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Data for Student Success Examining Student Work to Inform Instruction

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1 Data for Student Success Examining Student Work to Inform Instruction
“It is about focusing on building a culture of quality data through professional development and web based dynamic inquiries for school improvement.”

2 Introduction to the Grant
Federal Title II Part D of the NCLB Act of 2001 Enhancing Education through Technology Grant awarded through CEPI Tim

3 Agenda for this Module Why examine student work?
Ways to examine student work Factors and structures that facilitate meaningful discussions.

4 Outcomes of this module
Better understand WHY and HOW to examine student work. Understand how to use the Examining Student Work Protocol and the Collaborative Assessment Conference to facilitate the regular examination of student work. Understand the factors and structures that facilitate meaningful conversations. Identify a game plan to regularly examine student work and use the information to inform instruction.

5 Why Examine Student Work?

6 “If there is anything close to a silver bullet for improving student achievement, it would be the continuous, collaborative examination of student work.” Schmoker?

7 “The practice of having teachers work together to study student work is one of the most promising professional development strategies in recent years. Examining student work helps teachers intimately understand how state and local standards apply to their teaching practice and to student work.” Joan Richardson, editor of the National Staff Development Council newsletter

8 Why Examine Student Work?
To clarify teaching and learning objectives To understand reasons behind school/district -level data To monitor student learning between formal assessment periods To inform and adjust instruction and make best use of teaching time To improve communication and collaboration between educators To encourage mutual accountability between educators To improve student learning and achievement What student work is examined regularly by teams in your school?

9 Beyond the Surface Level Data
“You can’t ‘guarantee’ what you don’t monitor.” Mike Schmoker Moving to the student level… Facilitation: Talk with your table teams - What does this statement mean? How would your districts answer this? Chart out responses MEAP is not enough Until we get to the student level you can’t diagnosis, plan for instruction

10 Surface Level: What Does Our MEAP Data Tell Us?
Example: MEAP 5th grade reading, Use demo site – 5th grade Reading

11 Tell us what this data is showing.
The Data 4ss ELA MEAP Proficiency Report shows that our school has fewer proficient 5th graders than the ISD or the state. Why?

12 The Reading Comparative Item Analysis shows that comprehension is 56
The Reading Comparative Item Analysis shows that comprehension is 56.2% of the 5th grade reading test, so we will dig a bit deeper by clicking on that bar to see how our students performed in this strand.

13 Looking at data leads to questions-avoid jumping to conclusions.
There is a significant gap between state and school on items #27, 28, 29, 30-why? Go to Tabular Results to see the GLCE for these items.

14 Our students did as well as, or better than, the state average.
Our students did worse than the state average. Tabular results (too large for one page) Comprehension strand is 56.2% of test. These 4 items, as well as 10/18 items (56%) based on R.CM explain relationships among themes, ideas, and characters within and across texts to create a deeper understanding by categorizing and classifying, comparing and contrasting, or drawing parallels across time and culture. This GLCE accounts for about 30% of the entire reading test. Our students did poorly on the last 4 items, but they did fine on other items associated with this GLCE. Why?

15 Define the Student Learning Problem
These 4 items, as well as 6 others - a total of 10/18 items (56%) on this strand (31% of the reading test)- are based on one GLCE: R.CM – “explain relationships among themes, ideas, and characters within and across texts to create a deeper understanding by categorizing and classifying, comparing and contrasting, or drawing parallels across time and culture.” Knowing how well our students are doing with this GLCE is clearly important for their success on the reading MEAP test.

16 Do our students have a problem with the expectations of this GLCE?
Since they did poorly on some items and well on other items, was there an issue with the specific items, or do our students not have this GLCE mastered? These specific items were not released, so we cannot analyze them, although 3 of the 4 items on which students did poorly had to do with comparing ideas. How can you answer this question if you haven’t been assessing this GLCE?

17 Key Questions Have teachers “unpacked” this GLCE to determine what students should know and be able to do? Do we know if our students have mastered the expectations of this GLCE before they take the MEAP? Are we assessing this GLCE? If so, how and how often? What do we do with the information gained from the assessments? Is our instruction matched to our students’ needs? End of “why” section

18 How can we examine student work in a meaningful way?

19 Method #1 The Examining Student Work Protocol was developed to diagnose student strengths and needs with the primary purpose of informing and adjusting instruction.

