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Memory Chapter 8. Memory Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Chapter 8. Memory Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Chapter 8

2 Memory Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Memory: the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Encoding: initial recording of information Encoding: initial recording of information Storage: information saved for future use Storage: information saved for future use Retrieval: recovery of stored information Retrieval: recovery of stored information

3 Three-System Memory Theory Proposes the existence of 3 different memory stores Proposes the existence of 3 different memory stores Sensory Memory: the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant (sight, sound, etc) Sensory Memory: the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant (sight, sound, etc) Short Term Memory: Memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds Short Term Memory: Memory that holds information for 15 to 25 seconds Long Term Memory: Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve Long Term Memory: Memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve

4 Sensory Memory A momentary flash of lighting, the snapping of a twigthey all give us information which is forgotten right away A momentary flash of lighting, the snapping of a twigthey all give us information which is forgotten right away Iconic memory: memory from the visual system Iconic memory: memory from the visual system Echoic memory: stores auditory information Echoic memory: stores auditory information Sensory memory is stored for a VERY short time. If it does not pass to short term memory it is lost forever Sensory memory is stored for a VERY short time. If it does not pass to short term memory it is lost forever

5 Sperling FTYCKDNLYWBM

6 Sperling When exposed to just the letters for 1/20 th of a second, people could only remember 4 or 5 letters accurately When exposed to just the letters for 1/20 th of a second, people could only remember 4 or 5 letters accurately He did the experiment again, but sounded a low, high, or medium tone after exposing the people to the letters He did the experiment again, but sounded a low, high, or medium tone after exposing the people to the letters If the tone was high, they were told to look at the first line, if the tone was medium they looked at the middle, and if the tone was low they were told to look at the last line If the tone was high, they were told to look at the first line, if the tone was medium they looked at the middle, and if the tone was low they were told to look at the last line People were able to accurately write the letters. Therefore, they had been storing them all along. He determined that recalling the letters was possible as long as they were shown the letters for over one second. People were able to accurately write the letters. Therefore, they had been storing them all along. He determined that recalling the letters was possible as long as they were shown the letters for over one second.

7 Short Term Memory To retain information it must be stored in short tem memory To retain information it must be stored in short tem memory Short term memory is the first form of memory in which information has meaning. However, it is only stored for a short period of time. Short term memory is the first form of memory in which information has meaning. However, it is only stored for a short period of time. It is not clear how things are transformed into short term memory It is not clear how things are transformed into short term memory

8 Short Term Memory Most that you can store is seven items Most that you can store is seven items Chunks: a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short term memory Chunks: a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short term memory

9 Short Term Memory PBSFOXCNN ABCCBSMV N B C PBSFOXCNN ABCCBSMV N B C

10 Short Term Memory PBSFOXCNN ABC CBS MTV NBC

11 Rehearsal The repetition of information that has entered short term memory The repetition of information that has entered short term memory As long as information is repeated you can store it in your short term memory As long as information is repeated you can store it in your short term memory Type of rehearsal influences whether information is stored in long term or short term Type of rehearsal influences whether information is stored in long term or short term Elaborative rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal Mnemonic device Mnemonic device

12 Working Memory A set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information A set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information Contains a central executive processing that is involved in reasoning and decision making. Contains a central executive processing that is involved in reasoning and decision making. The central executive coordinates the following: The central executive coordinates the following: The visual store, verbal store, and episodic buffer The visual store, verbal store, and episodic buffer

13 Working Memory Permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information. Permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information. Example: when we are totaling a bill Example: when we are totaling a bill

14 Long Term Memory Material that enters from short term to long term memory enters a storage house of almost unlimited capacity. Material that enters from short term to long term memory enters a storage house of almost unlimited capacity. What does this mean? We have an immense storage capacity What does this mean? We have an immense storage capacity Certain kinds of brain damage no long term memory Certain kinds of brain damage no long term memory

15 Long Term Memory Modules Declarative Memory: Memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like. Declarative Memory: Memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like. Procedural Memory: Memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as nondeclarative memory. Procedural Memory: Memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as nondeclarative memory. Semantic Memory: Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts Semantic Memory: Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts Episodic Memory: Memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context Episodic Memory: Memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context

16 Semantic Networks Semantic Networks: mental representations of clusters of interconnected information Semantic Networks: mental representations of clusters of interconnected information Example: think of everything you can think of that is red…or think of fruits…If you think of an apple on the first task, you are more likely to think of an apple on the second task. Example: think of everything you can think of that is red…or think of fruits…If you think of an apple on the first task, you are more likely to think of an apple on the second task.

