section III: Presenting the data — From the specific to the general Results: Describe the findings Discussion: Place the research in the context of other work Limitations: Do not be afraid Conclusion: Application of the results; implications for future research; “Main Message” for clinicians/researchers/administrators/policymakers Works cited/References The Structure of a Scientific Article

12  Origin of the idea  Development of the outline  Design and writing of the approved protocol  Data acquisition  Scientific leadership in conducting the study  Analysis and interpretation  Writing the manuscript  Responsibility for the final paper  Ability to defend the content Authorship Issues

13 Requires active participation in all of the following:  Conception/design of work, data collection, and/or data analysis and interpretation, AND…  Drafting manuscript or reviewing/revising critical sections (i.e., that portion of manuscript for which co- author claims expert defense responsibility), AND….  Responsibility for final version of the manuscript Minimum Basis for Authorship


15  No person shall be listed as author merely by virtue of his/her position in the responsible organization or dissertation committee!  Multiple authors: suggested that brief statements of exact contribution of each author be prepared for interdisciplinary studies (to clarify potential concerns) More Authorship Issues

16 Create a written agreement:  Number of manuscripts expected to evolve from project  Subjects to be covered  Identity of all person assigned to co-author reports Authorship: Early Considerations

17  Definition should be clear  Potential, Perceived, or Real conflict  Disclose on the title page of the manuscript  Explicitly state the role of the study sponsor  If no role, then say that  Avoid entering into agreements that interfere with complete and independent access to data Conflict of Interest

18  All studies of human subjects must be evaluated by an appropriate institutional review board  Even for secondary analyses, you should apply for and receive an exemption from your IRB  Report IRB approval in the Methods section of your manuscript Protection of Human Research Subjects

19  Increasingly, journals are requiring registration of clinical trials  Broad definition: drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc.  JAH does not, though it is highly recommended  Several public registries available  U.S. National Institutes of Health’s  Australia New Zealand’s  Global ISRCTN Register Registration of Clinical Trials

20 Writing the Article

21  Good research question  Rigorous design, good response, clean data  Clear and reliable analysis  Abstract to Discussion But… Telling a good story

22 Such as: 1.Too busy 2.Teaching preparation takes up all time 3.“I will write as soon as I ________” 4.Making writing your #1 goal 5.Inability to reach writing site 6.Needing to read “one more book” 7.Inability to start 8.Fear of controversial topic and permanency of publication 9. Not in the mood 10. Childcare responsibilities 11. Inability to move forward 12. Dog ate my flash drive Anticipate Writing Obstacles

23 1.First and foremost, get writing! 2.Make it social 3.Persist despite rejection 4.Pursue your passion Four Keys to Academic Writing Success

24  There is so much to read!  Make a plan to read what you can  Skim the piece and focus on what you need to know  Topic  Approach  Argument Reading the Scholarly Literature

25  Spend mornings reading/taking notes on journals that arrived (or were posted online) the previous day  Read/skim 5 pieces for a set amount of time each day  Mark paragraphs that contain important organizing ideas, then copy/paste to a new document  Read articles from your target journal; familiarize yourself with the tone or melody or the journal Ideas for New Habits

26 Choosing a Journal

27 Try to focus on 2–3 messages or takeaways  Theoretical contribution  Focus on behavior and predictors of behavior  Methodological contributions  Clinical focus  Public health or policy Message and Contribution of the Article

28  Healthcare providers  Researchers  Methodologists  Which journals have you cited?  Regional, national, or international? Audience for the Message

29 The Journal of Adolescent Health is a multidisciplinary scientific Journal, which seeks to publish new research findings in the field of Adolescent Medicine and Health ranging from the basic biological and behavioral sciences to public health and policy. We seek original manuscripts, review articles, letters to the editor, commentaries and clinical observations from our colleagues in Anthropology, Dentistry and Oral Health, Education, Health Services Research, International Health, Law, Medicine, Mental Health, Nursing, Nutrition, Psychology, Public Health and Policy, Social Work, Sociology, Youth Development, and other disciplines that work with or are committed to improving the lives of adolescents and young adults. Journal Adolescent Health Mission Statement