20 Objectives of the Examining Student Work Protocol
Show the power of examining student work Facilitate the professional dialogue that occurs as teachers come to agreement on criteria for proficiency Understand teachers’ misconceptions and their understanding of the GLCE being assessed

21 The Examining Student Work Protocol asks teachers to
Identify characteristics of proficiency on a GLCE using a specific assignment or assessment. Diagnose students’ strengths and needs based on their performance. Determine next instructional steps based on the diagnosis.

22 Foundational Understanding: Summative versus Formative
Summative – Assessment of learning Formative - Assessment for learning

23 To use assessment information effectively, teachers must shift their mindset from scoring (a summative examination of) to diagnosing (a formative examination of) student performance.

24 In the first part of the Examining Student Work Protocol,
a team of teachers work through the process of reaching consensus on what the team believes constitutes a proficient student response to the question posed in the assessment.

25 Part 1: Reaching Consensus about Proficiency
Ask clarifying questions to be sure all members of the team have the same understanding: What did you ask the students to do? Which GLCE were you assessing? What do you consider proficient performance on this assignment? Exactly what did students need to say or write for you to consider their work proficient?

26 Why is Having a Clear Understanding of Proficiency Important?

27 “To assess student achievement accurately, teachers and administrators must understand the achievement targets their students are to master. They cannot assess (let alone teach) achievement that has not been defined.” Stiggins, Richard J “The Principal’s Leadership Role in Assessment.” NASSP Bulletin (January 2001): 13–26.

28 “If you know what you want, you’re more likely to get it.”

29 A pre-requisite to interpreting student work is a clear understanding of what you are looking for. What does a proficient response look like? What exactly do your students already know and what do they still need to learn?

30 It is not enough that an individual teacher defines proficiency.
It is critical that at least a grade level or subject team has reached consensus on the definition of proficiency to ensure that all students are held to the same performance expectations. Marzano-guaranteed and viable curriculum means teachers need to be on the same page.

31 Only after the team has agreed on what constitutes a proficient response are they able to diagnose student strengths and needs.

32 Walking Through The Examining Student Work Protocol
One way to assess R.CM at the classroom level: Assess student responses to a comprehension prompt by using a targeted rubric.

33 Practice with this Assessment
What is the value of showing the rubric to students ahead of time? There are similar GLCE at other grade levels Could this assessment be used with students at these grade levels? How?

34 What would proficiency look like on this assessment for a third grader?
What would you expect to see in that student’s response?

35 To assist with this task, this rubric was created
To assist with this task, this rubric was created. With your table partners, discuss and reach consensus on how you will determine proficiency. Chart responses. We need some kind of consensus.

36 Which of These Students is Proficient?
Use the rubric to evaluate the student responses. Use the proficiency criteria you determined. How well does each student seem to be comprehending? How do you know? What is the evidence? What insights did you gain from your discussion?

37 Part 2: Diagnose Student Strengths and Needs
What do our students know and what are they able to do? What is their next instructional need? Based on student work, what is their next step in learning? What is the learning challenge? What is our next instructional step to meet this challenge? Define the learner-centered problem – the problem or challenge in a student’s understanding or skills that interferes with the student’s performance. Where do we get this information? DATA 4SS and district assessments.


39 Moving Towards Knowing the Learner
Analyzing student responses Understand a student’s response is the end product of his/her thinking. there is a logic to the thinking process that the student used. Need to answer questions such as: Do students have any skills or knowledge to build on? Do we need a total re-teaching of a concept? Are students lacking skills and/or content knowledge? Is the design of the assessment itself an issue? Top level data is not enough Continue to push or delve into student/classroom level data

40 Part 3: Determining Next Instructional Steps
Based on this information – What students need additional support? What are the next learning steps for these students in the next 3-6 weeks? What students are proficient? What are the next learning steps for these students?

41 Diagnosing and Planning
Use the “Planning a Data Conference” worksheets to discuss group data with your table. Be ready to share your plans.

