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Demand for English Language Services in India and China

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1 Demand for English Language Services in India and China
April 2009

2 Outline Objectives & methodology 3 Main findings – India 6
Overview of the market 10 The market among learners/potential learners 24 The market among English language teachers 45 The market among major employers 58 Summary & Implications 68 Main findings – China 73 Methodology 74 Overview of the market 77 The market among learners/potential learners 92 The market among English language teachers 113 The market among major employers 125 Summary & Implications 132

3 Objectives & methodology

4 Research objectives Research required to provide quantitative data on market trends and developments in the demand for, and provision of, all kinds of English language services in India and China And to up-date previous research conducted in the two markets in 2007 and 2008 Specific questions that need answering include: Who wants to learn English, and how does this market segment? What are the key drivers of demand? What kinds of English language services are required? How much is currently being spent on these services and how is this forecast to change over the next 5-10 years? In what way do perceptions of, and demand for, UK English compare with other kinds of English (eg American, indigenous variants)? This will be used to inform strategic decision-making by UK EL providers in relation to: Business opportunities in India and China Recruitment of students for ELT in the UK

5 Meeting the objectives
Desk research Quantitative research with adults/parents learners and potential learners Qualitative research with teachers Qualitative research with major employers That’s the overall image of the UK in 2003, but we also looked at views of the country in more detail – in terms of four key areas - its role in international affairs, business, education and tourism. There is not time to run through each of these areas in detail, but in summary, the key conclusions were: International affairs – generally positive, but not surprisingly, some question marks over the country’s contribution to world peace, particularly in Egypt, Turkey and France. Felt to be an important world player, but not necessarily trusted Business – here ratings of the UK lagged behind those of the US, Japan and Germany – particularly in terms of the quality of our products and being a world leader in science and technology. There was also a widespread lack of knowledge about the sectors that the UK was involved in – little knowledge of software development for instance. Finance and R&D best regarded. Education – continuing to be a strength as it was in 1999/ In 2003 the UK was ranked alongside the USA in terms of being able to provide an educational qualification that would significantly enhance career prospects. Country image/tourism – the UK was seen as both modern and traditional at the same time (Big Ben, tea, the Queen continue to be frequent images to this day) but also creative and innovative. However, the image of British people as being somewhat dour and cold remains. Despite this it was still a popular tourist destination, with 8 in 10 saying there is lots to see and do

6 Main findings - India

7 Methodology - India Qualitative research:
In-depth interviews, conducted face-to-face Each interview up to 30 minutes long 5 interviews with English language teachers, mix of schools/universities 5 interviews with leading employers, HR Director level or equivalent, mix of national companies serving the domestic market only and those who are ‘going global’, range of sectors Employers - Gugaon and Mumbai, 18 April – 2 May 2009 Teachers – Delhi and Bangalore, 18 April – 2 May 2009 NOTE: care must be taken in interpretation of these qualitative results due to the small number of interviews

8 Methodology – India - cont
Quantitative research: Face-to-face interviews Each interview up to 20 minutes long 200 interviews, 50 each with adult learners, potential adult learners, parents of young learners and parents of potential young learners Delhi and Bangalore, April 2009 Comparisons also made with quantitative research conducted by IMRB in 2008 – ELT Audience Segments report: Mix of self-completion with interviewer present, and face-to-face interviews (approx 60% self-completion) 756 interviews with teachers/professors 50 interviews with establishments Report dated March 2008

9 Desk research sources - India
English Language Teaching Audience Segments in India & Sri Lanka and their Support Requirements, IMRB International, March 2008 (Previous research) CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets Report 2008 (http://www.scribd.com/doc/ /CLSA-Indian-Education-Industry-Survey) Angel Broking (www.angelbroking.com) The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) (www.iamai.in) National Institute of Finance & Accounts (NIFA) (www.nifaindia.com) IMRB International (www.imrbint.com) The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) (www.assocham.org) The Constitution of India (www.commonlii.org) NIIT (www.niit.com) BusinessWeek (www.businessweek.com)

10 Overview of the market - India

11 Large and growing market
India’s private sector education and training market is estimated to be worth US$40bn, with a potential 16% five year CAGR (CLSA Asia: Pacific report, 2008) Of this, the adult market for ELT (aged 20+) is estimated to be worth around US$450m CLSA - estimates 3.8m people paying average fee of US$120

12 Majority of English Learning population aged below 18
Estimated 320m aged 5-17 (Census projected to 2008) 249m students (the English learning population) enrolled at primary, middle, secondary and higher educational levels (Department of Education)

13 Around 2.1 – 2.2 million English language teachers in India
Type Of School Number (Million) Total Teachers[1] English Teachers[2] Primary 0.88 Million ~ 2.26 Million Upper Primary 0.34 Million ~ 1.70 Million 0.68 Million Secondary 0.11 Million ~ 2.20 Million 0.32 Million Higher Secondary 0.05 Million Total 1.38 Million 6.16 Million 1.88 Million (plus English teachers in language schools etc) College/University ~ 17,500 0.5 Million - [1] Source: Department of Education, Government of India [2] IMRB International estimate based on primary survey

14 English forms a large proportion of vocational training
Vocational training in India accounted for US$1,365m, according to CLSA And English training represents one-third of this figure Data Source: CLSA Asia-Pacific Markets (2008)

15 English becoming increasingly important
Service sector = 55% of India’s GDP (Angel Broking) Industries like Information Technology (IT), Information Technology-enabled Services (ITeS), Hospitality, Tourism, Retail and Aviation in particular generate a large number of jobs which require competency and fluency in English Eg Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) /IT/ITES sector alone expected to need approx 3.6m English speakers in 2010, implying 1.9m new jobs 2007 – 2010 (NIIT, 2008)

16 One of major drivers is growth in IT/ITES industry
Top five IT companies spending US$ 500 million a year on education and training for their employees Many established large training campuses for this Data Source: NASSCOM

17 English language ability commands a premium
‘Our results indicate a significantly high English skill premium in the labour market in terms of 2004 wages’ (Kapur & Chakraborty, Washington Univ in St Louis, 2008) MNCs pay better than non MNCs, sometimes by over 50% and regard English skills as a pre-requisite (spokesperson for NIFA, 2008)

18 English – bridging India’s communication gap
22 languages recognised by the Indian constitution. Hindi is the ‘official’ language, but spoken by only 50% of the population (IMRB, 2008). English is therefore key for internal communication: Part of colonial legacy Part of education system from school onwards (either as medium of instruction or second language, depending on State) High social status Second most widely read and spoken language in India after Hindi – 15% have speaking, writing and reading capabilities in English compared to 40% for Hindi (National Readership Survey)

