2Why Dominie? Is it informative assessment? Formative assessment, on the other hand, delivers information during the instructional process, before the summative assessment. Both the teacher and the student use formative assessment results to make decisions about what actions to take to promote further learning. It is an ongoing, dynamic process that involves far more than frequent testing, and measurement of student learning is just one of its components.Language Arts December 2007 Vol 65Why Dominie?
3Conversations Regie Routman p. 559 “Assessment must serve the learner. This is of the utmost importance. Assessment must promote learning, not just measure it. That is, when learners are well served, assessment becomes a part of thelearning experience that supports and improves instruction. The learners arenot just the students, but also the teachers, who learn something abouttheir students.”Conversations Regie Routman p. 559
4Teacher Knowledge What to teach… What is appropriate to teach… How students’ learn…How to engage students in effective learning…How to connect what students know, to what they need to know to be more effective readers and writers…Teacher Knowledge
5Using data from a lengthy study of first- and fourth grade teachers in six states, Mr. Allington concludes that enhanced reading proficiency rests largely on the capacity of classroom teachers to provide expert, exemplary reading instruction — instruction that cannot be packaged or regurgitated from a common script because it is responsive to children's needs.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers By Richard L. Allington
6A series of studies have confirmed what was probably obvious from the beginning. Good teachers, effective teachers, matter much more than particular curriculum materials, pedagogical approaches, or "proven programs.” It has become clearer that investing in good teaching — whether through making sound hiring decisions or planning effective professional development — is the most "research-based" strategy available. If we truly hope to attain the goal of "no child left behind," we must focus on creating a substantially larger number of effective, expert teachers.
7These teachers maintained a "reading and writing versus stuff" ratio that was far better balanced than is typically found in elementary classrooms. In other words, these teachers routinely had children actually reading and writing for as much as half of the school day — around a 50/50 ratio of reading and writing to stuff (stuff is all the other things teachers have children do instead of reading and writing). In typical classrooms it is not unusual to find that children read and write for as little as 10% of the day(30 minutes of reading and writing activity in a 300-minute— five-hour — school day).We see kids that can read a word, but not write it. They are not flexible with it. If you dig enough good ditches between the two pools, reading and writing, you bridge this gap. They learn how to learn We see kids that can read a word, but not write it. They are not flexible. If we bridge the gap between the two pools, we can help kidsTime
8The exemplary elementary teachers we studied recognized this critical aspect of instructional planning. Their students did more guided reading, more independent reading, more social studies and science reading than students in less effective classrooms. But the teachers' instructional planning involved much more than simply allocating lots of time for reading and writing.
9If children are to read a lot throughout the school day, they will need a rich supply of books they can actually read. This seems a simple statement of fact. But there also exists a large and potent research base that supports supplying children with books of appropriate complexity.In the classrooms of exemplary teachers, lower-achieving students spent their days with books they could successfully read. This has not typically been the case in less effective classrooms.Text
10The exemplary teachers in our study routinely gave direct, explicit demonstrations of the cognitive strategies that good readers use when they read. In other words, they modeled the thinking that skilled readers engage in as they attempt to decode a word, self-monitor for understanding, summarize while reading, or edit when composing. The "watch me" or "let me demonstrate" stance they took seems quite different from the "assign and assess" stance that dominates in less effective classrooms.Teaching
11We observed the exemplary teachers fostering much more student talk — teacher/student and student/student — than has previously been reported. In other words, these exemplary teachers encouraged, modeled, and supported lots of talk across the school day. This talk was purposeful talk, though, not simply chatter. It was problem-posing, problem- solving talk related to curricular topics.Talk
12The classroom talk we observed was more often conversational than interrogational. Teachers and students discussed ideas, concepts, hypotheses, strategies, and responses with one another. Teachers posed more "open" questions, to which multiple responses would beappropriate.
