Presentation on theme: "BHUTAN NATIONAL SEED PROGRAM Suraj Chhetri School of Crop Production Technology. Suranaree University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:
BHUTAN NATIONAL SEED PROGRAM Suraj Chhetri School of Crop Production Technology. Suranaree University of Technology
INTRODUCTION TO BHUTAN
Bhutan,the Land of the Thunder Dragon is derived from the sanskrit word Bhu-Uttham. It is a landlocked nation, bordered to the south, east and west by India and to the north by the Peoples Republic of China. Bhutan is one of the main tourist attraction places in the world due to its rich cultural heritage, traditions, and natural environment. Its main source of income is tourism, hydropower, forestry and industry. Export commodities are electricity, cardamom (Krawan), gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cements, fruits, precious stones and spices. Export partners are India 58.6%, Hong kong 30.1%, Bangladesh 7.3% (2007) Import commodities are fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery, vehicles and electronics. Import partners are India 74.5%, Japan 7.4%, Sweden 3.2% (2007)
INTRODUCTION TO BHUTAN Area- 38,364 Sq km Population- 672, 425 Province- 20 Climate- Spring (Feb-April) Summer (May-June) Monsoon (July-Sept) Winter (Oct- Jan) - Southern - Western - Central - Eastern - Northern
INTRODUCTION TO BHUTAN Tourist attraction locations
INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURE IN BHUTAN Agriculture is one of the main backbones of Bhutans economy development. One of the main policy of GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS is food self sufficiency. 66% people are engaged in agriculture and annual agriculture growth rate is 2.8%. The GDP contribution by agriculture is 22.3%. Mechanized farming is not possible due its mountainous topography. Farmers use mini tractor and bullocks for ploughing the field. Major agriculture products are rice, corn, root crops, food grains, citrus, apple, mango and dairy products.
Aerial view of Agriculture land
INTRODUCTION Land utilization in Bhutan
INTRODUCTION Planting area of the major crops 500,000 Rai85,000 50,000 44,000
INTRODUCTION Organized program started by DoA, Under NASEPP (National Seed and Plant production program) in 1984 (25 years ago). NASEPP – Sole supplier up to late Private sector seed companies like Druk Seed Corporation involved in production and supply from Government introduce National Seed Policy in NATIONAL SEED PROGRAM
INTRODUCTION MoA, Organogram
OBJECTIVE Assure timely availability of quality seed at affordable price To breed, develop, and maintain crop varieties resistant to diseases, pests and environmental stresses. To ensure/facilitate multiplication and distribution of sufficient quantities of quality seed of superior varieties. To monitor, control and regulate the quality of seeds. To encourage the participation of private entrepreneurs and farmers organizations in the seed industry. To promote farmers' acceptance and use of seeds of improved varieties. Overall objective Specific objective
SEED MULTIPLICATION PROGRAM Parental material Breeders Seed Foundation Seed Registered Seed Certified Seed (I & II) Responsibility of RNR research center under Council of RNR Research, MoA Seed production farms of Druk Seed Corporation Seed production through contract seed growers (DSC) Seed production through farmers cooperatives (DoA)
Locations of Breeder seed production of RNR Centers Vegetable seeds Field crops Oil seeds and pulses 6 research farms are utilized for breeder seed production of vegetable, field crops and oil seed and pulses.
Locations of foundation and registered seed production of DSC and farmers cooperatives of DoA Foundation seed production of field crops, oil seed and pulses and vegetable seeds in DSC farm (4 farms) Registered seed production by contract seed growers (DSC). Farmers cooperative, DoA.
ANNUAL SEED PRODUCTION AT FARMS AND CSG
ANNUAL SEED REQUIREMENT AND PRODUCTION
QUALITY CONTROL Field control Lab test & processing control Seed storage control
Field Control Germination stage Flowering stage 1 Flowering stage 2 Flowering stage 3 Seed sample collection BAFRA DSC Accept/Reject plot Check off-type, inform about roughing Check off-type, inform about roughing, mark the field Accept roughed field, reject field with mixture Check moisture, sample collection for Lab test. QUALITY CONTROL STEPS
In-house Quality Control Lab test Processing Control Moisture content Purity test Inert matter Cleaning seed processing hall Cleaning seed processing machine Check the function of all machine Before start of processing QUALITY CONTROL STEPS
Seed Storage Control Clean the seed storage room. Fumigate the storage chamber. Check the temperature and relative humidity. Proper leveling of the seed lot.
SEED MARKETING Druk Seed Corp Contract Seed growers Farmers cooperative Domestic saleExport sale Farmers Institution Public India (potatoes, maize, Radish seed) Bangladesh (radish seed)
CONTRACT SEED PRODUCTION PROCEDURE Selection of growers and basic training (formal agreement) Issuing of registered/certified seed on payment Registration of seed crops for certification by BAFRA. Training ( jointly by Druk seed and extention staff). Field visit for quality control Issuing of new bags by regional Druk seed office. Sampling of seed lots at growers places. The samples checked for purity, moisture content and germination test. Based on the lab result the seed lot are accepted or rejected.
The accepted seed lots are transported to Druk seed farms for processing. Payment to seed growers. Labeling and sealing of accepted seed lots, lot release (distribution /sale/storage). Reliability, knowledge, resourcefulness, willing to cooperate. Adequate land area paddy- 1 ac. (0.4 ha) veg ac. Accessibility Enough manpower for working Selection Criteria of Contract Seed Growers CONTRACT SEED PRODUCTION PROCEDURE
CONTRACT SEED GROWERS Difficulty in finding suitable/reliable growers. Seed quality related problems. Lack of manpower. Tendency of growers to keep some seed with them (potato). Problems
CONCLUSION There is a great potential for seed production in Bhutan due to its suitable and clean environment. About 66% people are engage in agriculture related work. Seed production for them would be a direct income generating scheme. More seed production should be concentrated on high value low volume crop for sustainability of a seed company. Since the domestic market is small, export partners should be explored for sustainability and profiteering venture.
FUTURE RECOMMENDATION Promote private seed company/farmers cooperative. Improve seed quality. Train people in seed production. Promote more sales outlet in all province within country. Create awareness in the benefit of seed replacement. Promote joint venture with other seed companies outside Bhutan for knowledge sharing, training and seed production undertaking.
REFERENCES CIA The world fact book. National Census Bhutan National Seed Program Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan. RNR Statistics MoA, Bhutan.