42 Based on what we know, how well does this assessment align with this GLCE?
R.CM – “explain relationships among themes, ideas, and characters within and across texts to create a deeper understanding by categorizing and classifying, comparing and contrasting, or drawing parallels across time and culture.” Does it assess all of this GLCE adequately? If not, which part(s) does it assess? How else could we assess the rest of the GLCE?

43 Student Achievement Schmoker cites in Results Now:
Instruction itself has the largest influence on achievement. The two things that matter most: What is being taught and how well. “Regardless of what a state policy or district curriculum spells out, the classroom teacher decides…what topics to cover.” (Manzo, 2003)

44 More Practice with the Examining Student Work Protocol
The student work samples relate to mathematics – Grade 6 MEAP Fall 2005 GLCE D.RE Data and Probability What are we asking students to do? What is the mathematics behind the task? Do the problem. Make a list of the needed skills/concepts/understandings. Having looked at an ELA example, we are going to practice with the protocol with another example, this time in math. We need to first “unpack” this GLCE.

45 Examining Student Work Protocol Part 1
Work on this problem by yourself. What would a proficient student need to do to be successful on this? Make a list of the criteria for success. Prioritize the list – What is most critical for the student to have in place to be proficient? Facilitation: Make a prioritized list for participants to use. X and Y axis, labeled Correct scale-what is it? 2s, 5s,4s-10s no Title Information from table is correctly reflected Chart responses: Could be a stack – from tables Table - top 2 from prioritized list Table – cannot duplicate from 1st table Table – additions, no duplications Prioritize the list as a group using dots

46 Examining Student Work Protocol continued
Examine the student work samples against the prioritized list. Sort samples into two piles – proficient, not proficient. Compare with a partner-do your piles match? If not, discuss until you can agree. Note: the GLCE this item meant to assess mentions line graph, so it’s not a perfect alignment.

47 Examining Student Work Protocol Part 2-Diagnosis
What are the strengths of the proficient students? What are the challenges of the non-proficient students? The purpose is to push teachers beyond the surface level, not just correct or incorrect, but what the student needs instructionally in order to move forward in learning.

48 Examining Student Work Protocol Part 3-Adjusting Instruction
For the students who are not proficient: what is their next instructional step? How will you group them? What resource will you use? How will you provide instruction? How will you know they have learned what they need? What evidence will you collect? When?

49 Examining Student Work Protocol Part 3 continued
For those students that are proficient: what are their next learning steps in the next 3-6 weeks? How will you group them? What resource will you use? How will you provide instruction? How will you know they have learned? What evidence will you collect? When?

50 Kinds of Student Work Examining student work is about teachers looking at individual student demonstration of learning – evaluating, determining instructional needs, planning for instruction, teaching to the objective determined as the next step in student learning. Demonstrations can include: Student oral responses Student writing Student test results – answers to questions, multiple choice, short answers Student performance Do teachers and administrators understand what student work is and what it can provide?

51 Benefits of Examining Student Work
Provides neutral, observable data. Challenges assumptions. Helps build common understanding of knowledge and skills students need. Leads to discussions of work quality: What are we considering proficient? Supports a culture of improvement. Leads to improved teaching and learning. Why PLCs are critical – need to work together to begin the process of analysis – not about personalities, it’s about student achievement

52 The examining student work process requires the regular collection of student performance data that is analyzed for where the student needs to go next instructionally and used to modify instruction. Using protocols makes the process smoother and more meaningful.

53 Method #2: The Collaborative Assessment Conference

54 What is the Collaborative Assessment Conference?
The CAC was developed by Steve Seidel and his colleagues at Project Zero.

55 The structure for the CAC evolved from three key ideas:
First, students use school assignments, especially open-ended ones, to tackle important problems in which they are personally interested. Second, we need to suspend judgment long enough to look carefully and closely at what is actually in the work rather than what we hope to see in it. Third, we need the perspective of others to help us to see aspects of the student and the work that would otherwise escape us, and we need others to help us generate ideas about how to use this information to shape our daily practice.

