4Units realizing adverbial functions 2/71Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbialsAdverb phrasesE.g.: I have never been there.Finite clauseNoun phrasesNon-finite clausePrepositional phrasesVerbless clause
5Units realizing adverbial functions 3/71Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbialsAdverb phrasesFinite clauseE.g.: I saw her last week.Noun phrasesNon-finite clausePrepositional phrasesVerbless clause
6Units realizing adverbial functions 4/71Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbialsAdverb phrasesFinite clauseNoun phrasesNon-finite clauseE.g.: She sat in a dark corner.Prepositional phrasesVerbless clause
7Units realizing adverbial functions 5/71Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbialsAdverb phrasesFinite clauseE.g.: When I came to the club, I saw James sitting aloneat the window table.Noun phrasesNon-finite clausePrepositional phrasesVerbless clause
8Units realizing adverbial functions 6/71Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbialsAdverb phrasesFinite clauseNoun phrasesNon-finite clausePrepositional phrasesVerbless clauseinfinitive-ing participle-ed participleHe plays to win.Seeing Tom, shesmiles.Whenever left alone,he cried.
9Units realizing adverbial functions 7/71Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbialsAdverb phrasesFinite clauseNoun phrasesNon-finite clausePrepositional phrasesVerbless clauseE.g.: The baby was playing, unaware of the danger.
102 Classes of Adverbials 1/7 Integrated in clause structure ADJUNCTSDISJUNCTSCONJUNCTSIntegrated in clause structurePeripheral in clause structure
112 Classes of Adverbials 2/7 1. can’t appear initially in a negative ADJUNCTSDISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS1. can’t appear initially in a negativedeclarative clause.E.g. Quickly, they didn’t leave home.
122 Classes of Adverbials 3/7 2. can be contrasted with another ADJUNCTSDISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS2. can be contrasted with anotheradverbial in an alternativeinterrogation (as focus of clauseinterrogation)E.g. Does he write to his parentsbecause he misses them, or onlybecause he wants some money?
132 Classes of Adverbials 4/7 3. can be contrasted with another ADJUNCTSDISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS3. can be contrasted with anotheradverbial in alternative negation(as focus of clause negation)E.g. We didn’t hate him because ofhis appearance, but because of his badbehavior.
142 Classes of Adverbials 5/7 1. can appear initially before a ADJUNCTSDISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS1. can appear initially before anegative clause in most casesE.g.: Naturally, he didn’t come.(disjunct)Therefore, he couldn’t come.(conjunct)
152 Classes of Adverbials 6/7 2. cannot be contrasted with ADJUNCTSDISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS2. cannot be contrasted withanother adverbial in alternativeinterrogation.3. cannot be focus of clausenegation
162 Classes of Adverbials 7/7 Can serve as a response to an Y-N ADJUNCTSCan serve as a response to an Y-Nquestion.E.g.: A: Will he be there?B: Yes, probably.DISJUNCTSCONJUNCTS
17SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 1/213AdjunctsSYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTSAdjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-formor predication ellipsis.E.g.: John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary. John greatly admires Bob, and Mary greatly admires Bob.
18SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 2/213AdjunctsSYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS2. Adjuncts can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as “only”.E.g.: They only want the car for an hour (for an hour not for longer).
19SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 3/213AdjunctsSYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS3. Adjuncts can be the focus of additive adverbials such as “also”.E.g.: They will also meet afterwards.4. Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence.E.g.: It was because of his injury that Mary helped Tony.
20ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS 4/213AdjunctsADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS1. Can constitute a comparative constructionE.g.: John speaks English more fluently than his brother does.2. Have premodifying “however”E.g.: However strongly you feel about it, you should be cautiousin the way you talk.
21ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS 5/213AdjunctsADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS3. Have premodifying “how”E.g.: How often does she wash her hair?How carelessly he drives!4. Have premodifying “so” (+ inversion)E.g.: So monotonously did he speak that everybody felt asleep.
22Adjuncts 3 6/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTS
23Adjuncts 3 7/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTS+ = ‘if we consider what weare saying from a [adj. phrase]point of view’+ usually in initial positionE.g.: Geographically (speaking),Vietnam is a diverse country.Business-wise, it’s not a goodidea to open a fast foodrestaurant in this area.
25Adjuncts 3 8/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTS- Cannot be modifiedEg. *very only, *extremely also- Cannot be coordinatedEg. *just and exactly, *equally and likewiseException: purely and simply
26Adjuncts 3 9/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSemphasizersamplifiersdowntonersclearly, definitely, etc.maximizerscompletely, etc.boostersby far, well, etc.compromiserskind of, quite, etc.diminisherspartly, slightly, etc.minimizersa bit, barely, etc.approximatorsalmost, nearly, etc.
27Adjuncts 3 10/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTS+ = in that way/ that way+ favor final conditions+ co-occur with dynamic verbs,not stative verbsE.g.: They live frugally.Tear gas was indiscriminativelysprayed on the protesters.
