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E_English Grammar Course

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1 E_English Grammar Course
Chapter VII The Simple Sentence

2 Issues Clause Patterns Sentence Elements and their Meanings Concord
Negation Questions, Commands, Exclamations

3 1 Clause Types Clause types 1/1 Clause Elements
Obligatory vs. Optional Clause types transformed

4 1 Clause Types Clause types 2/1 S, V, O, C, A
Clause Elements S, V, O, C, A They appointed him head of office last week. S V O C A Obligatory vs. Optional Clause types Clause types transformed

5 1 Clause Types Clause types 3/1
Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional Obligatory clause elements are those which are required for the complementation of the verb. Clause types Clause types transformed

6 1 Clause Types Clause types 4/1
Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional I put the book on the table (SVOA) vs. I put the book. He resembled his father (SVO) vs. He resembled. (Sometimes) she sings (beautifully). Clause types Clause types transformed

7 1 Clause Types Clause types 5/1 SVA Mary is in the house.
SVC Mary is kind. SVO Somebody caught the ball. SVOA I put the vase on the table. SVOC She has proved it wrong. SVOO Mom buys me a new bike. SV The lady smiled. Clause types Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed

8 1 Clause Types Clause types 6/1 Passive transformation
Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed Passive transformation SV, SVC, SVA equivalents

9 1 Clause Types Clause types 7/1 Passive transformation
Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed Passive transformation Many critics disliked the play (SVOd) The play was disliked by many critics. (S + Vpass + [A])

10 1 Clause Types Clause types 7/1 Passive transformation
Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed Passive transformation Mom considered him a genius. (SVOC) He was considered a genius (by Mom). (SVC [A])

11 1 Clause Types Clause types 8/1 SV, SVC, SVA equivalents 1. SV SVC
Clause Elements Obligatory vs. Optional 7 Clause types Clause types transformed SV, SVC, SVA equivalents 1. SV SVC The baby is sleeping The baby is asleep 2. SVC SVA He is jobless He is without a job.

12 1 Clause Types Which clause type does each of the following
9/1 1 Clause Types Which clause type does each of the following sentences belong to? He’s getting angry. He got through the window. He’ll get a surprise. He got his shoes and socks wet. He got himself into trouble. He got her a splendid present.

13 One verb can belong to a number of different classes.
10/1 1 Clause Types SVC He’s getting angry. SVA He got through the window. SVO He’ll get a surprise. SVOC He got his shoes and socks wet. SVOA He got himself into trouble. SVOO He got her a splendid present. One verb can belong to a number of different classes.

14 Sentence elements and their meanings
1/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive Empty It Inservice grammar Lecture 16

15 Sentence elements and their meanings
2/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT She opened the door.

16 Sentence elements and their meanings
3/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT This key can open the door.

17 Sentence elements and their meanings
4/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT The door opens.

18 Sentence elements and their meanings
5/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT She has a new shirt.

19 Sentence elements and their meanings
6/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT This room accommodates 20 people.

20 Sentence elements and their meanings
7/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT Tomorrow is my birthday.

21 Sentence elements and their meanings
8/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive IT The meeting ended successfully.

22 Sentence elements and their meanings
9/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Subject agentive recipient affected instrumental locative temporal eventive Empty IT It’s wonderful to meet you.

23 Sentence elements and their meanings
10/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Object Od Oi affected effected locative We opened the door. He invented the telephone. We passed the building.

24 Sentence elements and their meanings
11/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Object Od Oi We paid him a visit. affected recipient We gave him some money.

25 Sentence elements and their meanings
12/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the complement Cs Co Current attribute He is tired. He becomes tired. Resulting attribute

26 Sentence elements and their meanings
13/2 2 Sentence elements and their meanings Semantic Roles of the Complement Cs Co We found the room empty. Current attribute Resulting attribute They left the room empty.

27 Concord with coordinated
1/3 3 Concords CONCORDS Grammatical concord Notional Concord Concord by Proximity Concord with coordinated subject Inservice grammar Lecture 17

28 3 Concords 2/3 Subject - Verb Grammatical Concord Subject - Complement
Subject - Object Pronoun

29 3 Concords 3/3 Subject - Verb Grammatical Concord Subject - Complement
Subject - Object Pronoun SUBJECT sing/plur  VERB sing/plur This dish is dirty/ These dishes are dirty. SUBJECT (clause)  VERB sing What they are doing now is my concern.

