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E_English Grammar Course Chapter VII The Simple Sentence.

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Presentation on theme: "E_English Grammar Course Chapter VII The Simple Sentence."— Presentation transcript:

1 E_English Grammar Course Chapter VII The Simple Sentence

2 1. Clause Patterns 2. Sentence Elements and their Meanings 3. Concord 4. Negation 5. Questions, Commands, Exclamations Issues

3 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional Clause types Clause types transformed 1/1

4 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional Clause types S, V, O, C, A They appointed him head of office last week. S V O C A Clause types transformed 2/1

5 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional Clause types Clause types transformed Obligatory clause elements are those which are required for the complementation of the verb. 3/1

6 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional Clause types Clause types transformed I put the book on the table (SVOA) vs. I put the book. He resembled his father (SVO) vs. He resembled. (Sometimes) she sings (beautifully). 4/1

7 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed 1.SVAMary is in the house. 2.SVCMary is kind. 3.SVOSomebody caught the ball. 4.SVOAI put the vase on the table. 5.SVOCShe has proved it wrong. 6.SVOOMom buys me a new bike. 7.SVThe lady smiled. 5/1

8 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed Passive transformation SV, SVC, SVA equivalents 6/1

9 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed Passive transformation Many critics disliked the play (SVOd) The play was disliked by many critics. (S + Vpass + [A]) 7/1

10 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed Passive transformation Mom considered him a genius. (SVOC) He was considered a genius (by Mom). (SVC [A]) 7/1

11 Clause Types 1 Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed SV, SVC, SVA equivalents 1. SV SVC The baby is sleeping The baby is asleep 2. SVC SVA He is jobless He is without a job. 8/1

12 Clause Types 1 Which clause type does each of the following sentences belong to? 1. Hes getting angry. 2. He got through the window. 3. Hell get a surprise. 4. He got his shoes and socks wet. 5. He got himself into trouble. 6. He got her a splendid present. 9/1

13 Clause Types 1 1. SVC Hes getting angry. 2. SVA He got through the window. 3. SVO Hell get a surprise. 4. SVOC He got his shoes and socks wet. 5. SVOA He got himself into trouble. 6. SVOO He got her a splendid present. One verb can belong to a number of different classes. 10/1

14 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive Empty It 1/2

15 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT She opened the door. 2/2

16 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT This key can open the door. 3/2

17 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT The door opens. 4/2

18 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT She has a new shirt. 5/2

19 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT This room accommodates 20 people. 6/2

20 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT Tomorrow is my birthday. 7/2

21 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT The meeting ended successfully. 8/2

22 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive Empty IT Its wonderful to meet you. 9/2

23 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 We opened the door. He invented the telephone. We passed the building. Semantic Roles of the Object OdOi affected effected locative 10/2

24 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Object OdOi affected recipient We paid him a visit. We gave him some money. 11/2

25 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 He is tired. He becomes tired. Semantic Roles of the complement CsCo Current attribute Resulting attribute 12/2

26 Sentence elements and their meanings 2 Semantic Roles of the Complement CsCo Current attribute Resulting attribute We found the room empty. They left the room empty. 13/2

27 Concords 3 1/3 CONCORDS Grammatical concord Notional Concord Concord by Proximity Concord with coordinated subject

28 Concords 3 Grammatical Concord Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object Pronoun 2/3

29 Concords 3 Grammatical Concord Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object Pronoun SUBJECT sing/plur VERB sing/plur This dish is dirty/ These dishes are dirty. SUBJECT (clause) VERB sing What they are doing now is my concern. 3/3

30 Concords 3 Grammatical Concord Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object Pronoun The child was an angel. The children are angels. 4/3

31 Concords 3 Grammatical Concord Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object Pronoun He injured himself. 5/3

32 Concords 3 Grammatical Concord Subject - Verb Subject - Complement Subject - Object Pronoun The boy likes his toys 6/3

33 Concords 3 Notional Concord Nominal clause Collective noun None The verb agrees with the idea of plural rather than the actual singular form of the noun 7/3

34 Concords 3 Notional Concord Nominal clause Collective noun None What he says isnt true. (= The thing he says isnt true) What they like best are tea and coffee. ( The things they like…) 8/3

