Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Microsociology Effects of social situations on individuals Effects of social situations on individuals –Milgram’s Obedience Studies – Asch’s Conformity.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Microsociology Effects of social situations on individuals Effects of social situations on individuals –Milgram’s Obedience Studies – Asch’s Conformity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microsociology Effects of social situations on individuals Effects of social situations on individuals –Milgram’s Obedience Studies – Asch’s Conformity Studies – Helping Behavior How groups of individuals create social effects How groups of individuals create social effects –Symbolic Interactionism –Exchange Processes – Status Processes

2 Microsociology is sociology that concerns small-scale processes Microsociology is sociology that concerns small-scale processes It is important because people spend most of their lives in small groups – in the family, with our friends, and in the workplace It is important because people spend most of their lives in small groups – in the family, with our friends, and in the workplace Also certain small groups are responsible for important decisions – e.g. Boards of Trustees, Cabinet, Supreme Court Also certain small groups are responsible for important decisions – e.g. Boards of Trustees, Cabinet, Supreme Court

3 Microsociology (also called social psychology) bridges the disciplines of psychology and sociology Microsociology (also called social psychology) bridges the disciplines of psychology and sociology In psychology – most research is on how social situations affect individual behavior In psychology – most research is on how social situations affect individual behavior In sociology – most research is on how groups of individuals produce social effects. In sociology – most research is on how groups of individuals produce social effects.

4 Social effects on Individuals Milgram’s obedience studies – how much will people obey authority? Milgram’s obedience studies – how much will people obey authority? Classic experiment Classic experiment

5 The participant was the “teacher” and his goal was to get another person, the “learner”, to learn something. The participant was the “teacher” and his goal was to get another person, the “learner”, to learn something. If the learner got an answer to a question wrong, the teacher was to punish him by administering an electric shock at an intensity specified by the experimenter. If the learner got an answer to a question wrong, the teacher was to punish him by administering an electric shock at an intensity specified by the experimenter. The learner was a confederate of the experimenter and received no shock or pain at all. The learner was a confederate of the experimenter and received no shock or pain at all. But the participant did not know this. But the participant did not know this.

6 In the course of the experiment, the experimenter would raise the shock levels higher and higher In the course of the experiment, the experimenter would raise the shock levels higher and higher The learner would give evidence of increasing suffering, for example, through grunts, screams, and pleas to end the experiment. The learner would give evidence of increasing suffering, for example, through grunts, screams, and pleas to end the experiment.

7 A majority of participants continued to raise shock levels as ordered even when audible groans and sounds of pain came from the learner. A majority of participants continued to raise shock levels as ordered even when audible groans and sounds of pain came from the learner. Are people different today? Recent replication of the Milgram experiment (Burger 2009) found same results Are people different today? Recent replication of the Milgram experiment (Burger 2009) found same results

8 Asch’s conformity studies How much will people go along with the group when they know the group is wrong? How much will people go along with the group when they know the group is wrong? In this experiment, a participant and a group of accomplices were given two cards In this experiment, a participant and a group of accomplices were given two cards On one card was a line, on the other a set of three lines On one card was a line, on the other a set of three lines People in the group were asked to state which of the three lines was most similar to the single line. People in the group were asked to state which of the three lines was most similar to the single line.

9 Example

10 In the first rounds, the accomplices in the group would give the correct answer In the first rounds, the accomplices in the group would give the correct answer Later on, the accomplices in the group would give the wrong answer Later on, the accomplices in the group would give the wrong answer Would the participant go along with the group, or not? Would the participant go along with the group, or not?

11 Study found that overall there was conformity to wrong answers at least once by 2/3 of the participants Study found that overall there was conformity to wrong answers at least once by 2/3 of the participants If only one of the accomplices said the correct answer, the participants would never conform to the wrong answer. If only one of the accomplices said the correct answer, the participants would never conform to the wrong answer.

12 Studies of helping behavior Variety of experiments mostly in the 1960s and 1970s Variety of experiments mostly in the 1960s and 1970s In what social situations are people likely to offer help to others? In what social situations are people likely to offer help to others? –When they believe they are the only person who knows of the problem, they are more likely to help

13 People are less likely to offer help when: People are less likely to offer help when: –They are unsure of the situation and whether the need for help is legitimate –If they are unsure of what will happen to them if they help –They think that other people are likely to help if they do not. Also known as the “free rider” problem

14 Symbolic Interactionism This is an area of sociology that describes and explains people’s social behavior in terms of the meanings these behaviors have for the people involved. This is an area of sociology that describes and explains people’s social behavior in terms of the meanings these behaviors have for the people involved. George Herbert Mead ( ) in considered the founder of symbolic interactionism George Herbert Mead ( ) in considered the founder of symbolic interactionism

15 Symbolic interactionists look for the hidden meanings and subtexts behind people’s words and actions Symbolic interactionists look for the hidden meanings and subtexts behind people’s words and actions A person’s self identity is very important to understanding the meanings behind their words and actions A person’s self identity is very important to understanding the meanings behind their words and actions

16 Men who see themselves as “real” men may only do things that they see are consistent with this self image – such as drinking beer or whiskey in a bar, rather than some other drink Men who see themselves as “real” men may only do things that they see are consistent with this self image – such as drinking beer or whiskey in a bar, rather than some other drink Culture determines symbols and meanings Culture determines symbols and meanings

