Presentation on theme: "En Español I 4-2 Notes Stem-changing verbs (o-ue), (e-i),"— Presentation transcript:
1En Español I 4-2 Notes Stem-changing verbs (o-ue), (e-i), D.O.P., I.O.P.,T ú Commands
2Stem-changing verbs are verbs where there is the a spelling change in some of the forms of the verb. There is only one verb in Spanish that changes (u-ue).The four types of stem changers are (u- ue), (e-ie), (o-ue) and (e-i)Stem-changing Verbs
3Almorzar (o-ue)– To eat lunch YoalmuezoI eat lunchNosotrosalmorzamosWe eat lunchTúalmuerzasYou (fam.) eat lunchVosotros(as)almorzáisYou all (fam.) eat lunchÉl/Ella/Ud. almuerzaHe/She/You(for.)eat lunchEllos(as)/Uds. almuerzanThey/Youall(for.)eat lunchNotice that the forms in the shaded sections of the verb chart change (o-ue) but the forms outside the shaded area do not. Also, notice that the shaded sections look like a boot! Sometimes stem-changing verbs are called boot verbs because of this look.
4Servir (e-i) – to serve Yo sirvo I serve Nosotros servimos We serve Tú sirvesYou (fam.) serveVosotros(as) servísYou all (fam) serveÉl/Ella/Ud. sirveHe/She serves,You (for.) serveEllos(as)/Uds. sirvenThey/You all(for.) serveRemember: When you combine two verbs together, the first verb in conjugated and the second verb is in the infinitive.Ex. Yo pienso jugar tenis. I plan to play tenis.
5Stem-changing verbs (cont.) There are many verbs that change (e-ie):Cerrar – to closeComenzar – to startEmpezar – to beginEntender – to understandMerendar – to have (eat) a snackPensar – to think/planPerder – to losePreferir – to preferQuerer – to want
6Stem-changing verbs (cont.) There are many verbs that change (o-ue):Almorzar– to eat lunchContar – to count, to tell or retellCostar – to costDevolver – to return an itemDormir – to sleepEncontrar – to find, to meetPoder – to be able to, canRecordar – to rememberVolver – to return, to come back (done by a person, thing)
7Stem-changing verbs (cont.) Here are some verbs that change (e-i):Decir– to say, to tell (also a –go verb)Pedir – to ask for, to order (food)Repetir – to repeatSeguir – to continue, to follow (sigo, sigues, sigue, segimos, siguen)Servir – to serveOnly one verb changes (u-ue):Jugar – to play (sports or games)
8Stem-changing verbs (cont.) The vowel that changes in the verb must be in the stem of the verb. Ex: Repetir has three syllables. Re – is the prefix -pe- is the stem and – tir is the suffix. Rule: When a verb has three syllables, it is always the middle (or second-to-last syllable) that is the stem. When you have two syllables, it is the first (or second-to-last syllable) that is the stem.
9Direct Object Pronouns The direct object (D.O.) in a sentence receives the direct action of the verb. It answers one of two questions: 1) Who? or 2) What?Ex. I eat the hamburger. I is the subject, eat is the verb and the hamburger is the D.O. answering the question- What do I eat?Ex. They invite the girls. They is the subject, invite is the verb and the girls is the D.O. answering the question- Who do they invite?
10Direct Object Pronouns The D.O. in the sentence can be replaced by a direct object pronoun (D.O.P.)Ex. I eat it (the hamburger). They invite them (the girls).MemeNosusTeyou (fam.)Osyou (fam. plural)Lo (mas. sing)La (fem. sing)him, her, you (for.) itLos (mas. pl.)Las (fem. pl.)them, you (for. plural)
11Direct Object Pronouns Rule: With a simple verb (como) the D.O.P. is placed before the conjugated verb.Ex. I eat it (the hamburger). Yo la como.Ex. They invite us. Ellos nos invitan.
12Direct Object Pronouns Rule: When you have a compound verb (quiero comer) the D.O.P. can be placed ) before the conjugated verb (quiero) or 2) attached to the infinitive (comer)Ex. I want to drink them (the soft drinks).1) Yo los quiero beber. 2) Yo quiero beberlos.Ex. She plans to invite me.1)Ella me piensa invitar. 2)Ella piensa invitarme.
13Indirect object pronouns I.O. are nouns that answer 1)To whom?, 2) To what?, 3)For whom?, 4)For what?I.O.P. are: me, te, le, nos, os, les (pink sheet)Notice: The pronouns are the same as D.O.P. except the third person.
14Indirect object pronouns I.O.P. replace or accompany an I.O.Ex. Rosa le compra una olla a su madre. – Rosa buys a pot for her mother. (¿Para quién?)Ex. Rosa le compra una olla. – Rosa buys a pot for her.
15Indirect object pronouns Since le and les can refer to different people, they are often used witha + name, noun or pronounRosa le compra una olla a EvaRosa le compra una olla a su madreRosa le compra una olla a ella
16Regular Tú CommandsTo tell someone you know, a younger person, or someone in your family what to do, use a Tú command.Regular Tú commands are the same as the él/ella form of the verb.Ex. Cantar – ¡Canta! Sing!Ex. Comer – ¡Come! Eat!Ex. Abrir - ¡Abre! Open!
17Irregular Tú Commands Decir- Di Say/Tell Hacer- Haz Make/Do Poner- Pon Salir - SalVenir – VenTener – TenIr – VeSer - SéSay/TellMake/DoPut/PlaceLeave/go outComeHave/BeGoBe
18The Irregular Tú Command Song To the tune of Row, Row, Row Your Boat Di, Haz, Pon y SalVen, Ten, Ve y SéThese are irregular tú commands.Learn them right away!
19Negative Tú CommandsTo form the Negative Tú command, you must follow the formula:Yo form, drop – o, add opposite vowel, add –s, add No out front.Opposite Vowels: –ar = e -er,-ir = aEx. Cantar canto-> cant-> cante-> cantes-> ¡No cantes!Ex. Comer como-> com-> coma-> comas-> ¡No comas!Ex. Abrir abro-> abr-> abra-> abras-> ¡No abras!
20Negative Tú Commands (-car,-gar,-zar) With verbs ending in –car, -gar- and –zar, there are spell changes.Ex. Tocar (c->qu)toco-> toc-> toque-> toques-> ¡No toques!Ex. Jugar (g->gu)juego-> jueg-> juegue-> juegues->¡No juegues!Ex. Almorzar (z->c)almuerzo-> almuerz-> almuerce-> almuerces-> ¡No almuerces!
21Irregular Negative Tú Commands DarEstarIrSer¡No des!¡No estés!¡No vayas!¡No seas!Why do you think these four verbs are the only irregulars?They are the only yo forms in Spanish that don’t end in –o! They all end in –oy!
22Commands with object pronouns When using an O.P. with an affirmative command, you must attach the O.P. to the end of the command.Usually this requires you to add an accent to the second to last syllable of the original command. (Not when command is one syllable)Ex. Eat it (the hamburger). ¡Cómela!Ex. Buy the pitcher for them.¡Cómprales la jarra a ellos!
23Commands with object pronouns When using an O.P. with a negative command, the O.P. goes between the No and the command.You do not need an accent for these commands.Ex. Don’t eat it (the hamburger)!¡No la comas!Ex. Don’t buy the pitcher for them!¡No les compres la jarra a ellos!