19 Online becoming more popular but limited by internet availability
Indications that more popular for things like test preparation, tutoring in school curriculum etc But only 50 million people in India have internet access (IAMAI, 2008)* Rapid adoption of mobile based access to the internet may change this. A special report in BusinessWeek in 2007 described how the Indian Cellular Association forecasts 200 million people will sign on to the internet with their mobile phones by 2010. * shows internet penetration in India at 7.1% in November 2008, and 81 million users

20 Some key players, other than British Council
British School of languages (BSL): Founded 1975 Over 1.6 million students trained in spoken English A network of 30 study centres across the country Caters to a broad audience - from those who do not know English to those who aim to hone their English speaking skills Works in the corporate training sector – Ashok Leyland, Ranbaxy, American Express, U.N.O, Asian Paints are some of the clients Course fees range from Rs 2500 to Rs 3000

21 Some key players - cont Veta English language training institute (formerly known as Vivekananda Institute): Founded 1981 Over 2.2 million students trained in spoken English A network of 200 study centres across the country Some centres can accommodate more than 500 students Veta offers a ‘Self tutor’ pack for those learners who cannot access one of its centres Seven main programmes, including ‘Veta English Holiday’

22 Some key players - cont Hero Mindmine Institute (HMIL): Founded 2000
Provide training and development services to multinational companies, Indian Blue Chip companies and the Government Part of USD 4.2 bn Hero Group Over 1.6 m students trained in spoken English A network of 150 offices and learning centres across the country A team of 200 professionals Clients include IBM, American Express, Bharti Telecom and Convergys

23 Some of key players - cont
Inlingua 300 language centres in 40 countries Language centres are free to shape their training programs to suit the local market Mix of private persons, employees of large and small companies, institutions and government offices have used their services Course fees range from Rs 6500 to Rs 10000

24 The market among learners/potential learners - India

25 Personal development + improved career prospects = key reasons for learning English
Which of these, if any, best describes your reasons for wanting to learn English/for wanting your child to learn English? Parents of current/ potential learners All Adult learners/ potential learners Top mentions Personal development Improved career prospects Many jobs now require employees to speak English General interest in learning English To meet new people/make to friends To communicate with friends in other countries Base: All respondents, India (202), adult learner/potential learner (102), parent of current/potential learner (100)

26 Increased propensity to learn, esp among young
Do you think you/your child are more likely or less likely to learn English (outside school) than you were 6 months ago? Less likely Don’t know 2% No real difference compared to 6 months ago More likely Much more likely Parent of current learner 42% Parent of potential learner 36% Adult potential learner 33% Adult learner 12% Base: All respondents, India (202), parent of potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), adult potential learner (52), adult learner (50)

27 Economic downturn main current barrier
Which of these things, if any, have caused this change? Global economic downturn (7 out of 14) Cannot find a suitable course (3 out of 14) Cannot find a teacher (2 out of 14) Don’t know Base: All who think their likelihood of learning English will decrease, India (14)

28 ELT schools most used method by adults
Are you currently learning English / ever learnt English / in the next 2-3 years think you are likely to learn English in any of these ways? ELT school Online training course Personal teacher for one-to-one tuition Part of full time education course Training course provided by your company Adult education class Base: All respondents, India (202)

29 Base: All parents, India (100)
ELT school is preferred method for parents Is your child currently studying English in any of these ways? Would you like your child to study in any of these ways? Preferred for child/ren Child/ren currently use ELT school At school Personal teacher for one-to-one tuition Other kind of organisation Online training course None of these Base: All parents, India (100)

30 Group tuition most used and most preferred
In which of these ways, if any, would you prefer (your child) to learn English / are you/your child currently using to learn English (outside school) ? Preferred Used by current learners Top mentions Group or classroom tuition One-to-one tuition ‘Teach Yourself’ guides – text book Online courses ‘Teach Yourself’ guides – audio/visual Base: Preferred - All respondents, India (202), Current – All adult learners/parents of current learner, India (100) )

31 High future demand for ELT, across all groups
How likely is it that you/your child will (continue to) study English at an English language learning institute in the next 2-3 years? Certain not to 1% Don’t know Certain To Very unlikely Fairly unlikely Slightly lower demand among parents of potential learners (64% certain/very likely) but more ‘don’t know’ – 28%) Very likely Fairly likely Base: All respondents, India (202), parent of potential learner (50)

32 Very high level of interest in UK ELT institutes
And, in the next 2-3 years, how likely is it that you/your child will study English at a UK English language learning institute, assuming one was based in your city? Don’t know 1% Fairly unlikely Certain to Fairly likely Very likely Base: All likely to study at an ELT Institute in the next 2-3 years, India (145)

33 Better quality teaching, credibility and UK English = key reasons
Why do you say you/your child would study at a UK English language institute? Top mentions (71% of parents of current learners) Better quality teaching Will have more credibility with employers (56% of potential adult learners) Prefer to learn UK English Have heard good things about UK providers from others Have had a good experience in the past Have a generally positive Image of the UK Base: All likely to study at a UK ELT in the next 2-3 years, India (135), potential adult learner (36), parent of current learner (31)

34 Price and usefulness of UK English = barriers
Why do you say you/your child would not study at a UK English language institute? Too expensive (4 out of 9) Learning US English more helpful Learning a more general form of ‘international’ English more helpful UK has an image of being old-fashioned/not innovative enough (3 out of 9) Learning ‘local’ English more helpful (1 out of 9) Base: All unlikely to study at a UK ELT in the next 2-3 years, India (9)

35 Online learning – fairly high awareness but low usage
Were you aware that it is possible to learn English online, that is using an online course provider? All Adult learner Yes No But just 1% currently learn via online course Don’t know Base: All currently not learning English via an online course, India (199),adult learner (48)

36 Less than half would consider online learning
How likely are you to consider learning English online in the next 2-3 years/choosing an online English learning course for your child? Certain To Don’t know Very likely Certain not to/ Very unlikely/Fairly unlikely Adult learner Adult potential learner Parent of current learner 33% 37% 22% Parent of potential learner 14% Certain not to Very unlikely Fairly likely Fairly unlikely Base: All not currently learning English via an online course, India (199), adult learner (48(, adult potential learner (52), parent of current learner (49), parent of potential learner (50)