17 In addition, the way people want others to see them also helps us understand their words and actions In addition, the way people want others to see them also helps us understand their words and actions This is “impression management.” This is “impression management.” –E.g. dressing in a suit for a job interview conveys the impression of a serious job candidate

18 A woman will dress in a suit for a job interview – conveys the impression of a serious job candidate A woman will dress in a suit for a job interview – conveys the impression of a serious job candidate In a fashionable outfit to go out with friends- conveys the impression of a fun, hip person In a fashionable outfit to go out with friends- conveys the impression of a fun, hip person

19 Exchange processes Exchange theory is a sociological theory that considers much social behavior as based on exchanges of valued things (e.g. things, time, friendship), between people Exchange theory is a sociological theory that considers much social behavior as based on exchanges of valued things (e.g. things, time, friendship), between people Basically – “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” Basically – “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” Developed by George Homans and James Coleman Developed by George Homans and James Coleman

20 The power dependence principle The person who is least dependent on the other person has the most power in an exchange The person who is least dependent on the other person has the most power in an exchange E.g. A and B and C exchange with each other as follows: E.g. A and B and C exchange with each other as follows:           A B C A B C A and C can only exchange with B, B can trade with both A and C. A and C can only exchange with B, B can trade with both A and C. B is least dependent, so B has more power than A and C in the exchange. B is least dependent, so B has more power than A and C in the exchange.

21 The prisoner’s dilemma This is a common predicament in exchange This is a common predicament in exchange Often presented as the case of two prisoners in prison, A and B. Often presented as the case of two prisoners in prison, A and B. If both A and B keep quiet, both are better off. If both A and B keep quiet, both are better off. If A informs on B and B does not inform on A, A is best off, and vice versa If A informs on B and B does not inform on A, A is best off, and vice versa If A informs on B and B informs on A, both are worst off If A informs on B and B informs on A, both are worst off

22 There is an incentive for each to inform on the other. There is an incentive for each to inform on the other. Yet if both inform on each other, they are both worst off. Yet if both inform on each other, they are both worst off. –Have students come up with the payoff matrix for the prisoner’s dilemma in class

23 ____( ____ ) PRISONER 1 DON’T INFORM INFORM DON’T INFORM PRISONER 2 INFORM What does each prisoner prefer? Rank the 4 alternatives for each prisoner WITH HIGHEST EQUAL TO 4. (Put the ranking for person 2 in brackets).

24 _3_( _3__ ) _4_( _1__ ) _1__( _4__ ) _2__( _2__ ) PRISONER 1 DON’T INFORM INFORM DON’T INFORM PRISONER 2 INFORM (Ranking for PRISONER 2 in brackets).

25 Solutions to the Prisoner’s dilemma Have an outside party monitor the situation and enforce good behavior by all parties Have an outside party monitor the situation and enforce good behavior by all parties Communication between the persons involved Communication between the persons involved Repetition – when both people believe the exchange will be long term Repetition – when both people believe the exchange will be long term

26 In exchange relations, trust in the person with whom you are exchanging is vital In exchange relations, trust in the person with whom you are exchanging is vital When trust is broken, exchange breaks down When trust is broken, exchange breaks down Because of the need for trust, a person’s reputation (as a trustworthy person) is vital Because of the need for trust, a person’s reputation (as a trustworthy person) is vital

27 People gossip in part because that way they can find out information about other people’s trustworthiness People gossip in part because that way they can find out information about other people’s trustworthiness

28 Wason selection task shows the social nature of the brain. Wason selection task shows the social nature of the brain.

29 Wason selection task

30 D and 7. If the card D has anything other than 3, it breaks the rule. D and 7. If the card D has anything other than 3, it breaks the rule. If we turn over the card labelled "F" and find that it is 3 (or anything else), this does not invalidate the rule. If we turn over the card labelled "F" and find that it is 3 (or anything else), this does not invalidate the rule. Likewise, if we turn over the 3 card and find that it has the label "D" (or anything else), this also does not break the rule. Likewise, if we turn over the 3 card and find that it has the label "D" (or anything else), this also does not break the rule. On the other hand, if the 7 card has the label "D", this invalidates the rule: it has D, but not 3. On the other hand, if the 7 card has the label "D", this invalidates the rule: it has D, but not 3.

31

32 Detecting cheaters was important for the survival of our ancestors, logic problems were not. Detecting cheaters was important for the survival of our ancestors, logic problems were not.

33 Status Processes People form hierarchies in small groups very quickly – usually within 10 minutes People form hierarchies in small groups very quickly – usually within 10 minutes Once the hierarchy is established it is difficult to change Once the hierarchy is established it is difficult to change

34 Who gets to be at the top of the hierarchy? Who gets to be at the top of the hierarchy? Sociologists have found that certain general characteristics help determine who gets to be at the top – gender, age, race, ethnicity and education Sociologists have found that certain general characteristics help determine who gets to be at the top – gender, age, race, ethnicity and education They call these things diffuse status characteristics They call these things diffuse status characteristics

35 If people have specific skills relevant to the situation, then these people will often be put at the top of the hierarchy If people have specific skills relevant to the situation, then these people will often be put at the top of the hierarchy Sociologists call these characteristics specific status characteristics. Sociologists call these characteristics specific status characteristics.

36 Sociologists have found that for any person, his or her status characteristics basically add up to determine their total status in the group. Sociologists have found that for any person, his or her status characteristics basically add up to determine their total status in the group.


Download ppt "Microsociology Effects of social situations on individuals Effects of social situations on individuals –Milgram’s Obedience Studies – Asch’s Conformity."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google