Presentation on theme: "Seven Essential Steps to… PREPARING A SPEEECH. Step One: Analyze Audience and Occasion To WHOM are you speaking? Number? Age? Interests? Previous knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
Seven Essential Steps to… PREPARING A SPEEECH
Step One: Analyze Audience and Occasion To WHOM are you speaking? Number? Age? Interests? Previous knowledge on your topic? WHERE/WHEN are you speaking? Room size and arrangement? Time of day? Reason for gathering?
Step Two: Determine Your Purpose There are Five Basic Speech Purposes: To Inform To Persuade To Convince To Impress To Actuate To Entertain Often, a speech has MORE THAN ONE purpose. For instance, you may want to both inform and entertain your audience.
To Inform The goal of a speech to inform is that your AUDIENCE UNDERSTANDS THE INFORMATION. Examples: lectures, seminars Keys will be: Structure and organization Supporting information Clear preview and review
To Convince The goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE ADOPTS YOUR POINT OF VIEW. Examples: sales presentations, political speeches Additional Keys will be: Audience adaptation Persuasive appeals
To Impress The goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE STRENGTHENS AN ALREADY HELD BELIEF. Examples: Pep rallies, sermons Additional Keys will be: Passionate delivery Emotional appeals Style strategies
To Actuate The goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE TAKES ACTION. Examples: political rallies, fundraising appeals, infommercials Additional Keys will be: Persuasive appeals Adaptation strategies
To Entertain The goal of a speech to convince is that your AUDIENCE ENJOYS your speech. Examples: toasts, roasts, “after-dinner speaking” Additional Keys will be: Conversational delivery Audience adaptation
Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for ME as a speaker? Am I interested enough in the topic? Can I get my audience interested? Do I know enough about this topic? Do I know where to find more information?
Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for my AUDIENCE? Will my audience be interested in this topic? Is my audience capable of understanding this topic? How much background information will they need? Do I have enough time to give them the necessary background info?
Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for this OCCASION or ASSIGNMENT? Does the occasion demand a serious or light topic? What is my audience expecting of me? Will this topic allow me to demonstrate the goals of this assignment?
Step Three: Select and Narrow your TOPIC Is the topic suitable for the amount of TIME available? How much time have you been given? Can you cover this topic in that amount of time? Can you limit the topic to fit?
Step Four: Gather Supporting Material Sources: Yourself--what do you already know about this topic? Other people--do you know any “experts” on this topic? Research--library, databases, websites, etc.
Step Five: Organize Your Message Chronologically First, second, third… By subtopics Point A, point B, etc Spatially Area by area Cause-Effect Step A lead to Step B, etc.
Step Six: Put It On Paper Make an Outline. Transfer it to note cards (or to your final script).
Step Seven: PRACTICE OUT LOUD Practice in a mirror. Practice for a willing “trial audience”
Types of DELIVERY Impromptu With little or no planning Extemporaneous Planned out, but not written out Speaking from an outline Manuscript Read from a script Memorized