56 Steps in the CAC Getting Started Describing the Work
Asking Questions about the Work Speculating about What the Student is Working On Hearing from the Presenting Teacher Discussing Implications for Teaching and Learning Reflecting on the Collaborative Assessment Conference Times are flexible


58 CAC in Action-The Virtual Protocol

59 Collaborative Assessment Conference Protocol Simulation
Using 9th grade social studies responses

60 Scenario You are a member of a team of middle school or high school social studies teachers. Your students have been asked to write to the prompt on the next slide and handouts. Each teacher has scored his or her responses with the rubric before coming to the group. One teacher on your team is especially frustrated by the low level of student responses. That teacher (presenting candidate) has brought samples of student work to the conference.

61 Read through the prompt, rubric, and student responses.

62 CAC Simulation Groups of 4-5
Choose one person to be the presenting candidate and one to be facilitator. 20-30 minutes

63 Debriefing the CAC What went well? What was difficult?
What are the potential benefits of using this protocol on a regular basis?

64 What needs to be in place for effective work examination meetings to occur?

65 Some things look like, or are supposed to be, examining student work, but aren’t.
Just because assessments are used, it doesn’t mean they are of good quality. Just because data is being collected, it doesn’t mean it’s being used meaningfully. Just because teachers are meeting, it doesn’t mean they’re using the time well.

66 A True Scenario In 06/07 the district curriculum coordinator mandated a requirement for a comprehension assessment to be completed 3 times a year K-8. (Data Inventory) Student responses were to be scored and data collected in a table format. This data was sent to the curriculum coordinator and never seen again. This scenario is all too common.

67 A True Scenario In 08/09, a new curriculum coordinator instructed principals to continue with the assessment, but expected the principal to analyze building data as they relate to the student achievement goals. Questions to ask: Looking at the data collected, what do you do with it? What process is used to begin to make sense of the data?

68 Building the Context to Examine Student Work
What are the systemic pieces needed in a school to measure student progress over time? What needs to occur? Decisions are made to collect data. Assessments are developed and given. Data is collected in some format and provided by teachers. Data is analyzed and used to make instructional decisions by teachers. Data and student samples are discussed by grade level teams and administrators. Student work is used to determine proficiency and the next learning steps. Facilitation : Talk a minute at your tables, how do we get to examining student work? Stack out responses

69 “Collaborative Inquiry”
Read the article. Pick out one sentence you feel is most important. Identify two factors or structures that facilitate collaborative inquiry.

70 The Context for Examining the Data
Using the Five Critical Questions of Learning: What is it we expect them to learn? How will we teach so that they can learn? How will we know when they have learned it? How will we respond when they do not learn? How will we respond when they already know it? Jot notes on sticky notes – do individually Use resources available: student samples, rubric, what they know about retelling, text read Conversations will help you listen for teacher challenges in determining proficiency and if it can be recognized in student work. So what will be needed to help your administrators be proficient in this? What questions would you ask each teacher?

71 Keep in mind… The quality of the learning information is dependent upon the quality of the assessment data gathered. The teacher needs to see the link between the usefulness of the data being gathered and the learning information about the student it will provide in order to use it to adjust instruction.

72 Instruction for Learning
It is what the teacher knows and understands about the quality of the assessment data that determines the quality of learning instruction that occurs in the classroom. So what PD is needed for teachers and then administrators? How does this inform planning for PD?

73 Student Work – A Vehicle for Learning
“Teachers have lately been required to conduct exhaustive, student-by-student reading assessments that can take days to conduct. But few are told how to use their results. We never encountered a single case where teachers used these assessment results to adjust or improve instruction; they used them to group or regroup students.” – Mike Schmoker

74 What would we see and hear in a school where effective examination of student work is occurring?
What behaviors would you observe? What is the evidence? Make a brainstormed list-chart out. Regular meetings of teachers Focused discussion on student learning Positive professional talk-not blaming Celebration of “every small win” What factors and practices facilitate or stand in the way of such effective examination? What is necessary but insufficient? Common planning time, required agendas and minutes

75 How well does your school align with this list?
What are your next steps?

76 Anyone too busy to reflect on one’s practice is also too busy to improve. Robert Garmston

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