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Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin.

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Presentation on theme: "Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Shelter After Disaster Phase I: Scooping Study Shelter Meeting 05b November 2005, Geneva Presented by: Yasemin Aysan

2 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan , Shelter After Disaster, Phase 1 scoping study Commissioned by UN-OCHA Aim: Review, through a consultative desk study, the major changes that have occured since 1982 in the field of shelter following natural disasters, as a foundation to the second phase, a full revision of the 1982 guidelines ‘Shelter After Disaster’.

3 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan , Shelter After Disaster, Phase 1 scoping study Objectives: Review the changes in nature and extent of hazards faced since 1982; the trends in vulnerabilities and capacities, both rural and urban for the same period; changes in operational response policy, capacity&approach; the knowledge available, including a review of publications, academic literature, conferences, evaluations and situation reports.

4 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan 1982 Shelter After Disaster: content I.Emergency shelter Resource of survivors as primary source Allocation of roles for assisting groups by local administration –who, where, what Assessment of needs versus damage Evacuation of survivors voluntarily Role of emergency shelter attributed too high priority Shelter strategies between emergency&reconstruction Contingency planning to anticipate shelter needs

5 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan II. Post-disaster housing Reconstruction: opportunity for risk reduction and reform Relocation of settlements Land use and land tenure Financing shelter creates dependency

6 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan III. conclusions Rising expectations; cost of prefabs make them permanent; sets a standard for modern reconstruction; creates tension with non affected Accountability of donors to the recepients Guidelines for the local level for each post- disaster situation based on these general principles

7 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Key changes since 1982 Hazard trends Climate variability resulting in unexpected meteorological disasters, Hazards simultaneously affecting multiple countries (Mitch, Mozambique floods, tsunami ) Shelter implications: Demand on emergency shelter and housing, human resources and reconstruction finance simultaneously in several countries

8 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Key changes since 1982 Vulnerability trends Population increase in high risk areas eg. China, India, Endonesia exposing large numbers of lives and assets at risk; Increased economic activity and housing along the coastal areas resulting in losses of housing and livelihoods; Rapid urbanisation and lack of enforcement of land use and building standards increasing risk to property; Urban poverty resulting in poor construction; settlement in unsafe areas; renters being left out of reconstruction; Changes in housing technology (rural and urban) from vernacular to modern; Conflict and natural disasters in the same territory (Sri Lanka, Indonesia) creating politisation of aid and issues of equity in housing

9 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Key changes since 1982 Mitigating factors Improved forcasting and early warning, possibility of evacuation and saving lives; cyclone shelters etc.; Wide spread community based disaster preparedness; Housing finance for post-disaster housing; Transfer of risk through insurance and introduction of micro-insurance for housing;

10 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Key changes since 1982 IFIs increasingly play a critical role in financing housing reconstruction and risk transfer; Weak coordination and setting standards by the national authorities as well as international players, little equity across various types of shelter provision; Land becoming a limited and expensive commodity, land ownership still an issue; Infrastructure and livelihood recognised as essential components of shelter provision; Recognition of environmental aspects;

11 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan key changes since 1982 Communications and media Telephone (shelter impact: some, coordination): landlines: some improvement, mobile cellular networks, such as GSM: rapid increase and coverage, satellite telephony networks (shelter impact: significant, learning, good practice) from early 1990s World wide web (shelter impact: growing where bandwidth) from early 1990s growth in availability, via websites such as HICs and Shelter Library, of material including situation reports, assessments, evaluations, tools, good practice

12 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan key changes since 1982 Coordination between stakeholders Affected population: better consultation; participation improved National and international armed forces: CIMIC new, weak; symbolic interventions, tent stock, logistic and man power United Nations bodies: weak shelter coordination; housing a gap; IASC working groups an improvement; IOs/NGOs:renewed interest in natural disaster response; in shelter/housing; Donors: inter-donor coordination still weak despite good donorship initiative; post-disaster housing often bi-lateral; Private sector: weak, with potential (eg IMG)

13 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan key changes since 1982 Organisational changes There are still few organisations specialising in emergency shelter, some in reconstruction. Organisations founded after 1982: ECHO (1996), SDC (1990), OCHA (1998), UNOPS (1995), RedR (1980), SFL (1984), Sphere (1997); Architecture & Developpement (1997), Shelter Centre (1995), etc.

14 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan since 1982 Coordination mechanisms UN: development of mandate responsibilities & coordination (eg IASC) IASC clusters working group: recent initiative to develop UN/IO/NGO linkages Early warning: regional governments (eg UNESCO IOC); technology driven Research: significant growth (eg Hazard.net); implementation linkages improving

15 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Sheltering options since 1982 Site-adjacent shelter (eg Gujarat): common; weak understanding; better support Host families (eg Sri Lanka): common; weak support; significant potential Rural self-settlement (eg Bangladesh): rare; weak support Urban self-settlement (eg New Orleans): common (eg slums); Collective centres/shelters (eg Madagascar): rare; insufficient; weak support Self-settled camps (eg Aceh): common; increasing support Planned camps (eg Pakistan): common; significant support

16 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Implementation since 1982 Comprehensive sectoral coordination (emergency to reconstruction): rare Assessment (linked to monitoring and evaluation): rare; many tools Areas of responsibility, progress (capacity distribution, schedule of works): rare Principles, standards, implementation steps: generally improving, specific rare Public information (campaign; centres): rare, stakeholder coordination weak Technical support: few ‘barefoot’ engineers; few tent options, small stockpile capacity

17 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Standards, laws, principles, codes since 1982 Standards: 'Minimum Charter and Standards In Disaster Response' (Sphere Project): accepted by international community, weak national influence; ‘Humanitarian Accountability Partnership' (HAP-I): under development International, human rights: Article 25 (Universal Declaration on Human Rights): poor awareness; rarely used Article 11 (International Covenant on Economic, Social & Cultural Rights): rarely used

18 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Principles Shelter After Disaster (UNDRO, 1982): poor awareness; rarely used Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (OCHA, 1999): poor awareness Shelter Principles (Shelter Centre): under development Codes of conduct 'Code of Conduct' (IFRC): common; impacts equitable participation and provision, no enforcement; ‘People in Aid Code' (People in Aid, 2003): for aid workers; impact on site safety?

19 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan Key events since 1982 Disasters and the Small Dwelling Conference, Oxford, 1991; set agenda for the IDNDR; Shelter Conference, UNHCR, 1993; no continuity; HABITAT Conference 1996; limited coverage of post-disaster shelter; Shelter Meetings, Since 2002; provides a platform for exchange among shleter community twice a year; Kobe Conference 2005; limited reference to post- disaster shelter;

20 Click to edit Master title style Presentation to Shelter Meeting 05b Introduction: 'Scoping study to inform the revision of Shelter after Disaster' Yasemin Aysan 2005 what is next? Phase 1 sponsored by UN OCHA to be completed by the end of January 2006, with contributions from 10 experts Gaps identified and a structure developed for the revision Phase 2 planned with support from DfID


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