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Part 3: Regional Case Studies. West Africa West Africa: An Introduction West Africa SavannahForest.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 3: Regional Case Studies. West Africa West Africa: An Introduction West Africa SavannahForest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 3: Regional Case Studies

2 West Africa

3 West Africa: An Introduction West Africa SavannahForest

4 Savannah region Savannah groups in contact with each other through empires Musico-cultural similarities throughout the Savannah regions Some influence from North Africa, Islam Savannah Western Sudanic Central Sudanic Voltaic

5 Savannah regions – other general traits Social organization involved professional class of musicians (i.e., griot, dyeli, jali) All classes of instruments, though some areas have primarily membranophone instruments Contexts include:  Ceremonial music  Praise singing  Religious rites

6 Forest Belt Eastern Forest Western Forest Far more differentiation, less homogeneity in forest belt Secret societies important Percussive instruments with complex rhythms predominant musical trait Elaborate traditions of court music and masquerade

7 Yoruba Popular Music

8 The Yoruba Live in Nigeria, Benin Republic, and Togo Lagos center of Yoruba popular culture Yoruba is a tonal language

9 Yoruba Popular Musical Identity The dùndún (talking drum) a symbol of pan- Yoruba identity Mixture of global and local Instruments & ensembles organized with lead (“mother”) and accompaniment, hierarchy Instruments “speak”, like language “Spraying” provides most income for popular musicians

10 Muslim genres Wákà  Spiritual inspiration, female performers  Unaccompanied, hand-clapping Sákárà  Instrument, genre, and dance style  Solemn, social dancing and praising Àpàlà  Lyrics are essentially praise songs  Social dance drumming style

11 Yoruba Highlife Ghanaian highlife bands performed in Lagos, spread popularity 3-5 winds, string bass, guitar, bongos, maracas, conga Bobby Benson’s Jam Session Orchestra  Worked in England  First electric guitar in Nigeria 1950s was Golden Age

12 Jùjú Emerged in early 1930s Named for tambourine (jùjú) Built on palm wine guitar music Rhythm from dance drumming style Trio (singer + banjo, tambourine, gourd rattle)

13 Jùjú – Early styles High tessitura, nasal style Metaphorical lyrics Tunde King 1940s changes included:  Amplification  Expanded instruments, conga-type drums  Slower tempos

14 King Sunny Adé The Green Spot Band, 1966 Style modeled after Tunde Nightingale Patron was Chief Bolarinwa Abioro Known for skilled guitar playing After 1972 split from Abioro, formed “African Beats” band Became a major international star

15 Afro-Beat Began in late ‘60s as mixture of highlife, jazz, and soul Basic style is 3 layers:  Interlocking electric-bass and bass drum  Rhythm guitar, congas, snare back beat  Percussion sticks and gourd rattle, horn sections supports singer

16 Fela Anikulapo Kuto, 1938 - Studied trumpet in London Played with Bobby Benson Late 1960s influence of soul (from Geraldo Pino) Travel to US in 1969 led to more activism  Run-ins with military, song lyrics political  Mother killed by military  Slogan was “Music is a Weapon”

17 Fújì Grew out of Muslim Ramadan tradition Features drums Syncretic style (highlife, American pop, Muslim recitations, Christian hymns, jùjú)

18 "The Tradition" and Identity in a Diversifying Context

19 Ivory Coast Petit Gbapleu = (old Dan village) City of Man = (growing, modern city, primarily Muslim Ivory Coast

20 Ge (genu=plural) An institution that serves as base of Dan religious, social, and political life Provides a sense of ethnic identity Involves performance of forest spirits, sometimes as masked dancers

21 Dan religion and Islam Many residents of Petit Gbapleu are Muslim, do not believe in worship of two Gods But many still practice Dan, blend the two (syncretic practice)

22 PDCI Party for the Hairdressers PDCI was leading political party at the time Held a party for hairdressers, as political move Ge masked dancer performed, along with master drummer Ge and drummer incorporated popular music elements, also non-local traditional elements

23 Creolization Karin Barber, Christopher Waterman Creolization is what happens when “local selectively ‘appropriate’ elements from metropolitan cultures in order to ‘construct’ their own hybrid medium in which to articulate their own, historically and socially specific, experience.”