35 Concords 3 Notional Concord Nominal clause Collective noun None The cabinet are having a rest. (All members of the cabinet…) The cabinet has reached an agreement. (The cabinet as a whole) 9/3

36 Concords 3 Notional Concord Nominal clause Collective noun None None of the students like Grammar. None of the cheese is fresh. 10/3

37 Concords 3 Concord by Proximity Set phrases Existential sentence with there Either… or The verb tends to agree with whatever noun or pronoun closely precedes it, instead of the head word of the subject 11/3

38 Concords 3 Concord by Proximity Set phrases Existential sentence with there Either… or One in ten take drugs. 12/3

39 Concords 3 Concord by Proximity Set phrases Existential sentence with there Either… or There are two chairs and a desk there. There is a chair and two desks there. 13/3

40 Concords 3 Concord by Proximity Set phrases Existential sentence with there Either… or Either my brother or I am to blame for the error. Either the teacher or the students need to do this. 14/3

41 Concords 3 Concord with coordinated subject Coordinated subject representing a single entity When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person normally takes a plural verb 15/3

42 Concords 3 Concord with coordinated subject Coordinated subject representing a single entity When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person The hammer and the sickle was flying on top of the building. 16/3

43 Concords 3 Concord with coordinated subject Coordinated subject representing a single entity When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person His lawyer and former college friend, Max Weber, was with him at his death. 17/3

44 Negation 4 4/1 The negation of a sentence is accomplished by inserting not between the operator and the predication. E.g. The attempt has succeeded. The attempt has not succeeded. We may win the match. We may not win the match.

45 Negation 4 4/2 1. Assertives vs. Non-assertives 2. Negative intensification 3. Alternative Negative elements 4. Scope of negation 5. Focus of negation 6. Relationship between scope and focus of negation 7. Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation

46 4 4/3 AssertivesNon-assertives Some Someone Somewhere Somehow To some extent Already A great deal Too A long way Too A long time Any Anyone Anywhere In any way At all Yet Much Either Far Very Long Non-assertive forms = items that do not naturally occur outside negative, interrogative, and conditional sentences. E.g. I saw him somewhere. I didnt see him anywhere. (Quirk 7.35 p.184) Negation

47 Negation 4 4/4 Negative Intensification = ways to give emotive intensification to a negative. I found nothing at all the matter with him. I have no excuse whatever. I'll never, never go there again. I've never in all my life seen such a crowd. She has never spoken to me even a single word.

48 Negation 4 4/5 Alternative Negative Elements (Instead of the verb, another element may be negated) An honest man would not lie -> No honest man would lie. I didn't see any birds -> I saw no birds.

49 Negation 4 4/6 Scope of Negation Normally extends from the negative word itself to the end of the clause. E.g. I definitely didnt speak to him. (Its definite that I did not.) I didnt definitely speak to him. (Its not definite that I did.) = The stretch of language over which the negative meaning operates

50 Negation 4 4/7 Focus of Negation 1.'JOHN doesnt love Mary. Somebody loves Mary but its not John. 2. John doesnt 'LOVE Mary. John likes Mary but its not love. 3. John doesnt love 'MARY. John loves somebody else but its not Mary. The contrastive nuclear stress falling on a particular part of a clause indicates that the contrast of meaning implicit in the negation is located at that spot and the rest of the clause can be understood in a positive sense.

51 Negation 4 4/8 Scope & Focus of Negation I didnt LISTEN all the time. (I listened none of the time.) I didnt listen ALL the time. (I listened some of the time.) The scope must include the focus, and by the position of the focus we can realize the extent of the scope

52 Negation 4 4/10 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary NegationMain Verb Negation

53 Negation 4 4/11 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary NegationMain Verb Negation The scope of negation includes the meaning of the auxiliary itself

54 Negation 4 4/12 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary NegationMain Verb Negation 1.cant (in all sense) You cant be serious. (It is not possible that…) You cant go swimming. (You are not allowed…) She cant ride a bicycle. (She is not able to…)

55 Negation 4 4/13 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary NegationMain Verb Negation 2. Neednt You neednt pay that fine. (You are not obliged to…) It neednt be my fault. (it is not necessary that…)

56 Negation 4 4/14 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary NegationMain Verb Negation 3. May not ( = permission) You may not go swimming. (You are not allowed to…)

57 Negation 4 4/15 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary NegationMain Verb Negation 1.May not (=possibility) They may not come if its wet. (It is possible that they wont come.)