37 Use of multimedia methods biggest draw
Why do you say you/your child would study online? Top mentions Can use multimedia methods More flexible/convenient More cost-effective Environmentally better Can chat online with students and teachers Base: All likely to study online, India (96)

38 Main barrier is lack of speaking practice
Why do you say you/your child would not study online? Top mentions Little/no opportunity to practice speaking Online English qualifications little credibility Don’t have access/easy access to the internet Concerns about security on internet The speed of the internet can be slow Software might not be compatible with my pc Base: All unlikely to study online, India (53)

39 Few employees offered ELT at work
Does your company offer English language courses for employees? Don’t know 1% I am unemployed Yes 2% I am a student None are currently learning English using a training course provided by their employer Just 2% have ever done so No Base: All current/potential adult learners, India (102)

40 Majority of all groups feel the type of English learnt is very important
How important or unimportant to you is the type of English learnt? Not very important Fairly important Very important Base: All respondents, India (202)

41 International English most popular, except among current adult learners
Which if any of these different types of English would you choose to learn/for your child to learn? International English Local form of English UK English US English Adult learner Adult potential learner Parent of current learner Parent of potential learner International English 12% 60% 56% 54% Local form of English 21% 26% 18% Base: All respondents, India (202)

42 Divided opinions over local vs overseas materials
When it comes to materials for English language learning, do you generally prefer those produced locally or by overseas organisations or do you have no preference? Don’t know No preference Locally Overseas Base: All respondents, India (202)

43 UK materials the same or better than others
Do you think that materials produced by UK organisations for English language learning are generally better or worse than those from other overseas organisations or are they about the same? Don’t know Better Better Adult learner Adult potential learner 38% 62% Parent of current learner Parent of potential learner 56% 40% About the same Base: All respondents, India (202)

44 Ease of use & quality are strengths
Why do you say you materials from UK organisations are better? Clearer/easier to use Better quality/more reliable Prefer UK English UK materials have a better reputation Have a generally positive image of the UK Base: All who think materials from UK organisations are better, India (99)

45 The market among English language teachers* - India
* These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only

46 Teachers have little say in materials used
“To make it more creative and interesting I pick out the boy or girl and they will read out in the class” Public sector: decided by the university (eg Delhi University) or school boards (eg CBSE, ICSE etc) Individual teachers have no say Some do try to liven up lessons by adding their own things – but only limited in scope More advanced techniques/audio visual aids etc only really used in private sector* “We make teaching aids and we give them projects like collecting more information” * Confirmed by IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments which found private sector use more advanced teaching methods than government schools

47 Old-fashioned approach to teaching
A number of key weaknesses identified: Out of date materials & curriculum/need reviewing more frequently to keep up with changes in outside world Teaching methods too traditional – chalk & board* – making lessons monotonous and boring Too much emphasis on exams and not enough on real understanding and fluency “The curriculum should change every 3-4 years, if not every year” “Even in an English class, when the teacher speaks, the inability to follow, understand, comprehend, this constitutes about 70% of the students” “Even though they score good percentage marks in English, they are unable to write correctly and they are unable to express themselves in good English” * Confirmed by IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments, 81% use chalk & board, the top method

48 Materials need up-dating and tailoring
Need for regular review of curriculum and course materials: Committee of experts (teachers, government officials, industry experts and external experts) to up-date materials regularly More tailoring of materials to students of different abilities More flexibility for teachers to add in extras to main course work “The needs are different. …we have students who have absolutely no foundation of English yet the whole book is not geared up to teach them, and we do have intelligent students…the text doesn’t reach them either, it’s somewhere in between, and so the standard just comes down automatically” “I think there should be collaboration with professionals”

49 More emphasis on real command of the language
Want more emphasis on the basics of the language at an early age Exams and assessment to be a better reflection of a student’s true ability, rather than ability to learn by rote More emphasis on practical application of the language “It is really tough to make them understand that they really need to learn the language in a very different way and not just to get marks” IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments showed fluency as a major area of concern for students, followed by grammar, reading habits and writing skills

50 And more use of interactive methods
“That would probably help me teach better and encourage them to read more and more which is lacking in today’s generation” More audio visual aids, PCs, internet, CDs, plays, quizzes called for: Makes lessons more interesting and interactive Richer learning experience Increased involvement and motivation

51 Both hard copies and online materials required
“It would be better if they are hard copies because most of our students would not log on and use the soft copies. For them internet access is purely for entertainment and fun” Materials available on the internet particularly useful for teachers: More flexible and accessible But hard copies also required for students: Not all have internet access Some students don’t take online materials seriously “It should be both online, as it is easily accessible, and hard copies, where we know it can help as well”

52 Mixed reaction to external assistance
“In one place you cannot find so many experts and expertise in different skills. Their coming together can help in developing good materials” In favour: Involvement in development of materials will improve quality of materials/keep them more up-to-date Could help in organising seminars/workshops for a richer learning experience for students Must involve internal bodies as well though Against: Only the institution itself knows the needs of its students Cost – external help is expensive “It would be better if every college does it because every class is different and every batch is different”

53 Fairly high awareness of many UK organisations
“British Council you know flourishes in many countries, they have the experts. Their main purpose is to help the teachers, in training them. They provide the material and design” All heard of British Council, BBC, Longmans, CUP, OUP, Pearson and Macmillan Many had used books by Longmans, CUP, OUP, Pearson and Macmillan Almost all aware of IELTS Only university/college teachers aware of exam boards Aware of websites, but could not name any “I would prefer to make use of audio visuals, LCD and CDs, especially British Council, they prepare material in English as a primary and secondary language and that really helps” Not necessarily detailed knowledge of what is on offer though Assumed they provide English course and materials – reference materials, CDs, cassettes etc

54 UK organisations associated with quality
Materials from organisations known to be reputable are seen as: Good quality Dependable Trustworthy In line with latest needs of the language “Organisations which are reputable prove fruitful…. You do not have to worry about quality. But if you go in for material from another source you have to be careful”

55 But cost, access and accent can be a problem
Can be difficult to understand the accent used Online access can also be an issue, especially as most services need to be paid for And most would like to have both hard and online copies of materials “I have a couple of CDs and VCDs from different companies but I find their language is difficult for us to learn. The accent is an issue” “Whenever I have gone through a website I have found one or two things come up and then the rest is you will have to pay and then get it. So once you start going deeper and deeper into the subject, I don’t have an easy access at all and trying to pay £8 is really quite a lot of money and I certainly would not go for such things”