30 3 Concords 4/3 Subject - Verb Grammatical Concord Subject - Complement
Subject - Object Pronoun The child was an angel. The children are angels.

31 3 Concords 5/3 Subject - Verb Grammatical Concord Subject - Complement
Subject - Object Pronoun He injured himself.

32 3 Concords 6/3 Subject - Verb Grammatical Concord Subject - Complement
Subject - Object Pronoun The boy likes his toys

33 3 Concords 7/3 Nominal clause Notional Concord Collective noun
The verb agrees with the idea of plural rather than the actual singular form of the noun None

34 3 Concords 8/3 Nominal clause Notional Concord Collective noun
What he says isn’t true. (= The thing he says isn’t true) What they like best are tea and coffee. ( The things they like…) None

35 3 Concords 9/3 Nominal clause Notional Concord Collective noun
The cabinet are having a rest. (All members of the cabinet…) The cabinet has reached an agreement. (The cabinet as a whole) None

36 3 Concords 10/3 Nominal clause Notional Concord Collective noun None
None of the students like Grammar. None of the cheese is fresh.

37 3 Concords 11/3 Set phrases Concord by Proximity
Existential sentence with ‘there’ The verb tends to agree with whatever noun or pronoun closely precedes it, instead of the head word of the subject Either… or

38 Existential sentence with ‘there’
12/3 3 Concords Concord by Proximity Set phrases One in ten take drugs. Existential sentence with ‘there’ Either… or

39 3 Concords 13/3 Set phrases Concord by Proximity
Existential sentence with ‘there’ There are two chairs and a desk there. There is a chair and two desks there. Either… or

40 3 Concords 14/3 Set phrases Concord by Proximity
Existential sentence with ‘there’ Either… or Either my brother or I am to blame for the error. Either the teacher or the students need to do this.

41 3 Concords 15/3 Concord with coordinated Coordinated subject subject
representing a single entity See more in 7.21 normally takes a plural verb When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person

42 3 Concords 16/3 Concord with coordinated Coordinated subject subject
representing a single entity The hammer and the sickle was flying on top of the building. When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person

43 3 Concords 17/3 Coordinated subject representing a single entity
Concord with coordinated subject Appositional coordination When the NPs refer to the same thing/ person His lawyer and former college friend, Max Weber, was with him at his death.

44 4/1 4 Negation The negation of a sentence is accomplished by inserting not between the operator and the predication. E.g. The attempt has succeeded. The attempt has not succeeded. We may win the match.  We may not win the match.

45 4 Negation Assertives vs. Non-assertives Negative intensification
4/2 4 Negation Assertives vs. Non-assertives Negative intensification Alternative Negative elements Scope of negation Focus of negation Relationship between scope and focus of negation Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation

46 4 Negation Assertives Non-assertives 4/3 Non-assertive forms = items
Some Someone Somewhere Somehow To some extent Already A great deal Too A long way A long time Any Anyone Anywhere In any way At all Yet Much Either Far Very Long Non-assertive forms = items that do not naturally occur outside negative, interrogative, and conditional sentences. E.g. I saw him somewhere. I didn’t see him anywhere. (Quirk 7.35 p.184) See more in 7.35

47 Negative Intensification = ways to give emotive intensification
4/4 4 Negation Negative Intensification = ways to give emotive intensification to a negative. I found nothing at all the matter with him. I have no excuse whatever. I'll never, never go there again. I've never in all my life seen such a crowd. She has never spoken to me even a single word.

48 4/5 4 Negation Alternative Negative Elements (Instead of the verb, another element may be negated) An honest man would not lie -> No honest man would lie. I didn't see any birds -> I saw no birds.

49 = The stretch of language over which the negative
4/6 4 Negation Scope of Negation Normally extends from the negative word itself to the end of the clause. E.g. I definitely didn’t speak to him. (It’s definite that I did not.) I didn’t definitely speak to him. (It’s not definite that I did.) = The stretch of language over which the negative meaning operates

50 4 Negation 4/7 Focus of Negation 1.'JOHN doesn’t love Mary.
Somebody loves Mary but it’s not John. 2. John doesn’t 'LOVE Mary. John likes Mary but it’s not love. 3. John doesn’t love 'MARY. John loves somebody else but it’s not Mary. The contrastive nuclear stress falling on a particular part of a clause indicates that the contrast of meaning implicit in the negation is located at that spot and the rest of the clause can be understood in a positive sense.