58 Negation 4 4/16 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ wont Shall not/ shant Must not/ mustnt Ought not/ oughtnt

59 Negation 4 4/17 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ wont Shall not/ shant Must not/ mustnt Ought not/ oughtnt Dont worry. I wont interfere (Im willing not to interfere.) He wont do it (He insists on not doing it.) They wont have arrived yet (I predict that theyve not arrived yet.)

60 Negation 4 4/18 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ wont Shall not/ shant Must not/ mustnt Ought not/ oughtnt Dont worry, you shant lose your reward. (Im willing to see that you dont lose your reward.)

61 Negation 4 4/19 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ wont Shall not/ shant Must not/ mustnt Ought not/ oughtnt I shant know when you return (I predict that I shall not know…)

62 Negation 4 4/20 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ wont Shall not/ shant Must not/ mustnt Ought not/ oughtnt You mustnt make noise. (It is obligatory that you dont make noise)

63 Negation 4 4/21 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ wont Shall not/ shant Must not/ mustnt Ought not/ oughtnt You oughtnt to keep us waiting (obligation) He oughtnt to be long (necessity)

64 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/1 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations

65 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/2 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Sentences in which the subject is always present and generally precedes the verb.

66 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/3 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Yes – No QuestionsWh - QuestionsAlternative Questions

67 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/4 Questions Yes – No QuestionsWh - QuestionsAlternative Questions

68 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/5 Questions Yes – No QuestionsWh - QuestionsAlternative Questions General Yes – No questions Has the boat left? Yes-no questions with positive orientation: Has the boat left already? Yes-no questions with negative orientation: Has the boat left yet?

69 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/6 Questions Yes – No QuestionsWh - QuestionsAlternative Questions Tag questions Rising tone = neutral assumption Falling tone: Positive assumption + positive expectation Negative assumption + negative expectation

70 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/7 Questions Yes – No QuestionsWh - QuestionsAlternative Questions Declarative Questions Youve bought a new car? He didnt finish it?

71 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/9 Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Wh- word pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose Who went there with her? (Wh-word = S) Who(m) did he talk to? (Wh-word = Od) Which book have you lent him? (Wh-word = premodifier) Whose beautiful antiques are they? (Wh-word = determiner) Who did you lend the book to? (Wh-word = Oi)

72 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/10 Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Wh- word adverbs: when, where, how, why, how + adj/adv When will you come back? (A time) Where should I put these? (A place) Why arent they coming? (A reason) How did they mend it? (A manner) …

73 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/11 Questions Yes – No QuestionsWh - Questions Alternative Questions Would you like tea, coffee, or milk? Which ice cream would you like. Chocolate, vanilla, or strawberry?

74 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/12 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Sentences that make use of the imperative mood in the main verb, or sometimes of questions with the initial modal - particularly with invitations or requests.

75 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/13 Commands Without subject With subject With let

76 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/14 Commands Without subject With subject With let Positive: Be reasonable Negative: Dont make noise

77 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/15 Commands Without subject With subject With let You as subjectIndefinite pronoun S

78 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/16 Commands Without subject With subject With let You as subject -You there be quiet! -You come here, Jack, and you come over there, Mary. - Will you come in and sit down?

79 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/17 Commands Without subject With subject With let Indefinite Pronoun S Positive: Somebody open the door! Everybody shut their eyes! Negative: Dont anyone say anything!

80 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/18 Commands Without subject With subject With let Positive: Lets go out./ Let each man decide for himself. Negative: Lets not open the door/ Dont let him lose heart.

81 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/19 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Full exclamation Short exclamation

82 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/20 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Full exclamation Short exclamation What an enormous crowd came! How delightful her manners are!

83 Questions, Commands & Exclamation 5 5/21 Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Full exclamation Short exclamation What a book! How wonderful!


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