13Question 1: How was Ruby Bridges like the other freedom heroes mentioned in the timeline? Question 2: So, what other story have we read that had an ending like this one? Question 3. Has anyone had a problem with a pet like the boy in the story?Examples of questions
14Another characteristic of these exemplary teachers' classrooms was greater use of longer assignments and less emphasis on filling the day with multiple, shorter tasks. In these classrooms students often worked on a writing task for 10 days or more. They read whole books, completed individual and small- group research projects, and worked on tasks that integrated several content areas (reading, writing, and social studies). The work the children in these classrooms completed was more substantive and challenging and required more self-regulation than the work that has commonly been observed in elementary classrooms. What do lesson plans tell us? Do you ever have lesson plans with a new Standard each day for the same block of time? When we practice what we know about how we learn, is that the best method?Tasks
15The exemplary teachers often used a rubric-based evaluation scheme to assign grades. Improvement was noted based on where students started and where they ended up, rather than on the latter alone. We observed almost no test-preparation activity in these classrooms. Instead, these teachers believed that good instruction would lead to enhanced test performance.Testing
16In order to think about using assessment to inform instruction , we must think about our expectations for teachers and teaching.Our study of these exemplary teachers suggests that such teaching cannot be packaged. Exemplary teaching is not regurgitation of a common script but is responsive to children's needs.Summary
17What is your primary responsibility as a coach? Are we creating classrooms in which every year every teacher becomes more expert?The Question
18How do we work toward improving instruction? Being aware of what good teaching looks like and sounds like.Giving explicit feedback.Providing relevant ongoing staffdevelopment.Providing teachers with time to talk andreflect with colleagues.
19Formal assessmentInformal assessmentWays of Knowing
20Formal Assessments PACT MAP Test Quiz Written exam Oral exam Performance assessment taskProjectPortfolioFormal Assessments
22Continuous Assessment Modify the Instructional Plan/ImplementationPlan and ImplementContinuous AssessmentInformal and Formal AssessmentEvaluate and inform using Protocols
23The Reading Process EMERGENT Inconsistently use early strategies: one-on-one matchingMonitoring (repeating; self-correcting)cross-checkingRead easy patterned text with picture support with fluencyPractice skills acquired on easy materialsLink known initial and final sound symbols to new wordsGet "mouth ready" for an unknown wordHave limited sight vocabulariesRetell text with simple/interchangeable storylineRespond to text at a literal level The Reading Process
24EARLY/DEVELOPING Search for and use cues with increasing independence Self-monitor and self-correct when promptedRead familiar text fluentlyLack stamina needed for chapter books/novelsRead longer text with smaller printRead with good phrasing and expressionHear/use some medial sounds to identify newwordsIdentify "chunks" and analyze longer words on their own or with supportIncrease sight vocabularyRetell text with story structure to capture story elementsRespond to reading content with inconsistent comprehension
25FLUENTUse cues flexibly and effectivelyIntegrate use of cues/strategiesSelf-monitorProblem-solve independentlyRead smoothly using appropriate speedsAble to scan ahead/predictTransfer known information to unknown words independentlyAble to visually analyze words in text "on the run"Have control of multi-syllable wordsRead longer books with more complex written styleHave an extensive sight vocabularyRetell complex storyline to include plot and somedetailRespond to a variety of reading genre with comprehension
26Dominie Reading Categories Emergent Readers and WritersUsually kindergarten or beginning of 1st gradeLearning about purposes of reading and writingUnderstanding concepts of words and lettersLearning one to one matchingUsing known words to learn new wordsDominie Reading Categories
27Early Readers and Writers End of kindergarten beginning of 1st gradeBeginning to establish foundational concepts about written languageUsing what they know to begin strategic problem solvingVoice and print matching and concepts of directionalityVisual searches for info in print
28Developing Readers and Writers Middle of first gradeGained strategic controlRefining problem solving abilitiesWhen reading familiar text they exhibit phrasing and fluent reading tendencies
29Self-Extending Readers and Writers Second and third grade studentsEstablished a wide range of strategiesTend to read with greater accuracyDeveloping deeper levels of comprehensionMore able to discuss what they have readNeed to learn to be more flexible and have a range of strategies for attacking new wordsAre more comfortable with silent reading and read for longer periods of time
30Independent Readers and Writers Usually fourth grade and beyondEngage in independent explorationMust become effective and analytical about what they read and writeEncountering a greater range of vocabulary when reading different genresNeed to gain in fluency and flexibilityreading both fiction and non fiction textConstructing meaning through independent, small group and large group experienceswith reading and writing
31Marie Clay defines reading as: I define reading as a message-getting, problem-solving activity which increases in power and flexibility the more it is practiced. My definition states that within the directional constraints of the printer’s code, language and visual perception responses are purposefully directed by the reader in some integrated way to the problem of extracting meaning from cues in a text, in sequence, so that the reader brings a maximum of understanding to the author’s message.What is Reading?