56 Professional development opportunities limited
Two out of the five say they have no such opportunities* Others mention seminars, workshops, intra and inter institution meetings, presentations and refresher courses However, even these not felt to be enough, or directed in the right way * Confirmed by IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments, 30% had never attended a formal training programme

57 More and different opportunities required
Teachers want: More seminars and training sessions on communicative language training – ie how best to teach students the basic skills they need Better training in the area of student motivation/student psychology More on latest training techniques – ideally developed with their particular institution in mind Training which keeps them up-to-date with the changing needs of a competitive world Opportunities to meet counterparts in other institutions (eg in discussion forums) Guidance from experts “To train the teacher in this (communicative language training) is most important because having just patience is not enough” “Training in this (student motivation) is very important for any teacher. Only a motivated teacher can motivate his/her students”

58 The market among leading employers* - India
* These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only

59 For most English is a key requirement for staff
Most see English as a mandatory language requirement, particularly: Those with most contact with overseas clients (eg call centres, hospitality industry) For front line staff dealing with overseas clients In those sectors where it is particularly important, pay is often linked to English skill levels “At the end of the day you are working with US clientele” (Business Process Outsourcing) “We only hire people who are trained, and have good communications skills and we only hire those people who have a background in international call centres” (Call Centre) “That’s how you give a pay package. If the person has average communications skills then the pay packet is low” (Retail)

60 Skills required depend on sector/type of staff
Most expect basic English knowledge among new recruits Verbal communications skills particularly important* Where English is crucial (eg call centres) skills are assessed at recruitment stage Voice test, listening test, written test Accent checking (a neutral accent is deemed best) Knowledge of the culture of other countries is also a benefit for those dealing with other countries “It does not include only speaking to customers in English, it also includes connecting with them emotionally, sympathising” (Call centre) * Confirmed by IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments, 60% importance attached to communication/soft skills and 40% to functional skills

61 Perfect English in new staff usually not expected
Acknowledgement that some training may be required to improve skills, eg To correct errors Improve pronunciation Improve understanding of other cultures Improve confidence in ability Link language skills to requirements of the job Most of those interviewed provide in-house training for relevant staff*; some for all staff Particularly call centres – structured training modules, debates, role-playing, grammar, telephone ethics “When the trainer takes the training and this person has grammatical issues, some people do have errors, the trainer helps them” (Retail) * The quantitative research shows very few employees say their company offers ELT training, no doubt because most work for smaller companies than those interviewed in the qualitative research.

62 English will become increasingly important
Due to increasingly global, competitive economy Also think there will be a need to communicate with more non native speakers of English - requiring a more neutral accent Continuous improvement among employees will become more necessary – and hence rigorous training, which may or may not require external assistance, depending on needs More technology driven training also anticipated “It is a global economy. Spoken English is very important not only from our own perspective but to compete in this competitive world (Retail) “And through a web cam and projector we are actually using technology, we are giving training by voice and accents of the clientele. So it saves time and cost” (Call Centre)

63 Only perceived challenge in ELT is time
“We have to make them work a nine hours shift and then to make them sit after a nine hours shift is a bit difficult”

64 Linked to this, hard copies preferred to online
Easier for employees to use in their own time (eg at home) Not all employees have internet access* “Hard copy is better because online we have to provide computers because at the end of the day it is cost and there is no time. If you give hard copies you can sit back at home and use that because everybody would not have a laptop or PC at home” * shows internet penetration in India at 7.1% in November 2008, though of course penetration will be higher in urban areas

65 Many use own internal ELT resources
Three out of the five have their own internal training departments* Rarely use external providers – only when there is a specific need** Believe in house department has a better understanding of their needs “Our company is a huge company, we have our own resources, our own set up. In the rarest of rarest cases do we actually have the need to have an external source” (Call Centre) * IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments. Most tests developed internally by organisations themselves ** IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments suggests use of external consultants rather higher than in our five interviews – 62% had used an external trainer – but it may be related to the very large size and type of companies (three very outwardly orientated) interviewed in the qualitative research, which means they are more likely to have their own internal training departments

66 Some do use external providers though
Two of the five do Single provider used – books, notes, CDs, online links and tests Chosen on the basis of*: Cost (major role) Level of service Course material (including multi-media) Expertise of trainer Level of trust & commitment shown Ability to customise training to needs High levels of satisfaction “Any external body has to be customised to our requirements” “Someone who is outsourced is always approachable and they try to give you the best” * IMRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments – main factors in choice of trainer were course content, presentation skills, educational background, certifications of trainer and previous experience

67 Low awareness of UK providers
Only aware of British Council* and British School of Languages Thought to offer: Various types of course Reference material, CDs, online links But not much known about the offering Perception that they are professional, equipped with latest services and training techniques, and well respected But also felt to be expensive and not tailored to needs of organisation * MRB 2008 report on ELT Audience Segments suggested that the BC has a good reputation for ELT among establishments; two-thirds were willing to use ELT services from the BC

68 Summary & implications - India

69 Summary & implications - India
Large and growing market for English language services While taught in all schools, interviews with teachers suggest it is not necessarily taught ‘well’ due to: Poor quality/out of date teaching materials, old-fashioned teaching methods, emphasis on passing tests rather than real understanding This means there are real opportunities for UK organisations to help teaching of English in schools through: Working with universities and school boards to improve course materials and teaching methods – to increase student motivation and ability to apply skills in the real world Offering teacher training/professional development programmes – latest teaching techniques (including interactive techniques), communicative language training, student motivation/psychology, discussion forums etc

70 Summary & implications – India - cont
Potential barriers: Low budgets available in public sector schools/among teachers High awareness of UK bodies but low awareness of their offering – so need to build up this awareness Poor quality of learning in schools also means there is a strong and growing demand among learners, both adults and young learners, for ELT institutes The positive reputation of UK ELT and materials means UK organisation are well placed to capitalise on this demand UK organisations/materials associated with quality and high credibility Cost – offer lower cost options as well as higher cost/quality options? International English is preferred to UK English – offer more ‘international English’ teachers?

