2 Step One: Analyze Audience and Occasion To WHOM are you speaking?Number?Age?Interests?Previous knowledge on your topic?WHERE/WHEN are you speaking?Room size and arrangement?Time of day?Reason for gathering?
3 Step Two: Determine Your Purpose There are Five Basic Speech Purposes:To InformTo PersuadeTo ConvinceTo ImpressTo ActuateTo EntertainOften, a speech has MORE THAN ONE purpose. For instance, you may want to both inform and entertain your audience.
4 To InformThe goal of a speech to inform is that your AUDIENCE UNDERSTANDS THE INFORMATION.Examples: lectures, seminarsKeys will be:Structure and organizationSupporting informationClear preview and review
5 To ConvinceThe goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE ADOPTS YOUR POINT OF VIEW.Examples: sales presentations, political speechesAdditional Keys will be:Audience adaptationPersuasive appeals
6 To ImpressThe goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE STRENGTHENS AN ALREADY HELD BELIEF.Examples: Pep rallies, sermonsAdditional Keys will be:Passionate deliveryEmotional appealsStyle strategies
7 To ActuateThe goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE TAKES ACTION.Examples: political rallies, fundraising appeals, infommercialsAdditional Keys will be:Persuasive appealsAdaptation strategies
8 To EntertainThe goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE ENJOYS your speech.Examples: toasts, roasts, “after-dinner speaking”Additional Keys will be:Conversational deliveryAudience adaptation
9 Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for ME as a speaker?Am I interested enough in the topic?Can I get my audience interested?Do I know enough about this topic?Do I know where to find more information?
10 Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable formy AUDIENCE?Will my audience be interested in this topic?Is my audience capable of understanding this topic?How much background information will they need?Do I have enough time to give them the necessary background info?
11 Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for this OCCASION or ASSIGNMENT?Does the occasion demand a serious or light topic?What is my audience expecting of me?Will this topic allow me to demonstrate the goals of this assignment?
12 Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for the amount of TIME available?How much time have you been given?Can you cover this topic in that amount of time?Can you limit the topic to fit?
13 Step Four: Gather Supporting Material Sources:Yourself--what do you already know about this topic?Other people--do you know any “experts” on this topic?Research--library, databases, websites, etc.
14 Step Five: Organize Your Message ChronologicallyFirst, second, third…By subtopicsPoint A, point B, etcSpatiallyArea by areaCause-EffectStep A lead to Step B, etc.
15 Step Six: Put It On Paper Make an Outline.Transfer it to note cards (or to your final script).
16 Step Seven: PRACTICE OUT LOUD Practice in a mirror.Practice for a willing “trial audience”