30 Archives of Disease in Childhood is an international peer review journal that aims to keep paediatricians and others up to date with advances in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diseases as well as advocacy issues such as child protection. It focuses on all aspects of child health and disease from the perinatal period (in the Fetal and Neonatal edition) through to adolescence. ADC includes original research reports, commentaries, reviews of clinical and policy issues, and evidence reports. Areas covered include: community child health, public health, epidemiology, acute paediatrics, advocacy, and ethics. Archives of Diseases in Childhood Aims and Scope

31  Where else have you published?  What journal is best for your career?  How quickly do you need to publish? Career Considerations

32 Total number of citations, during 2011, to articles published in 2009 and 2010 Calculating Impact Factor Total number of “citable items” published in 2009 and 2010 2011 impact factor 3.334


34  Until recently, journals restricted published findings to paid subscribers and licensees  Journal owns copyright and sells access to cover publication costs  Digital distribution lowers costs for journals and enables far broader dissemination  New models to distribute publication costs  Open Access Dissemination of Results

35  Full open access  BioMedCentral, PLoS  Author fee, institutional subsidies, advertising  Sponsored articles  JAH, and all Elsevier titles  Delayed access  Manuscript posting  National funding bodies; NIH access policy and PubMedCentral Open Access

36 Submitting Your Manuscript

37  Cover letter  Process of uploading manuscripts  Suggesting reviewers Submission process

38  Check instructions  Often this is the first part the editor sees  Make it clear how and why the study is important  Explain why the manuscript is important for this journal  List other publications cited in journal  Identify your similar or related publications or submitted manuscripts Cover Letter

39  Increasingly journal-specific forms  Must be signed by all authors  Electronically submitted Statement of Authorship

40  Why?  Gesture of goodwill, and it moves the paper along  Good evidence that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably  Who?  Not your mentor, co-author, colleague, etc.  Not someone you have formally acknowledged  Authors you have cited in references Suggesting reviewers

41 JAH Review Process 1,106 manuscripts reviewed internally 730 desk rejected (66% of all manuscripts) 376 peer reviewed (34% of all manuscripts) 16 invited to resubmit as a Brief (2.2% of desk rejected manuscripts) 206 rejected (54.8% of peer reviewed manuscripts 170 accepted (45.2 % of peer reviewed manuscripts)

42 Revising Your Manuscript Submission

43  Virtually never accept first drafts  Revision letter is an indication of interest  Revision increases odds of eventual publication  Must revise to resubmit elsewhere  May see the same reviewer at another journal  Review process is didactic; improves the paper To Revise or Not to Revise

44  Distancing strategy  But be prompt  Respond with a clear and constructive revision and response letter  Respond to all comments  Be systematic; a table format is helpful  Juxtapose divergent comments  Revision process is a conversation amongst peers Approaching the Revisions

45 The Revision Letter

46  Checklist of documents necessary for revision  Response letter  Revised manuscript  Revised tables and figures  Re-review by editors and/or original reviewers  Final acceptance at editors discretion Resubmit

47 Accepting Rejection

48  Poor English usage.  Replicative, confirmatory, or localized findings  Causation ascribed to associations  Poorly contextualized results Common reasons for rejection

49  English is a difficult language  Scientific vocabulary and usage can idiosyncratic and archaic  Attempt to enlist the help of a native English speaker  Professional editors specializing in technical English  Can be expensive  Establish links to individuals and organizations that already publish in English  UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, etc. English usage

50  Replicative and confirmatory results, while important, are generally not published in top journals  Findings from a specific local population might be most useful to a local audience Novelty

51  JAH publishes very few studies that are based only on correlational or cross-sectional data  In most cases, longitudinal data is necessary to inform interventions and clinical work  Associations, correlations, and prevalence are nearly always most useful to a local or regional audience Correlational data

52  Emerging research from LMICs is interesting to an international audience if it is properly contextualized  Describe the local context and how it relates to the results  The dilemma is well-described in PA Michaud’s JAH editorial, “The International Journal of Adolescent Health,” JAH 2010;42:421-422.  Same dilemma occurs in papers from HICs Poorly contextualized results



55 Arranging Publication

56  Copyright and funding sources  Press Embargo  In press  Articles Online First  Citing In-Press articles using DOIs Post-Acceptance

57 Ganguly S, Samanta M, Roy P, Chatterjee S, Kaplan DW, Basu B. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as an Effective Tool for Screening of Depression Among Indian Adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2013;52:546-551. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.012. Digital Object Identifier

58 The Journal of Adolescent Health: Archives of Diseases in Childhood Web sites

59 Thank you for your interest! Questions?

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