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Chapter 15: Speaking to Inform

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1 Chapter 15: Speaking to Inform
This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: *any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; *preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; *any rental, lease, or lending of the program Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

2 Informative Presentations
Instruct, explain, describe, enlighten, demonstrate, clarify, correct, remind An informative presentation can: report new information. clarify difficult terms. explain complex phenomena. overcome confusion and misunderstanding. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
College Lectures The bad news: Most students tune out of a 50-minute lecture around 40% of the time. Student attention peaks in the first 10 minutes of class but then decreases after that point. The good news: Lectures are effective teaching methods when instructors are effective informative speakers. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Informative vs. Persuasive
Informative Speaking Instructs, explains, describes, etc. Gives something to the audience Tells them Information can persuade. Persuasive Speaking Changes audience attitudes, beliefs, behavior, etc. Gets something from the audience Sells them Persuasion can inform. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Begin with a Value Step Value Step Uses the presentation’s introduction to explain why the information is valuable or important to the audience. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Identify the Benefits Focus of Value Step Social Physical Psychological Intellectual Economic Professional Benefits More popular Healthier, more attractive, strong ______________ 3. Reduce stress, enhance ability to cope with problems 4. Explain new and intriguing discoveries; stimulate intellectual curiosity; enhance critical thinking 5. Help audience members make, save, invest money wisely 6. Help audience members advance, succeed, and prosper in a career Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