28Adjuncts 3 11/21 viewpoint focusing manner intensifier process means subjectplacetimeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSmannermeansinstrumentE.g.: They walked in single file.E.g.: I go to school by car.E.g.: You can cut the apple with that knife.
29Adjuncts 3 12/21 viewpoint focusing general intensifier process subjectplacetimeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSgeneralWith great unease, they elected him astheir leader.volitionaldeliberately, intentionally, on purpose,willingly, with reluctance, etc.formulaicplease, humbly, cordially, kindly, etc.
30Adjuncts 3 13/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place + denote position, direction,movement, and passage+ most are prepositional phrases;adverb phrases and noun phrasesused frequently+ used only with verbs of motions orother dynamic verbs denotingdirectionE.g.: She works a long way from here.We’re moving some furnitureinto the kitchen.viewpointfocusingintensifierprocesssubjectplacetimeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTS
31Adjuncts 3 14/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSdirectionI take the book from the shelf.She ran past the church.positionI live in a small village.He is over there.
32Adjuncts 3 15/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSwhendurationfrequencyother relationships
33Adjuncts 3 16/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSwhen+ point of timeE.g.: today, tomorrow+ boundary of timeE.g.: afterwardsdurationfrequencyother relationships
34Adjuncts 3 17/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSwhenduration+ length of timeE.g.: briefly+ from the precedingpoint in timeE.g.: sincefrequencyother relationships
36Adjuncts 3 19/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTSwhendurationfrequencyother relationshipsfirst, still, yet, already, etc.
37Adjuncts 3 20/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place timeothersTYPES OFADJUNCTS+ expressing purpose, cause, reason,source or originE.g.: He took the book from me.They symbolically buried the caras a protest against pollution.
38RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 21/213AdjunctsRELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS1. In final position: process – place - timeE.g. He was working with his shears (process) in the garden (place) the wholemorning (time).2. The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus.3. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguityE.g. We stood talking for a very long time (A1) where the fire had been (A2).4. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts.E.g. I was studying earlier (A1) in the university library (A2).
39Attitudinal disjuncts 1/34DisjunctsDISJUNCTSStyle disjunctsMost disjuncts are prepositionalphrases or clauseAttitudinal disjuncts
40Attitudinal disjuncts 2/34DisjunctsDISJUNCTSStyle disjunctsconvey the speaker’s comment onthe form of what he is saying,defining in some way under whatconditions he is speakingE.g.: Seriously, do you intend to retire?Personally, I don’t approve of her.Very frankly, I am tired.Attitudinal disjuncts
41Attitudinal disjuncts 3/34DisjunctsDISJUNCTSStyle disjunctsAttitudinal disjunctsconvey the speaker’s comment on thecontent of what he is sayinggenerally appear only on declarativeclausesE.g.: Obviously, no one expected us.Understandably, they were allannoyed when reading the letter.
42Conjuncts 5 1/15 1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases.2. The normal position for most conjunctsis initial.3. Conjuncts often have a separatetone unit.
443/155ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionfirst, second, third…; one, two, three…; for one thing,for another thing; for a start, to begin with, next, then…
45Conjuncts 5 4/15 also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all, EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionalso, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all,what is more, then (informal), etc.
46Conjuncts 5 5/15 equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc. EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionequally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc.
47Conjuncts 5 6/15 by the way, incidentally, etc. CONJUNCTS Enumerative ReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionby the way, incidentally, etc.
48Conjuncts 5 7/15 then, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc. EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionthen, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc.
49Conjuncts 5 8/15 namely, in other words, for instance, EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionnamely, in other words, for instance,that is, that is to say, for example, etc.
509/155ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionconsequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc.
5110/155ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionelse, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc.
52Conjuncts 5 11/15 better, rather, in other words, etc. CONJUNCTS EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionbetter, rather, in other words, etc.
53Conjuncts 5 12/15 alternatively, rather, on the other hand, etc. EnumerativeResultReinforcingInferentialalternatively, rather, on the other hand, etc.EquativeReformulatoryTransitionalReplaciveSummativeAntitheticAppositionConcessiveTemporal transition
54Conjuncts 5 13/15 instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast, EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitioninstead, then, on the contrary, in contrast,by comparison, on the other hand, etc.
55Conjuncts 5 14/15 anyhow, anyway, besides, else, however, still EnumerativeReinforcingEquativeTransitionalSummativeAppositionResultInferentialReformulatoryReplaciveAntitheticConcessiveTemporal transitionanyhow, anyway, besides, else, however, stillnevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after allin spite of that, on the other hand, all the same, etc.
56Conjuncts 5 15/15 meantime, meanwhile, in the mean time, etc. EnumerativeResultReinforcingInferentialEquativeReformulatoryTransitionalReplaciveSummativemeantime, meanwhile, in the mean time, etc.AntitheticAppositionConcessiveTemporal transition