71 Summary & implications – India - cont
Demand for English skills at a corporate level is driven by service sector in particular (eg growth of call centres) English language ability therefore commands a premium in such sectors, particularly in MNCs In such companies, basic English skills are often mandatory, though many provide further training Opportunities for UK organisations therefore lie in: Assistance with in-house training programmes tailored to the organisation’s needs Potential barriers: Cost (key consideration) Low profile of UK organisations – need to raise profile

72 Summary & implications – India - cont
Most employees, many working for smaller companies, are not offered in-company training in English though Further emphasises importance of ELT institutes in the market Within ELT sector, online learning growing, but still tiny proportion of market Internet access is a key barrier – only 7% of population have access – as are limited opportunities to practice oral skills Has wider implication for materials offered by UK organisations – need to offer hard copy as well as online learning materials as most learners will not have internet access Rapid adoption of mobile based access may change this though – so should be monitored carefully

73 Main findings - China

74 Methodology - China Qualitative research:
In-depth interviews, conducted face-to-face Each interview up to 30 minutes long 5 interviews with English language teachers, mix of schools/universities 5 interviews with leading employers, HR Director level or equivalent, mix of national companies serving the domestic market only and those who are ‘going global’, range of sectors Beijing and Shanghai, 13 – 22 April 2009 NOTE: care must be taken in interpretation of these qualitative results due to the small number of interviews

75 Methodology – China - cont
Quantitative research: Face-to-face interviews Each interview up to 20 minutes long 200 interviews, 50 each with adult learners, potential adult learners, parents of young learners and parents of potential young learners Chengdu and Quingdao, April 2009 Comparisons also made with quantitative research conducted for the BC in 2007 by United Research China (URC) on English Language Teaching Market 1,535 central location test interviews in six cities, 1-16 April 2007, adult learners and parents of young learners with ELT schools 666 telephone interviews in six cities, 1 April – 9 May 2007, adults learners and parents of young learners

76 Desk research sources - China
Report on English Language Teaching Market in China by United Research China, for the British Council, 2007 Social Survey Institute survey 2005 Online-education, September 2008 (www.online-edu.org) People’s Daily, May 2008 (www.people.com.cn) China Education Investment Institute, December 2008 (www.ceif.cn)

77 Overview of the market - China

78 A growing market Experts in 2005 predicted an annual growth rate of around 15% up to 2010 Based on China’s accession to the WTO, the 2008 Olympic Games and 2010 Shanghai Expo (note: this was before the global economic downturn) Data Source: Survey Results Published by Social Survey Institute of China, 2005

79 ELT dominated by private institutes
Social Survey Institute of China, 2005: Approx 50,000 ELT institutes in China China Education Investment, 2008: Over 90% are private institutes Universities act as an effective supplementary provider Solely foreign invested and joint venture institutes positioned at high end mainly concentrate on economically developed areas and cities open to the outside world, like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzen

80 Focus on large developed cities
China Education Investment, 2008: Major markets for ELT in East China, North China and South China, particularly in large developed cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou Demand increasing quickly, particularly in more developed coastal areas

81 Market dominated by adult learners
The projection of English learner population between 7-45 years old in six surveyed cities, 2007: total learners aged 7-45 (Unit: 1,000) Beijing 3,814.2, of whom = 7-15 Shanghai 2,047.8, of whom 86.4 = 7-15 Guangzhou 1,502.1, of whom = 7-15 Shenyang 822.3, of whom = 7-15 Chengdu 1,110.3, of whom 93.2 = 7-15 Wuhan 902.7, of whom 59.5 = 7-15 Total 10,199.4, of whom =7-15 Source: China Statistical Yearbooks, 2007

82 But growth among younger and older learners
People’s Daily, 2008: Approx 300 million ELT consumers Mainly aged 20-40 Also growth at both ends of age spectrum – children and older people: ELT for children began early 1990s, but still in its early stage By end of 2007 there were 350 million children of school age – so huge market potential Many pre-school training institutes established – eg EF Small Stars programme Foreign invested institutes expanding in this area Growth in older learners – particularly for some vocational English courses and high-end programmes which appeal to students in their 40s

83 Career advancement key driver of demand
People’s Daily, 2008 – key drivers of demand: Improve English communications skills, particularly in work context, to expand social circle and improve career prospects Focus on practical use of English through listening and speaking practice Will become the main driving force of market demand in the future Prepare for English tests for study abroad or enrolment in schools Focus on test techniques rather than practical use of English (eg TOFEL, GRE, ITLTS and CET 4/6 etc) Get professional qualifications, eg oral interpretation certificates Again, focus is on test techniques

84 Learning mainly done in spare time
China Education Investment, 2008: ELT mainly done in learners’ spare time Each course usually: 48-60 class hours over 2-4 months Each class hour = minutes 2-3 class hours = one session 2 nights per week, or half a day at weekends

85 Three main types programme in terms of cost
High Small % of market Developed cities Mainly foreign invested institutes (eg Wall Street) Entry level = at least 6 programmes, costing around RMB20,000 Learners are high income, mainly white collar, mid/senior management Medium Mainstream market Developed large and medium cities One programme costs RMB 1,000 – 4,000 Each class hour costs RMB 20-50 Low Mainstream market Mainly supplementary to school education Learners are mainly students One programme costs RMB 100 – 500 Data Source: China Education Investment, 2008

86 Mainly traditional methods but online growing
Small Class Mainly foreign teachers/text books Focus on listening and speaking 10-20 students per class Online Still at early stage, but showing fast growth Low cost, cheap, flexible timetable Many online training providers now use Voice Interaction Technology so can provide a ‘face-to-face’ learning environment similar to a real classroom Large Class Using self-compiled or state-recognised text books Domestic teachers 30-50 students per class Traditional teaching methods Widely used in test preparation training Computer-aided Combines computer-aided programmes with lectures delivered by teachers Data Source: China Education Investment, 2008

87 Some of key players New Oriental School: Founded 1993
2006 New Oriental Education and Technology Group listed on NYSE Services include English and other foreign language training, overseas and domestic test preparation courses, primary and secondary school education, educational content and software and online education End of 2008 – 41 schools, 400 learning centres and 6 subsidiaries in 39 cities in China Given 7 million training programmes Test preparation courses are a particular strength – estimated that nearly 50% of Chinese students studying abroad took the NOS course 2008 – opened 8 elite learning centres in Beijing – use multi-media software (DynEd) and aimed at professionals and elite entrepreneurs

88 Some of key players - cont
Wall Street Institute: Entered China in 2000 15 training centres in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen Focuses on ELT to adults Mid/high end positioning Programmes include Introduction to English, English Online and Premier English Targets civil servants, managers, and university students Has a Corporate English Training Department and over 300 corporate clients in China