51 Scope & Focus of Negation
4/8 4 Negation Scope & Focus of Negation I didn’t LISTEN all the time. (I listened none of the time.) I didn’t listen ALL the time. (I listened some of the time.) The scope must include the focus, and by the position of the focus we can realize the extent of the scope

52 4 Negation 4/10 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation

53 of the auxiliary itself
4/11 4 Negation Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Auxiliary Negation Main Verb Negation The scope of negation includes the meaning of the auxiliary itself See more in

54 4 Negation 4/12 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
can’t (in all sense) You can’t be serious. (It is not possible that…) You can’t go swimming. (You are not allowed…) She can’t ride a bicycle. (She is not able to…)

55 4 Negation 4/13 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
2. Needn’t You needn’t pay that fine. (You are not obliged to…) It needn’t be my fault. (it is not necessary that…)

56 4 Negation 4/14 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
3. May not ( = permission) You may not go swimming. (You are not allowed to…)

57 4 Negation 4/15 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
May not (=possibility) They may not come if it’s wet. (It is possible that they won’t come.)

58 4 Negation 4/16 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t

59 4 Negation 4/17 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t Don’t worry. I won’t interfere (I’m willing not to interfere.) He won’t do it (He insists on not doing it.) They won’t have arrived yet (I predict that they’ve not arrived yet.)

60 4 Negation 4/18 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t Don’t worry, you shan’t lose your reward. (I’m willing to see that you don’t lose your reward.)

61 I shan’t know when you return (I predict that I shall not know…)
4/19 4 Negation Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation Main Verb Negation Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t I shan’t know when you return (I predict that I shall not know…)

62 4 Negation 4/20 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t You mustn’t make noise. (It is obligatory that you don’t make noise)

63 4 Negation 4/21 Main verb negation vs. Auxiliary negation
Will not/ won’t Shall not/ shan’t Must not/ mustn’t Ought not/ oughtn’t You oughtn’t to keep us waiting (obligation) He oughtn’t to be long (necessity)

64 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/1 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations

65 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/2 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Sentences in which the subject is always present and generally precedes the verb.

66 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/3 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Inservice grammar Lecture 19 Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions

67 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/4 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions

68 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/5 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions General Yes – No questions Has the boat left? Yes-no questions with positive orientation: Has the boat left already? Yes-no questions with negative orientation: Has the boat left yet?

69 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/6 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Tag questions Rising tone = neutral assumption Falling tone: Positive assumption + positive expectation Negative assumption + negative expectation

70 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/7 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Declarative Questions You’ve bought a new car? He didn’t finish it?

71 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/9 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Wh- word pronouns: who, whom, which, what, whose Who went there with her? (Wh-word = S) Who(m) did he talk to? (Wh-word = Od) Which book have you lent him? (Wh-word = premodifier) Whose beautiful antiques are they? (Wh-word = determiner) Who did you lend the book to? (Wh-word = Oi)

72 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/10 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Wh- word adverbs: when, where, how, why, how + adj/adv When will you come back? (A time) Where should I put these? (A place) Why aren’t they coming? (A reason) How did they mend it? (A manner)

73 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/11 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Questions Yes – No Questions Wh - Questions Alternative Questions Would you like tea, coffee, or milk? Which ice cream would you like. Chocolate, vanilla, or strawberry?

74 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/12 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Sentences that make use of the imperative mood in the main verb, or sometimes of questions with the initial modal - particularly with invitations or requests.

75 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/13 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’

76 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/14 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Commands Without subject With subject Positive: Be reasonable Negative: Don’t make noise With ‘let’

77 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/15 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Commands Without subject With subject ‘You’ as subject With ‘let’ Indefinite pronoun S

78 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/16 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Commands Without subject With subject ‘You’ as subject You there be quiet! You come here, Jack, and you come over there, Mary. Will you come in and sit down? With ‘let’

79 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/17 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Commands Without subject With subject Indefinite Pronoun S Positive: Somebody open the door! Everybody shut their eyes! Negative: Don’t anyone say anything! With ‘let’

80 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/18 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Commands Without subject With subject With ‘let’ Positive: Let’s go out./ Let each man decide for himself. Negative: Let’s not open the door/ Don’t let him lose heart.

81 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/19 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations Full exclamation Short exclamation

82 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/20 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations What an enormous crowd came! How delightful her manners are! Full exclamation Short exclamation

83 Questions, Commands & Exclamation
5/21 5 Questions, Commands & Exclamation Types of simple sentences Statements Questions Commands Exclamations What a book! How wonderful! Short exclamation Full exclamation


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