7 Informative Communication
Katherine Rowan’s Informatory and Explanatory Communication Theory Explains how to make strategic decisions about the content and structure of informative presentations by understanding the nature of the information and the audience. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8 Classifications of Informative Communication
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9 Classifying Information
Informatory Primarily aims at increasing audience awareness Reports new information Similar to news reporting: who, what, where, when, and how Explanatory Primarily aims at deepening audience understanding Goes beyond “facts” to help audience understand, interpret, or evaluate. Answers “Why?” or “What does that mean?” Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 Informatory and Explanatory Examples
Informatory: To create awareness Explanatory: To deepen understanding Examples Cake recipes Simple directions _______________ Sports trivia Biographies Healthy diets Examples Baking principles Academic lecture In-depth news story __________________ Brief new story – In-depth news story Sports trivia – Game analysis Healthy diets – How diets affect metabolism Biographies - Philosophies Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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PowerPoint Quiz What type of informative presentation may require elements of persuasion to achieve its purpose? Explaining a complex process Reporting new information Explaining difficult concepts Overcoming confusion and misunderstanding Answer: D Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
PowerPoint Quiz Which of the following examples calls for explanatory communication in an informative presentation? How to shift gears on a bicycle. How bicycle gears are calibrated. How the bicycle helmet laws came about. How to change a bicycle tire. How to ride a bicycle Answer: B Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Informatory Strategies
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14 Informing About Objects
Topic Area: Fire Ants Purpose: To familiarize audience members with the external anatomy of fire ants Central Idea: A tour of the fire ant’s external anatomy will help you understand why these ants are so hard to exterminate. Value Step: Besides inflicting painful, sometimes deadly stings, fire ants can eat your garden, damage your home, and harm your pets. Space Arrangement: (A) Exoskeleton, (B) Head, (C) Thorax, (D) Abdomen Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 Informing About a Procedure
Topic: Cooking hard-boiled eggs Purpose: To teach listeners how to make perfect hard-boiled eggs. Central Idea: There are four steps to cooking perfect hard-boiled eggs. Value Step: Rather than wasting or throwing away cracked eggs, you can now make sure your hard-boiled eggs are perfect. Time Arrangement (A) Cold-water start, (B) Stop the boil, (C) 15 minute stand, (D) Cold-water rinse. Example: Central Idea: There are four steps to cooking perfect hard-boiled eggs. Value Step: Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 Explanatory: Difficult Terms
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17 Explaining Heuristics
Topic: Heuristics Purpose: To explain how heuristics affects persuasion Central Idea: An understanding of heuristics provides speakers with important persuasive tools. Value Step: Understanding heuristics can help you persuade others and reject invalid heuristic- based arguments. Topical Arrangement: (A) Essential features, (B) Common heuristics, (C) contrast heuristics and valid arguments, (D) Quiz about heuristics Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 Explanatory: Quasi-Scientific Phenomena
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19 Explanatory: Breathing for Speech
Topic: Breathing for speech Purpose: To explain how to breathe for speech in order to be a more effective and audible speaker Central Idea: The ability to produce a strong and expressive voice requires an understanding and control of the inhalation/exhalation process. Value Step: ___________________________ Organization: ________________________ Value Step: Learning to breathe for speech will make you a more effective and confident speaker. Organizational Arrangement: Compare and contrast three components of the breathing process A. Active versus passive exhalation B. Deep diaphragmatic versus shallow clavicular breathing C. Quick versus equal time for inhalation. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Explanatory: Overcoming Confusion & Misinformation
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21 Explanatory: Fat in Foods
Topic: Fat in foods Purpose: ________________________ Central Idea: Many people declare a desperate and unwise war on food with high fat content. Value Step: ______________________ Problem-Solution Arrangement: (A) Many people try to eliminate fat from their diet, (B) This is understandable because they don’t want to be fat, (C ) Fat is an essential nutrient, (D) We need appropriate amounts of fat to be healthy. Purpose: To explain that fat is an important element in everyone’s diet. Value Step: Eliminating fat from your diet can hurt you rather than help you lose weight. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Generating Audience Interest
Keep It Short. Generally, no more than 20 minutes for a presentation. Tell Stories. Stories captivate, educate, and create lasting images and memories. Use Humor. Capture audience attention and help them remember you. Involve the Audience. Powerful method for keeping listeners alert and interested. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Questions to Help Shorten a Presentation
Can You Keep It Short? Questions to Help Shorten a Presentation Will the audience be able to reach this conclusion without my help? Does the audience already know this information? Does the audience really need to know this information? If yes, yes, & no are the answers, delete information and shorten your talk. Answers: Probability Fidelity Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sources of Stories Sources You Your Audience Other People Examples Your family’s wild “roots” ____________________ Alumni: Our homecoming _____________________ Meeting the U.S. President ______________________ Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Fisher’s Narrative Theory
Walter Fisher: Storytelling is an indispensable part of being human. Good stories have two essential qualities: Story Probability: Consistency of characters and actions Story Fidelity: The apparent truthfulness & believability of the story. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Match the Story Questions
A (story probability) or B (story fidelity) A or B: Can you follow the events as they unfold? A or B: Does the story seem realistic? A or B: Does the story reflect your personal experiences and values? A or B: Do you wonder “Why did he do that?” Answers: Probability Fidelity Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Build a Story: The Three Pigs
Background Information Character Development Action or Conflict High Point or Climax Punch Line Conclusion or Resolution 1. Once upon a time, three little pigs set off to . . . 2. _______________ 3. _______________ 4. _______________ 5. _______________ 6. _______________ See the Story-Building Chart on p. 313 that includes the Three Little Pigs as a story example. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
PowerPoint Quiz What phase of the textbook’s story-building chart answers the question: Is there a sentence or phrase that communicates the climax of the story? Background information Character development Action or conflict High point Punch line Answer: D Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Best Practices for Telling Stories
Use a Simple Story Line. Limit the Number of Characters. Connect to Your Audience. Exaggerate Your Delivery. Practice, Practice, Practice Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 Use Self-Effacing Humor
Your ability to direct humor at yourself is usually more effective than funny stories or jokes you’ve made up or borrowed from a book. President Reagan told an audience that a prominent Democrat reported, “Don’t worry. I’ve seen Ronald Reagan, and he looks like a million.” He was talking about my age. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tips for Using Humor Focus your humor on the message. Make sure the humor suits you. Be careful talking about body functions. Don’t tease anyone in your audience. Avoid ethnic or religious humor unless making fun of yourself. Don’t go overboard with funny content. Practice, practice, practice! Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 Which Joke Is Appropriate?
Age Old? At Ruth’s last birthday, the candles cost more than the cake. There are three signs of old age. The first is lost memory The other two I forget. Banks A banker is just a pawnbroker in a suit. I think the reason they have drive-up tellers is so the cars can see their real owners. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Involve Your Audience Topic: How to reduce presentation anxiety
Strategies Ask questions Encourage interaction Do an exercise Ask for volunteers Invite feedback Topic: How to reduce presentation anxiety ________________ Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Adapt to Learning Styles
Strengths and preferences that characterize the way people take in and process information Three Basic Learning Styles: Visual Auditory Kinesthetic/Tactile Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Communication Assessment
Informative Presentation Assessment Use the following ratings to assess each competency: E=Excellent; G=Good; A=Average; M=Missing; N/A=Not applicable in this presentation. Preparation and Content ____ Purpose and topic ____ Audience adaptation ____ Organization Delivery ____ Extemporaneous delivery ____ Vocal Delivery These are only five of the many informative speaking competencies listed on the Informative Presentation Assessment instrument on p Use the five listed here to explain how you evaluate each one in a student’s presentation. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 TEST Your Knowledge All of the following statements are good tips for using humor except: Do not tease anyone in your audience. Focus your humor on the message. Do not direct humor at yourself In general, avoid ethnic or religious humor. See p. 323 for more review questions. Answer: C Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.


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