3 INTRODUCTION TO BHUTAN Bhutan,the “ Land of the Thunder Dragon” is derived from the sanskrit wordBhu-Uttham.It is a landlocked nation, bordered to the south, east and west by India andto the north by the People’s Republic of China.Bhutan is one of the main tourist attraction places in the world due to its’ richcultural heritage, traditions, and natural environment.It’s main source of income is tourism, hydropower, forestry and industry.Export commodities are electricity, cardamom (Krawan), gypsum, timber,handicrafts, cements, fruits, precious stones and spices.Export partners are India 58.6%, Hong kong 30.1%,Bangladesh 7.3% (2007)Import commodities are fuel and lubricants, grain,machinery, vehicles and electronics.Import partners are India 74.5%, Japan 7.4%,Sweden 3.2% (2007)
5 INTRODUCTION TO BHUTAN Tourist attraction locations
6 INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE IN BHUTAN Agriculture is one of the main backbones ofBhutan’s economy development.One of the main policy of “GROSSNATIONAL HAPPINESS” is food selfsufficiency.66% people are engaged in agriculture andannual agriculture growth rate is 2.8%.The GDP contribution by agriculture is 22.3%.Mechanized farming is not possible due itsmountainous topography.Farmers use mini tractor and bullocks forploughing the field.Major agriculture products are rice, corn, rootcrops, food grains, citrus, apple, mango anddairy products.
9 Planting area of the major crops INTRODUCTIONPlanting area of the major crops44,000Rai85,00050,000500,000
10 INTRODUCTION NATIONAL SEED PROGRAM Organized program started by DoA, Under NASEPP(National Seed and Plant production program) in1984 (25 years ago).NASEPP – Sole supplier up to late 1995.Private sector seed companies like Druk SeedCorporation involved in production and supply from1995.Government introduce National Seed Policy in 1997.
12 OBJECTIVE Overall objective Specific objective Assure timely availability of quality seed at affordablepriceSpecific objectiveTo breed, develop, and maintain crop varieties resistantto diseases, pests and environmental stresses.To ensure/facilitate multiplication and distribution ofsufficient quantities of quality seed of superior varieties.To monitor, control and regulate the quality of seeds.To encourage the participation of private entrepreneursand farmers‘ organizations in the seed industry.To promote farmers' acceptance and use of seeds ofimproved varieties.
13 SEED MULTIPLICATION PROGRAM ParentalmaterialResponsibility of RNR research center under Council of RNR Research, MoABreeders’ SeedSeed production farms of Druk Seed CorporationFoundation SeedRegistered SeedSeed production through contract seed growers (DSC)Certified Seed (I & II)Seed production through farmers’ cooperatives (DoA)
14 Locations of Breeder seed production of RNR Centers Vegetable seeds6 research farms are utilized for breeder seedproduction of vegetable, field crops and oil seedand pulses.Field cropsOil seeds and pulses
15 Locations of foundation and registered seed production of DSC and farmers’ cooperatives of DoA Foundation seed production of field crops, oil seed and pulses and vegetable seeds in DSC farm (4 farms)Registered seed production by contract seed growers (DSC).Farmers’ cooperative, DoA.
18 Lab test & processing control QUALITY CONTROLField controlLab test & processing controlSeed storage control
19 QUALITY CONTROL STEPS DSC BAFRA Field Control Germination stage Accept/Reject plotGermination stageCheck off-type, inform about roughingFlowering stage 1Check off-type, inform about roughing, mark the fieldFlowering stage 2Accept roughed field, reject field with mixtureFlowering stage 3Check moisture, sample collection for Lab test.Seed sample collection
20 In-house Quality Control QUALITY CONTROL STEPSIn-house Quality ControlLab testProcessing ControlMoisture contentCleaning seed processing hallPurity testCleaning seed processing machineCheck the function of all machineBefore start of processingInert matter
21 Seed Storage Control Clean the seed storage room. Fumigate the storage chamber.Check the temperature and relative humidity.Proper leveling of the seed lot.
25 CONTRACT SEED PRODUCTION PROCEDURE Selection of growers and basic training (formalagreement)Issuing of registered/certified seed on paymentRegistration of seed crops for certification byBAFRA.Training ( jointly by Druk seed and extentionstaff).Field visit for quality controlIssuing of new bags by regional Druk seed office.Sampling of seed lots at growers places.The samples checked for purity, moisture contentand germination test.Based on the lab result the seed lot are acceptedor rejected.
26 Selection Criteria of Contract Seed Growers CONTRACT SEED PRODUCTION PROCEDUREThe accepted seed lots are transported to Drukseed farms for processing.Payment to seed growers.Labeling and sealing of accepted seed lots, lotrelease (distribution /sale/storage).Selection Criteria of Contract Seed GrowersReliability, knowledge, resourcefulness, willing tocooperate.Adequate land area paddy - 1 ac. (0.4 ha)veg ac.AccessibilityEnough manpower for working
27 CONTRACT SEED GROWERS Problems Difficulty in finding suitable/reliable Seed quality related problems.Lack of manpower.Tendency of growers to keep some seedwith them (potato).
28 CONCLUSIONThere is a great potential for seed production in Bhutan due toits suitable and clean environment.About 66% people are engage in agriculture related work.Seed production for them would be a direct income generatingscheme.More seed production should be concentrated on high valuelow volume crop for sustainability of a seed company.Since the domestic market is small, export partners should beexplored for sustainability and profiteering venture.
29 FUTURE RECOMMENDATION Promote private seed company/farmers’ cooperative.Improve seed quality.Train people in seed production.Promote more sales outlet in all province within country.Create awareness in the benefit of seed replacement.Promote joint venture with other seed companies outsideBhutan for knowledge sharing, training and seed productionundertaking.
30 REFERENCES CIA. 2008. The world fact book. National Census BhutanNational Seed Program Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan.RNR Statistics MoA, Bhutan.