24 Creolization Advantages of this theory: 1. People seen as active cultural producers 2. Something qualitatively new, not just dilution or corruption of “authentic” forms 3. Function & significance determined by specific new context

25 North Africa

26 Population consists of Arabs, Berbers, Gnawa Historic conquest by Romans, Scandinavian tribes, Christian Byzantines, & Muslims Cultural area includes Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, parts of Mali and Niger

27 Arab-Andalusian Tradition Influence from Spain to Africa Original repertoire was nuba (suite of songs) Modal Oral-poetic

28 Music and Islam Call to prayers, Koranic chant not considered music Religious songs during Ramadan Sufi chants Curing ceremonies

29 Music in folk life Annual, calendric celebrations Life-cycle events Professional musicians (griots) Sung poetry Instrumental music rare Many forms of dance (even with camels)

30 Popular music Genres  Tahardent  Rai  azri Arab-Andalusian  Arabi  Hawzi  Sha’bi  zendani

31 Tuareg Music

32 Tuareg Tuareg society consists of 8 large units or confederations Culturally diverse Nomadic tribes

33 Music Mostly vocal, but various drums & flutes Primary instruments are anzad, tende, and tahardent Prominent position in everyday life Verbal genres highly esteemed Dance includes camel dances

34 Anzad One-string lute-like instrument Played only by women Heroism, courage, love are subject matters Solo instrument or vocal accompaniment Many regional variations Takes years to master

35 Tende Mortar drum Central to camel festivals & curing ceremonies Not as much status

36 Tahardent 3-stringed lute Compositional formulas Urban genre for entertainment

37 From Village to Vinyl: Genealogies of New Kabyle Song

38 A vava inouva Algerian song by Idir, text by Ben Mohamed Important for Kabyle Berbers Based on traditional song “internal gaze”

39 Authenticity vs. modernity “Authenticity came from the Kabyles, modernity could only come from the State.”

40 Internal Gaze Internal Gaze is accomplished by…..  Stylization  Folkloric time  Process of story-telling put on display

41 Transmission Played in France, towards French audiences Translated to many languages Tapes & cassettes in Algeria Transmission of the song made Berber culture desirable

42 East Africa

43 East Africa – An Introduction Nomadic, semi-nomadic and settled groups Indonesian influences Arabic & Islamic influences European influences

44 Music of Tanzania

45 Tanzania Least urbanized African country Mainly Bantu-speaking people Swahili spoken w/English 1964 United Republic of Tanzania TanganyikaZanzibar

46 Music in Tanzania 8 stylistic areas Membranophones include royal drum sets Untuned & tuned idiophones Range of chordophones and aerophones

47 Forms (neotraditional) Beni ng’oma Taraab National training centers Jazz

48 Music and the Construction of Identity Among the Abayudaya (Jewish People) of Uganda

49 Abayudaya Jews Converted to Judaism in 1920s, interruption by Idi Amin, revival in 1980s Only about 750 people in Eastern Uganda Primarily 5 Bantu ethnic/language groups

50 Boundaries Boundary-leveling strategies for…  Local ethnic groups  North American Jewry Boundary-maintaining strategies for…  Christian and Muslim neighbors

51 Boundary Maintaining Strategies Adding a Hebrew verse Jewish leaders adapt local folk songs Contemporary music contains Hebrew text, subject matter “Lekhah Dodi” Hebrew pronunciation influenced by local language

52 Central Africa

53 “Central Africa” is not a geographic fact, but a concept

54 Central Africa For this chapter defined as people speaking… Adamawa-Eastern languages Bantu languages

55 Adamawa-Eastern language groups Musical traits include: Tonal systems Part-singing Patterns of movement Instrumental resources

56 Bantu language groups Pygmy  Yodeling  Polyphony Several other diverse cultural groups

57 Musical Life in the Central African Republic

58 Music in Central African Republic Performances of modernity = how people situate themselves within a changing world

59 Performances of modernity Zokela are “musicians who play and sing in a vigorous style based on multiethnic rhythms, harmonies, melodies, and topical themes from the Lobaye Alleged origins in 1981 Now tending towards spectacle Local → international