89 Some of key players - cont
EF Education: Entered China in 1996 2000 – opened language schools in Guangzhou and Shanghai Adopts ‘Communicative’ method of English training – encourages students’ involvement through talking and listening Major programmes include comprehensive English, teens/kids English, business English, practical English for overseas living/studying and IELTS

90 Some of key players - cont
Crazy English: Li Yang set up this institute in 1994 One of most influential in China Features a ‘speak out’, oral-centred and sentence-centred learning Focussed on American oral English Operates closed-door, intensive training camps in key cities Also publishes English pronunciation learning materials Modern English: Established 1999 2000 – started a ‘Modern English’ programme in cooperation with Beijing TV station Programme is broadcast over 60 provincial TV channels

91 Will more study overseas in economic downturn?
China Education Investment & People’s Daily, 2008: Depreciation of foreign currencies in global economic downturn reduces cost of study abroad Speculation that this will result in more studying overseas Especially as companies slim down work force and it becomes more important to strengthen personal skills

92 The market among learners/potential learners - China

93 Personal development key for learning English
Which of these, if any, best describes your reasons for wanting to learn English/for wanting your child to learn English? Parents of current/ potential learners All Adult learners/ potential learners Top mentions Personal development General interest in learning English 2007 URC survey: Personal development – 57% Interested in English – 25% Job requirement – 36% Similar pattern, though lower figures for most Reason - unprompted question in 2007? Improved career prospects Many jobs now require employees to speak English To communicate with friends in other countries To get into college/ university Base: All respondents, China (200), adult learner/potential learner (100), parent of learner/potential learner (100)

94 Increased propensity to learn, esp. among young
Do you think you/your child are more likely or less likely to learn English (outside school) than you were 6 months ago? Don’t know 2% Less likely No real difference compared to 6 months ago More likely Much more likely Parent of potential learner 36% Parent of current learner 28% Adult potential learner 22% Adult learner 14% Base: All respondents, China (200), parent of potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), adult potential learner (50), adult learner (50)

95 Time more of a barrier than economic reasons
Which of these things, if any, have caused this change? Have not got the time (6 out of 13) It is not a priority (3 out of 13) Cannot find a suitable course (2 out of 13) Global economic downturn (1 out of 13) Don’t know Base: All who think their likelihood of learning English will decrease, China (13)

96 ELT schools most used method by adults
Are you currently learning English / ever learnt English / in the next 2-3 years think you are likely to learn English in any of these ways? ELT school Part of full time education course 2007 URC survey: Currently learning at ELT school – 19% Ever learnt in ELT school – 30%, rather lower than now, a reflection of growth? Company training course & personal tutor similar levels to now Company training course a little higher than in 2007 Adult education class Online training course Training course provided by your company Personal teacher for one-to-one tuition Base: All respondents, China (200)

97 ELT schools are preferred method for parents
Is your child currently studying English in any of these ways? Would you like your child to study English in any of these ways? Preferred for child/ren Child/ren currently use At school ELT school Other kind of organisation Personal teacher for one-to-one tuition Online training course None of these Base: All parents, China (113)

98 Group tuition preferred, but possible unmet demand for one-to-one tuition
In which of these ways, if any, would you prefer (your child) to learn English / are you/your child currently using to learn English (outside school)? Preferred Used by current learners Top mentions Group or classroom tuition ‘Teach Yourself’ guides – text book Online courses ‘Teach Yourself’ guides – audio/visual One-to-one tuition Base: Preferred - All respondents, China (200), Current – All adult learners/parents of current learner, China (100)

99 Future demand higher among young learners than adults
How likely is it that you/your child will (continue to) study English at an English language learning institute in the next 2-3 years? Certain not to Don’t know 1% Very unlikely 1% Fairly unlikely Certain To Certain to Adult learner Potential adult learner 20% 12% Parent of current learner Parent of potential learner 54% 50% Fairly likely Very likely Base: All respondents, China (200) , adult learner (50), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), parent of potential learner (50)

100 UK ELT would be considered, esp. by parents
And, in the next 2-3 years, how likely is it that you/your child will study English at a UK English language learning institute, assuming one was based in your city? Don’t know Certain to Adult learner Potential adult learner 20% 12% Parent of current learner Parent of potential learner 54% 50% Certain to Certain not to Very unlikely Very likely Fairly unlikely 2007 URC survey: Lower figures – 45% said they or their children likely to study in UK ELT institute Fairly likely Base: All likely to study at an ELT Institute in the next 2-3 years, China (182) , adult learner (46), adult potential learner (39), parent of current learner (49), parent of potential learner (48)

101 Better quality teaching = key reason in choice
Why do you say you/your child would study at a UK English language institute? Top mentions Better quality teaching Prefer to learn UK English 2007 URC survey: Quality & experience of teachers = top criterion in judging overall quality of ELT institutes (71%) UK English is good = key reason for interest in UK ELT (36%) Have heard good things about UK providers from others Will have more credibility with employers Have had a good experience in the past Have a generally positive image of the UK Base: All likely to study at a UK ELT in the next 2-3 years, China (143)

102 Price = key obstacle Why do you say you/your child would not study at a UK English language institute? Top mentions Too expensive Learning US English more helpful Learning a more general form of ‘international’ English more helpful UK has an image of being old- fashioned/not innovative enough Learning ‘local’ English more helpful Don’t know Base: All unlikely to study at a UK ELT in the next 2-3 years, China (30)

103 Online learning – high awareness but low usage
Were you aware that it is possible to learn English online, that is using an online course provider? But just 2% currently learn via online course 2007 URC survey: Lower figures – 47% of English learners had heard of online methods Suggests higher profile now Base: All currently not learning English via an online course, China (195), parent of potential learner (50)

104 Majority would consider online learning; few certain to
How likely are you to consider learning English online in the next 2-3 years/choosing an online English learning course for your child? Certain to/ Very Likely/Fairly likely Adult learner Adult potential learner Parent of current learner 62% 78% 65% Parent of potential learner Don’t know Certain to Certain not to Very likely Very unlikely Fairly unlikely 2007 URC survey: Also showed majority would consider online Fairly likely Base: All not currently learning English via an online course, China (195), adult learner (47), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (48), parent of potential learner (50)

105 More flexible/ convenient
Convenience biggest draw, partic. for adults Why do you say you/your child would study online? 2007 URC survey: Convenience/flexibility also key – 81% flexible time, 66% convenient location Cost-effective more likely to be mentioned this year – 23% in 2007 – reflection of economic downturn? Top mentions More flexible/convenient More cost-effective Can use multimedia methods More flexible/ convenient Adult learner/potential learner 90% Parent of current/potential learner 73% Can chat online with students and teachers Environmentally better Base: All likely to study online, China (130), adult learner/potential learner (68), parent of current/potential learner (62)