32are scarcely aware that they exist. We only We ask questions all the time as we read and our theories of what might occur work so well that weare scarcely aware that they exist. We onlybecome aware of our questioning when our answers fail to match the information before us. Asking questions is a means of eliminating alternatives. We can encourage children to ask themselves questions and develop their strategies for improving predictions. All this applies to reading and writing. We must read by asking and answering questions if we are to understand what we are reading.Marie ClayBecoming Literate, page 6
33Meaning cues are the sources of information which a reader uses to make sense of a text. Meaning is the most important part of reading.It is the interaction between reader and text.Prior knowledgeStory senseIllustrationsMeaning Cues
34Structure cues are the sources of grammatical information which allow the child to construct sentences and predict how will sentence will unfold.Natural languageKnowledge of EnglishStructure Cues
35Visual cues are the attention to print details, directionality, letter/sound relationships, punctuation marks, word configuration, print size, and other concepts of print.Visual Cues
36What about the Essential Five Components? Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsVocabularyFluencyComprehensionWhat else is involved in the reading process?What about the Essential Five Components?
47Hints for beginning Text Reading Levels After scoring the Sentence Writing and Spelling record the stanines for the phonemes and the spelling Average the two stanines Stanines 1, 2 or 3 begin with a benchmark or bridging book that is one or two levels below the child’s grade level Stanine 4, 5 or 6 begin with a benchmark or bridging book that is on the grade level Stanine 7, 8 or 9 begin with a benchmark or bridging book that is a level or two above their grade level.
51Effective assessment must be a continuous process. It must provide teachers with data that can be used to enhance learning opportunities.Assessment is more than the traditional test; it is more a process of reaction, refection, and redirection.Summary of Assessment
52Assessment provides opportunities for students to assume a sense of responsibility for their own learning. When actively engaged in the assessment process, students become less teacher dependent and more independent.Assessment respects the child and preserves and enhances his or her self- esteem.Assessment should be used to improve instruction and gauge progress; it does not simply assign numerical scores to reading achievement.Summary of Assessment
53Assessment provides opportunities for teachers and students to work toward common curricular goals, both short-term and long-term.It is important to consider assessment as a positive feature of literacy learning.Assessment is a cooperative activity between teachers and students. It is not something done to students, but rather an activity done with students.Summary of Assessment
54In general, when the child is hard to accelerate he is finding some part or parts of the reading process difficult. Oftentimes he has learned to do something, which is interfering with his progress, and he may have learned it from the way you have been teaching. (Teaching Struggling Readers, Lyons quoting Guidebook, Clay, pg. 57)
55Observe the idiosyncratic way the child interacts while reading and writing; Describe the child’s reading and writing strengths behaviorally and specifically;\Analyze the behaviors in relation to the entire complex processing system needed to read and write;Think about problem behaviors in relation to cognitive and emotional development;Determine when problem behaviors occur and how often they are repeated throughout the lesson;Observation
56Think about what the teacher does or does not do in response to the child’s affective and cognitive processing;Think about what the child does in response to the teacher’s actions and verbal non-verbal responses;Decide which affective behaviors to address an/or prevent;Prioritize actions and responses and determine what needs to be done first;Observation
57Decide under what circumstances, when, and how to intervene; Determine the affective and cognitive behavioral indicators to watch for to suggest children are gaining control and becoming self-regulated;Record on the lesson record what children do and say in response to the teacher’s actions.From: Teaching Struggling Readers, Lyons. Pg. 97Observation