60 BaAka dances Mabo  Rhythm is a triplet pattern  At least 2 drums accompany Dingboku  Women’s dance  Stand shoulder to shoulder in line Both dances stopped because of Christian missionary work, but later recontextualized

61 Southern Africa

62 Politics, Economics, Languages, and cultural traits all determine how to define “southern Africa” For this paper, includes southern tip up to the Zambezi river

63 Southern Africa cultural groups Much overlap in these groups…… Khoisan (i.e., Khoikoi, San) Nguni (i.e, Xhosa, Zulu, Swazi) Sotho S.E. African (i.e., Shona, Venda, Chopi, Tsonga, Sena) Middle Zambezi (Lozi, Nyoka, Ila, Tonga) S.W. Bantu (Ovimbundu, Ovambo, Nkhumbi, Herero)

64 Indigenous music: Musical / Cultural traits Prominent use of polyrhythms Linguistic influence on melody Secondary sound source (rattling/buzzing) Cyclic form Drums, plucked lamellophones, xylophones, musical bows Music defined with metered rhythm

65 Indigenous music - Issues Tuning systems: reasons? Influences: tonal-harmonic belt? Influences: Indonesian? Instruments: mbira origins?

66 Impact of Wider World Mining Apartheid Missions/Education Sociopolitical Factors Musical Instruments Independence and international relations

67 Popular Music of South Africa

68 South Africa European, colonial influence early on Led to large urban centers Constant historic flux between village and urban centers

69 Cape Town Slavery system developed early on Mixed-race peoples Birthplace of popular music industry in South Africa Neotraditional music/instruments (i.e., ramkie)

70 Kimberley Diamond mines discovered New genres developed  Xhosa praise poetry  Basotho’s veteran migrant songs  Zulu men’s walking-and-courting song Working-class, popular music developed Black men learned that through music they gained some status

71 Christian Religious Music First began to make an impact among Xhosa people Congregational singing appealed to blacks New black South African choral style – makwaya (choir)

72 Influence from the U.S. Blackface minstrelsy African Methodist Episcopal church Virginia Jubilee Singers American ragtime and jazz

73 Johannesburg Gold mines discovered Mixture of races, ethnicity, classes Shebeen developed as informal place of music-making

74 Marabi “Pianomen” began to emerge In dance halls and shebeens, pianomen devised various musical formulas Four-bar progression ending on the dominant: I-IV-I6/4-V7 Other instrumentalists also picked up on marabi

75 Jazz Makwaya composers developed hybrid compositions (Reuben T. Caluza) Semi-professional song-and-dance companies Jazz/ragtime bands modeled on American bands Male close-harmony quartets Kwela=street jazz appearing in 1940s mbaqanga=jazz form that took its name from corn porridge, known as “South Africa’s” jazz

76 Black show business & apartheid Many black musicians left Mbaqanga jive created: electronic version of mbaqanga, also reclaimed Zulu pride (i.e., Indoda Mahlathini and Mahotella Queens) Township-jazz musical theater Other groups/individuals of importance included Malombo and Jonathan Clegg

77 Dance and Gender as Contested Sites in Southern Malawian Presbyterian Churches

78 “There’s a stranger at the door” European/American hymn, but Malawian performance style (The only CCAP group whose performance style is this way)

79 Growth of dance as form of worship Political changes of 60s Blantyre synod programs of 70s

80 Scottish Presbyterian attitudes towards dance/gender Scottish missionary work from late 19 th c. Discouraged dancing, esp. by women Divided life into secular and sacred realms Mvano groups educated women to be Christian women Rev. David Clement Scott, however, believed in establishing “African church for the African people”

81 Malawian cultural attitudes towards dance/gender Elderly women passed on traditions to young girls, often brewed beer, seen as “evil” by missionaries Women can be chiefs Women often spiritual intermediaries

82 Acts of Resistance Some Malawians held secret dances Peaceful march by Mvano women


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