Why Do Authors Write? To inform – to give information about a subject… To persuade – to convince a reader to agree with the author’s point of view on a subject… To entertain – to amuse and delight; to appeal to the reader’s senses and imagination…
Example Football players make a great deal of money. Many young people feel that they too, can make it big in the NFL. It would be better if young people had a better role model than some of these big player who make big bucks. Owners should not pay them that much money.
Example Thanksgiving Day is a holiday that our country has been celebrating for many years. President Lincoln set the fourth Thursday of November as the official day for this holiday. It was done at the request of Mrs. Sarah Hale. As a side note, Mrs. Sarah Hale wrote the rhyme “Mary Had a Little Lamb”.
Example My brother has made a commitment to only eat three meals a day. His definition of a meal is as broad as his belly. If we spot a pretzel salesman or a hot-dog stand on our way to a restaurant, for example, he is not beyond suggesting that we stop. “It’ll make a good appetizer,” he says.
Practice Inform, persuade, entertain As Americans have grown more health-conscious, the menus in school cafeterias have begun to change. Inform
Practice Nurses assigned to intensive care units should be given shorter shifts and higher pay because the work is unusually demanding and stressful. Persuade
Practice It’s easy to quite smoking; I’ve done it hundreds of times. Entertain The career of a professional athlete is usually quite short. Inform Fred believes in a seafood diet: When he sees food, he eats it. Entertain
Practice More women should get involved in local politics and support the growing number of female candidates for public office. Persuade An artificial odor is added to natural gas so that people can tell whether or not gas is leaking. Inform
Practice Shoparama has low, low prices, an outstanding selection of health and beauty products, and a convenient location near you. Persuade In ancient Egypt, priests plucked all the hair from their bodies including their eyebrows and eyelashes. Inform
Author’s Tone Authors reveal the attitude he or she has toward a subject. Tone is expressed through the words and details that the writer selects. Just like a speaker’s voice can project a range of feelings, a writer’s voice can project one or more tones or feelings: Anger, sympathy, sadness, dislike etc.
Examples “I just shot my husband five times in the chest with this.357 Magnum.” “How could I ever have killed him? I just can’t believe I did that!” “Oh, my God. I’ve murdered my husband. How can I ever be forgiven for this dreadful deed?” “That dirty rat. He’s had it coming for years. I’m glad I finally had the nerve to do it.”
Words That Describe Tone Give an example of these tones. Admiring Doubtful Praising Worried Conceited curious
Practice This place may be shabby, but since both of my children were born while we lived here, it has a special place in my heart. Sentimental This isn’t the greatest apartment in the world, but it’s not really that bad. tolerant
Practice If only there were some decent jobs out there, I wouldn’t be reduced to living in this miserable dump. Bitter This place does need some repairs, but I’m sure the landlord will be making improvements sometime soon. optimistic
Practice When we move away, we’re planning to release three hundred cockroaches and two mice so we can leave the place exactly as we found it. Humorous
Irony A commonly used tone is irony. When writing something that is ironic, it says one thing, but means the opposite. Irony is also found in a situation in which what happens is opposite of what we would expect. If a person is clumsy, someone might say.. “There goes an Olympic champion.”
Examples Helen won a lifetime supply of Marlboros a week after she quit smoking. Albert Einstein, one of the century’s most brilliant scientists, did poorly in school. When Beethoven wrote the Ninth Symphony, considered his greatest work, he was totally deaf. Thanksgiving vacation will soon be here, and I am very sad that we will not be having classes for a couple of days.
Practice What is the purpose of each of the following: A newspaper Inform A mystery novel Entertain An editorial Persuade
Fill in the Blank The author’s reason for writing something is called the __________ of a selection. The tone of a selection reveals the author’s ____________ toward his or her subject. An ironic comment is one that means the _________ of what is said.
Tones Imagine a bad morning when everything goes wrong…there is no hot water for the shower, milk for the cereal is sour, a pool of oil is under the car, and so on. Which of the following would be an ironic comment on the situation.
A. “What a lousy start to the day.” B. “What a great day this is going to be.” C. “Good grief. What did I do to deserve this?”
A ( forgiving, critical, matter-of-fact) ___________ tone reveals no personal feeling. An arrogant tone suggests that the speaker or writer –Is angry. –Looks on the unfavorable side of things. –Thinks a lot of himself or herself.
An objective tone indicates that the speaker or writer is telling something A. dishonestly. B. without personal prejudice. C. with a longing for something in the past.
Group Work In your groups, do Review Tests 1, 2, and 3. (Pp 359 – 363) Homework…. Study for vocabulary, & Purpose and Tone Quiz… Combined Skills Test 3 and 4 pp 540 - 543