106 Though some have concerns about security
Why do you say you/your child would not study online? Top mentions Concerns about security Little/no opportunity to practice speaking Online English qualifications little credibility 2007 URC survey: Fewer concerns over security – 28% Similar concerns over lack of opportunity to practice speaking = 30% Don’t have access/easy access to the internet Base: All unlikely to study online, China (59)

107 Low access to ELT courses at work
Does your company offer English language training courses for employees? Don’t know I am unemployed 1% Yes (8 out of 100) I am a student Courses offered: Business (4 out of 8) Basic (3 out of 8) Vocational (2 out of 8) Professional (1 out of 8) All 8 likely to participate mainly because better geared to their needs No Base: All current/potential adult learners, China (100)

108 Type of English important, especially to parents of potential learners
How important or unimportant to you is the type of English learnt? Don’t know 2% Not important at all 2007 URC survey: 55% thought original country of origin of ELT important Difference in question wording may account for some of the difference between this result and the current results Very important Not very important Fairly important Adult learner Adult potential learner Parent of current learner Parent of potential learner Very important 26% 44% Base: All respondents, China (200), adult learner (50), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), parent potential learner (50)

109 US English most popular
Which if any of these different types of English would you choose to learn/for your child to learn? 2007 URC survey: Country of origin of ELT – 52% preferred UK, 36% US Suggests preferences changing Base: All respondents, China (200)

110 Overseas materials generally preferred
When it comes to materials for English language learning, do you generally prefer those produced locally or by overseas organisations or do you have no preference? Don’t know No preference Locally Prefer overseas materials Adult learner Potential adult learner 52% 46% Parent of current learner Parent of potential learner 32% 42% Overseas Base: All respondents, China (200), adult learner (50), adult potential learner (50), parent of current learner (50), parent potential learner (50)

111 UK materials the same or better than others
Do you think that materials produced by UK organisations for English language learning are generally better or worse than those from other overseas organisations or are they about the same? Don’t know Better Worse Better Adult learner/Adult potential learner 25% Parent of current learner/ Parent of potential learner 37% About the same Base: All respondents, China (200), adult learner/adult potential learner (100), parent of current learner/parent of potential learner (100)

112 Quality & ease of use are strengths
Why do you say that materials from UK organisations are better? Better quality/more reliable Clearer/easier to use Prefer UK English UK materials have a better reputation Have a generally positive image of the UK Base: All who think materials from UK organisations are better, China (62)

113 The market among English language teachers* - China
* These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only

114 Public sector tied to approved materials
Public sector schools and universities Obliged to use the textbook compiled by the District Education Committee E-courseware is tied to the text book Eg textbook for West District is ‘New Starting Point’ and the E-courseware is provided by Golden Sun Company Additional training exercises also used Ideas coming from journals, newspaper, the Internet etc Usually identified via word of mouth among teachers circles Usage determined by English department of school “I have no choice in the textbook, which is forced on us by the District Educational Committee. Current textbooks are better than before, however, some key points still need to be highlighted and, as a result, I will prepare some additional materials…the E-courseware helps me prepare some games”

115 More choice of material in private sector
Private schools Flexible to choose any material which suits their students’ needs Tend to use textbooks produced overseas: More ‘native’ in terms of thinking and expression of language Better for those preparing to study abroad Sourced from Foreign Language Bookstore, Hong Kong or original country’s publisher “The materials from English speaking countries are more true to life than what we make”

116 Public sector textbooks not good enough
Key challenge = quality of textbooks: Accuracy - compiled and edited by local Chinese, resulting in ‘Chi-English’ Not geared towards practical application of English – not relevant to students or arouse their interests, cannot be applied in everyday life “Fundamentally, the textbook we use is produced by Chinese…there are always cultural differences and we don’t have an English environment in which students can learn like native speakers” “One frequent problem is that students understand the meaning of some words but find it hard to use in their life or other contexts besides in the textbook”

117 Call for more ‘native’ materials
Native - ie developed in UK or USA or at least compiled by people from English-speaking countries Students need to understand more about the culture of the country the language comes from UK and USA preferred – the latter tends to be preferred by students these days*: UK – standard, normal, precise, gentler than US English US – accent easier to identify, more open and simple in expression “Personally, I don’t have any preference on England or American English. England is more elegant and American tends to have higher practicality” * Confirmed by quantitative research, US English preferred by 54% of learners/potential learners vs 29% for UK English

118 Frustration over exam driven nature of learning
English learning driven by exams, not practical use: So teaching geared to passing exams, rather than real command of the language

119 Need for interesting, practical, up-to-date material
Interesting to students – relevant, able to stimulate interest Practically-oriented – can easily be applied in students’ real life More video/audio materials Particularly if can be downloaded from Internet – more up-to-date and flexible in terms of choice of topics “How to stimulate students’ interest is a big issue. If the resources can resonate with students, they will be compelled to learn it on their own” Example quoted: ‘Family Album USA – internet-based, shows aspects of everyday life in USA, so helps with practical use of English as well as better understanding of US culture  http://www.56.com/u51/v_MzEzMzU2OTY.html 

120 Challenging to adapt approach to pupils’ needs
Need to adapt approach to different age groups: Things that work well with younger age groups (eg games) will not work well with older pupils Different levels of ability in same class: Access to extracurricular English lessons, English films/TV, foreign travel varies by student “Even with primary school students, Grades 1-3 are very different from Grades Grades 1-3 are very happy to be involved in any interactive communications/games; however, this won’t work with the elders. Grade 4-6 are relatively more practical than the younger students and they think my games are a waste of time” “There is a student in my class (Grade 1 in Junior High School) who has passed Grade 10 of GESE which is equalled to the level of Senior-High school, so he feels that my teaching speed is too slow. But I have to balance to the level of the whole class”

121 Need to constantly improve their own skills
Teachers need to constantly improve their own English: Maintain their own skills with daily practice Keep up-to-date with changes in current English usage Keep ahead of their own students, particularly in higher level classes “Nowadays, students get knowledge from many different channels and they can compare with the school curriculum, so teachers feel easily challenged if we are not familiar with the latest language trends and update ourselves”

