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En Español I 4-2 Notes Stem-changing verbs (o-ue), (e-i),

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1 En Español I 4-2 Notes Stem-changing verbs (o-ue), (e-i),
D.O.P., I.O.P., T ú Commands

2 Stem-changing verbs are verbs where there is the a spelling change in some of the forms of the verb.
There is only one verb in Spanish that changes (u-ue). The four types of stem changers are (u- ue), (e-ie), (o-ue) and (e-i) Stem-changing Verbs

3 Almorzar (o-ue)– To eat lunch
Yo almuezo I eat lunch Nosotros almorzamos We eat lunch almuerzas You (fam.) eat lunch Vosotros (as) almorzáis You all (fam.) eat lunch Él /Ella/ Ud. almuerza He/She /You(for.) eat lunch Ellos (as)/ Uds. almuerzan They/You all(for.) eat lunch Notice that the forms in the shaded sections of the verb chart change (o-ue) but the forms outside the shaded area do not. Also, notice that the shaded sections look like a boot! Sometimes stem-changing verbs are called boot verbs because of this look.

4 Servir (e-i) – to serve Yo sirvo I serve Nosotros servimos We serve
Tú sirves You (fam.) serve Vosotros(as) servís You all (fam) serve Él/Ella/Ud. sirve He/She serves, You (for.) serve Ellos(as)/Uds. sirven They/You all(for.) serve Remember: When you combine two verbs together, the first verb in conjugated and the second verb is in the infinitive. Ex. Yo pienso jugar tenis. I plan to play tenis.

5 Stem-changing verbs (cont.)
There are many verbs that change (e-ie): Cerrar – to close Comenzar – to start Empezar – to begin Entender – to understand Merendar – to have (eat) a snack Pensar – to think/plan Perder – to lose Preferir – to prefer Querer – to want

6 Stem-changing verbs (cont.)
There are many verbs that change (o-ue): Almorzar– to eat lunch Contar – to count, to tell or retell Costar – to cost Devolver – to return an item Dormir – to sleep Encontrar – to find, to meet Poder – to be able to, can Recordar – to remember Volver – to return, to come back (done by a person, thing)

7 Stem-changing verbs (cont.)
Here are some verbs that change (e-i): Decir– to say, to tell (also a –go verb) Pedir – to ask for, to order (food) Repetir – to repeat Seguir – to continue, to follow (sigo, sigues, sigue, segimos, siguen) Servir – to serve Only one verb changes (u-ue): Jugar – to play (sports or games)

8 Stem-changing verbs (cont.)
The vowel that changes in the verb must be in the stem of the verb. Ex: Repetir has three syllables. Re – is the prefix -pe- is the stem and – tir is the suffix. Rule: When a verb has three syllables, it is always the middle (or second-to-last syllable) that is the stem. When you have two syllables, it is the first (or second-to-last syllable) that is the stem.

9 Direct Object Pronouns
The direct object (D.O.) in a sentence receives the direct action of the verb. It answers one of two questions: 1) Who? or 2) What? Ex. I eat the hamburger. I is the subject, eat is the verb and the hamburger is the D.O. answering the question- What do I eat? Ex. They invite the girls. They is the subject, invite is the verb and the girls is the D.O. answering the question- Who do they invite?

10 Direct Object Pronouns
The D.O. in the sentence can be replaced by a direct object pronoun (D.O.P.) Ex. I eat it (the hamburger). They invite them (the girls). Me me Nos us Te you (fam.) Os you (fam. plural) Lo (mas. sing) La (fem. sing) him, her, you (for.) it Los (mas. pl.) Las (fem. pl.) them, you (for. plural)

11 Direct Object Pronouns
Rule: With a simple verb (como) the D.O.P. is placed before the conjugated verb. Ex. I eat it (the hamburger). Yo la como. Ex. They invite us. Ellos nos invitan.

12 Direct Object Pronouns
Rule: When you have a compound verb (quiero comer) the D.O.P. can be placed ) before the conjugated verb (quiero) or 2) attached to the infinitive (comer) Ex. I want to drink them (the soft drinks). 1) Yo los quiero beber. 2) Yo quiero beberlos. Ex. She plans to invite me. 1)Ella me piensa invitar. 2)Ella piensa invitarme.

13 Indirect object pronouns
I.O. are nouns that answer 1)To whom?, 2) To what?, 3)For whom?, 4)For what? I.O.P. are: me, te, le, nos, os, les (pink sheet) Notice: The pronouns are the same as D.O.P. except the third person.

14 Indirect object pronouns
I.O.P. replace or accompany an I.O. Ex. Rosa le compra una olla a su madre. – Rosa buys a pot for her mother. (¿Para quién?) Ex. Rosa le compra una olla. – Rosa buys a pot for her.

15 Indirect object pronouns
Since le and les can refer to different people, they are often used with a + name, noun or pronoun Rosa le compra una olla a Eva Rosa le compra una olla a su madre Rosa le compra una olla a ella

16 Regular Tú Commands To tell someone you know, a younger person, or someone in your family what to do, use a Tú command. Regular Tú commands are the same as the él/ella form of the verb. Ex. Cantar – ¡Canta! Sing! Ex. Comer – ¡Come! Eat! Ex. Abrir - ¡Abre! Open!

17 Irregular Tú Commands Decir- Di Say/Tell Hacer- Haz Make/Do Poner- Pon
Salir - Sal Venir – Ven Tener – Ten Ir – Ve Ser - Sé Say/Tell Make/Do Put/Place Leave/go out Come Have/Be Go Be

18 The Irregular Tú Command Song To the tune of Row, Row, Row Your Boat
Di, Haz, Pon y Sal Ven, Ten, Ve y Sé These are irregular tú commands. Learn them right away!

19 Negative Tú Commands To form the Negative Tú command, you must follow the formula: Yo form, drop – o, add opposite vowel, add –s, add No out front. Opposite Vowels: –ar = e -er,-ir = a Ex. Cantar canto-> cant-> cante-> cantes-> ¡No cantes! Ex. Comer como-> com-> coma-> comas-> ¡No comas! Ex. Abrir abro-> abr-> abra-> abras-> ¡No abras!

20 Negative Tú Commands (-car,-gar,-zar)
With verbs ending in –car, -gar- and –zar, there are spell changes. Ex. Tocar (c->qu) toco-> toc-> toque-> toques-> ¡No toques! Ex. Jugar (g->gu) juego-> jueg-> juegue-> juegues-> ¡No juegues! Ex. Almorzar (z->c) almuerzo-> almuerz-> almuerce-> almuerces-> ¡No almuerces!

21 Irregular Negative Tú Commands
Dar Estar Ir Ser ¡No des! ¡No estés! ¡No vayas! ¡No seas! Why do you think these four verbs are the only irregulars? They are the only yo forms in Spanish that don’t end in –o! They all end in –oy!

22 Commands with object pronouns
When using an O.P. with an affirmative command, you must attach the O.P. to the end of the command. Usually this requires you to add an accent to the second to last syllable of the original command. (Not when command is one syllable) Ex. Eat it (the hamburger). ¡Cómela! Ex. Buy the pitcher for them. ¡Cómprales la jarra a ellos!

23 Commands with object pronouns
When using an O.P. with a negative command, the O.P. goes between the No and the command. You do not need an accent for these commands. Ex. Don’t eat it (the hamburger)! ¡No la comas! Ex. Don’t buy the pitcher for them! ¡No les compres la jarra a ellos!

24 ¡Gracias por su atención!
El fin

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