17 Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows-a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows-a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory

18 Retrieval Cues Who can name the seven dwarfs from Snow White? Who can name the seven dwarfs from Snow White? This is a difficult task because it involves recall This is a difficult task because it involves recall Recall: Memory task in which specific information must be retrieved Recall: Memory task in which specific information must be retrieved Retrieval cue: a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long term memory Retrieval cue: a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long term memory

19 Retrieval Cues Examples: Examples: Words Words Emotions Emotions Sounds Sounds

20 Retrieval Cues When the retrieval cue is present the memory will come to mind When the retrieval cue is present the memory will come to mind For example: the smell of roasting turkey may evoke memories of thanksgiving For example: the smell of roasting turkey may evoke memories of thanksgiving

21 Levels of Processing Levels of Processing: the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree in which new material is mentally analyzed Levels of Processing: the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree in which new material is mentally analyzed The more we process information the more likely we are to remember it The more we process information the more likely we are to remember it

22 Explicit Memory Intentional or conscious recollection of information Intentional or conscious recollection of information Example: when we try to remember a date Example: when we try to remember a date

23 Implicit Memory Memories of which most people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior Memories of which most people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior Example: skills that operate unconsciously such as jumping out of the way of a car Example: skills that operate unconsciously such as jumping out of the way of a car

24 Priming A phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept A phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept You forget something, but then you see something that triggers it You forget something, but then you see something that triggers it

25 Flash Bulb Memories Memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event Memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event Example: a car accident (something specific you remember vividly), the world trade center attack Example: a car accident (something specific you remember vividly), the world trade center attack

26 Constructive Processes In Memory: Rebuilding the Past Constructive Processes: processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events Constructive Processes: processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events Schemas: organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled Schemas: organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled

27 Memory in the Court Room Eye witnesses are prone to memory related errors Eye witnesses are prone to memory related errors When children are witnesses there may be increased errors When children are witnesses there may be increased errors Childrens memory may be highly susceptible to error when emotional content or stress is involved Childrens memory may be highly susceptible to error when emotional content or stress is involved

28 Repressed and False Memories Controversy as to whether there is such a thing as a repressed memory Controversy as to whether there is such a thing as a repressed memory Repressed Memory: recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious Repressed Memory: recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious Some supporters suggest that such memories may remain hidden possibly throughout a persons life time Some supporters suggest that such memories may remain hidden possibly throughout a persons life time

29 False Memory Develop when people are unable to recall the source of a memory of a particular event about which they have only vague recollection Develop when people are unable to recall the source of a memory of a particular event about which they have only vague recollection When the source of memory becomes unclear, people may become confused about whether they actually experienced the event or whether it was imagined. Ultimately, people come to believe that the event occurred. When the source of memory becomes unclear, people may become confused about whether they actually experienced the event or whether it was imagined. Ultimately, people come to believe that the event occurred. Such memories can be so vivid that they produce emotional reaction even though they are false Such memories can be so vivid that they produce emotional reaction even though they are false

30 Autobiographical Memory Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own life Our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own life Encompass episodic memories about ourselves Encompass episodic memories about ourselves Example: we tend to forget information about our past that is incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves (college students forget their bad grades but remember their good ones) Example: we tend to forget information about our past that is incompatible with the way in which we currently see ourselves (college students forget their bad grades but remember their good ones)

31 Forgetting Why do we forget? Why do we forget? We did not pay attention to the material in the first place (encoding failure) We did not pay attention to the material in the first place (encoding failure) Decay: the loss of information in memory due to it not being used Decay: the loss of information in memory due to it not being used Interference: the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information Interference: the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information Cue dependent forgetting: forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory Cue dependent forgetting: forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory

32 Memory Dysfunctions Alzheimers Disease: an illness characterized by severe memory problems Alzheimers Disease: an illness characterized by severe memory problems


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