122 Development opportunities felt to be limited
Current opportunities felt to be very limited, though an number of examples mentioned: Internal seminars – for teachers to share experiences Discussion Forum organised by District Educational Committee – to go through text book and hot topics likely to be covered in exams Subscriptions to English journalists – eg English newspapers, China Daily Exchange programmes with foreign universities Some schools encourage teachers to study abroad – schools typically pay 50% of costs Some private schools will use external organisations to train teachers

123 Better development opportunities required
Teachers want: Opportunities to practice English with native speakers Guidance on how to improve their relationship with students “Besides improving my own English ability, I also want to learn some skills to better understand students’ psychology. It will help me speak in my students’ language and communicate more like friends”

124 Limited awareness of UK-based organisations
“I never heard of any UK-based organisation providing teaching resources, maybe there are many, but I am not aware of them” British Council – high awareness of organisation, but no awareness of what it can offer teachers BBC – high awareness; some university teachers use audio clips from its web site for class materials Publishers – only aware of Longman. Dictionary well known IELTS – high awareness. Seen as passport to study abroad UK universities – Aware of Cambridge, Oxford, LSE, Warwick. Would search Times ranking of UK universities for others Examining and assessment bodies, UK language schools, websites – no awareness

125 The market among leading employers* - China
* These findings are based on just 5 qualitative interviews, so are indicative only

126 English is a ‘must-have’ for new recruits
English seen as a ‘must-have’ qualification, regardless of sector CET 4 and 6 are basic requirements. For some CET 6 is the minimum requirement for a new employee IELTS, GRE, GMAT and other English certificates not required, but a high score will help potential employees stand out from the crowd Potential employees also need to pass English written and oral tests, designed and administered internally For jobs which require more regular contact with foreigners, only graduates with an English major will be considered “My company attaches a high importance to English. We use a very strict process to screen their English ability. It is an important criterion which will show their ability”

127 But on-going ELT often not offered to staff
Many do not provide on-going English training or assessment for their staff* Because recruitment process screens for suitable skill level Working language internally is Chinese Training can conflict with workload commitments Overall performance seen as more important “English is not the only way to demonstrate one’s ability; if it was, we would recruit all employees with an English major…they all pass examinations so we believe that they do not have any problem to use English in their job. We review their performance, but not their English” “In general, a day release course will last for 1-3 months, and it means the staff cannot work during that period.” * Confirmed by quantitative research, just one in ten learners/potential learners in employment said their company offered such training

128 Some do offer ELT to staff though
Some larger organisations do offer some form of English training and/or encourage staff to develop their skills These tend to be organisations where command of English particularly important “Our company is a special case. We need to do lots of research and read English materials so our qualifications for English are higher than others. Because of this, we provide each employee with many options they can choose by themselves”

129 Varied approach to ELT, where offered
The approach taken varies: Some offer regular internal training on written and oral English For those staff for whom oral English is important, ‘English Corners’ (informal gatherings to practice English) may be encouraged An English training fund may be provided for those whose English is below the standard required - assumes employee will choose vendor Exchange programmes/overseas training offered to employees with high potential Some offer combined management and English training outsourced to external provider, eg TIP in Beijing

130 Limited awareness of UK-based organisations
Only two mentioned as possible UK providers: EF: Felt to be well known in the English training market for general public British Council: Seen as proving opportunities for company employees to study for an MBA in the UK Such MBAs felt to be useful way of improving English performance “I know very little about the UK-based English training organisations…was it EF that is from the UK? I guess so; it is a large enterprise providing training services. Also, one of my colleagues attended a programme held by the British Council. It seems that the British Council cooperates with UK universities to offer opportunities to leading national organisations only”

131 Future demand for more business English training
Economic crisis means training budgets dramatically cut in 2009 ELT not a priority Longer term, companies want ELT to be combined with business or management-related skills Work-related English training is more practical English learnt at school/university is not geared to business English English training combined with management or other business-related topics is deemed more efficient Employees can improve professional skills and English skills at the same time “TIP is not simply English training; it covers a lot of information besides spoken English, like management and EQ topics. With the training, our employees also develop their minds”

132 Summary & Implications - China

133 Summary & Implications – China
Strong and growing market, particularly in main cities and more developed coastal areas, so good potential for UK providers Especially as English increasingly seen as a ‘must have’ in the larger, outwardly facing companies Currently, market dominated by adult learners, but strong growth in the young learners market, which offers huge market potential Especially since teaching in the public sector still lags behind that available in private sector (in terms of practical application of skills and quality of learning materials) Market seemingly unaffected by economic downturn; indeed some speculation that it may increase the importance of learning English as competition for jobs becomes more intense

134 Summary & Implications – China - cont
ELT institutions remain main way of learning English outside school Huge number of such institutions of varying size, cost and quality UK providers of ELT and learning materials have a good reputation Associated with quality and high levels of credibility with potential employers But, UK ELT also associated with high price (the flip side of quality?) – look for lower cost options to offer in addition higher cost/quality options? Also interviews with teachers suggest UK organisations have a low profile in China, meaning there is a need to build this profile Furthermore, US English preferred to UK English, which represents a potential obstacle – offer more US English teachers?

135 Summary & Implications – China - cont
Online learning still at an early stage, but growing force in the market, and therefore could represent an important opportunity for UK organisations Particularly if Voice Interaction Technology can overcome some of downsides related to practicing oral skills and interacting with others In-company training still quite low, except in larger companies In the short-term, limited opportunities for external organisations to help with in-company training due to budget cuts But in the medium/longer term, opportunities lie in a focus on: Business English, combined English & business training, exchange/visit programmes to organisations in the UK and continuing to promote MBA courses with UK universities

136 Summary & Implications – China - cont
Teaching materials and teacher training in the public sector schools/universities sector leaves a lot to be desired Some key opportunities for UK organisations in terms of: Better textbooks – more accurate English, with better feel for UK/US culture More downloadable exercises from the internet geared to different language skills: listening, writing, reading, speaking and to different age groups/abilities Teacher training on student psychology Provision of more opportunities for teachers to practice their English skills with native speakers and learn more about the culture

137 Summary & Implications – China - cont
But: Other than in private schools, District Education Committee is often dominant decision maker on what is used (text books and E-courseware) Teachers have limited information on external providers and do not have time to proactively search for this information Therefore UK providers need to: Liaise closely with District Education Committees – eg in terms of help with compiling textbooks, E-courseware Focus on downloadable resources for teachers Raise profile of UK providers and what they can do – regular E-newsletter to schools?


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