Presentation on theme: "Homework checking 4.2. Count & Noncount nouns 1. C - N 2. C - N"— Presentation transcript:
1Homework checking 4.2. Count & Noncount nouns 1. C - N 2. C - N 5. N - N - C6. C - C7. N - N8. N9. C10. C - N
2Homework checking 4.5. Specific and Generic reference 1. G - G 2. S - S3. S - G - G4. S - G5. G - G11. Progressive aspect6. S - S7. G - G8. S - G9. S - G10. S - S
3Homework checking 4.6. Use of the articles 1. The - X 11. the - the 2. X - X3. The - the - the - X4. X - X5. X - X6. a - the - X - the - a/the7. The - a - X8. the - a - a9. X - a/the - X10. a11. the - the12. the/X - X13. A14. The15. X16. a17. The18. an19. the20. the
4Homework checking 4.12. Uses of the genitive 1. The departure of the plane2. The capture of the lion3. The man's cake4. The men's store5. The city of Chicago6. The team's coach7. The one week's vacation8. The hand of the clock9. The man's dog10. that of Jim's11. a student of Plato's12. The doctor's office
5Homework checking Exercise 69 2. It 3. their 4. them 5. it 6. one 7. which 8. we 9. The 10. this/the11. an 12. their 13. their/the 14. they15. the 16. a 17. what 18. which19. us 20. its 21. It 22. their23. we/one 24. their 25. It 26. they27. them 28. the 29. this/the30. their
6E_English Grammar Course Unit 3NOUN PHRASE (cont.)
10Basic Noun phrases Basic NP (Determiners) Head noun + E.g.: All these pupils
11Determiners= words of close-system used before a N to “determine” the precise meaning of the NDeterminersPre-determinersCentral determinersPost-determiners
12Determiners Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half mutually exclusiveE.g.: all girls, both girlsBUT NOT:all both girlsmultipliersfractionssuch, what
13Determiners Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half + before: articles (a, an, the, zero article)E.g.: all the timepossessive determiners (my, his, her, etc.)E.g.: both his sistersdemonstrative determiners (this, that, etc.)E.g.: half those days+ not before: quantitative determiners (no, each,any, some, enough, (n)either, every)
14Determiners Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half + take partitive “of-phrases” optional with nounsE.g.: all (of) the timeobligatory with pronounsE.g.: all of them, both of us, half of it+ “all, both”: occur after the head, either immediately or after the operatorE.g.: They (all) were (all) accepted.
15Once, twice, three times, double, etc. DeterminersDeterminersOnce, twice, three times, double, etc.Pre-determinersmultipliers+ used to denote the quantity of the nounsE.g.: twice her age, double their salaries+ occur with the determiners “a, every, each and per” to indicate frequencyE.g.: once a week, twice every day, three times each year
16Determiners Determiners Pre-determiners (one-third, two-fifths, three-quarters, etc.)Pre-determinersfraction+ the fractions have the alternative of- construction.E.g.: He took only two-thirds of the books.+ the indefinite article can replace ‘one’.E.g.: He did it in one-third / a third (of) the time it took me.
17Determiners Determiners Pre-determiners Such/ what + occur before the head noun+ “such”: combined with “all, quantifiers, cardinal numbers”E.g.: What/ Such a surprise!no/many/41 such incidents
18Central Determiners Determiners 6 classes based on their co-occurrence with the noun classes (singular count, plural count, and non-count)Central determiners(1)the,possessive,wh-words,Some, any(stressed),no(2)zero articlesome, any(unstressed)enough(3)a(n)everyeachEitherneither(4)thisthat(5)thesethose(6)much
19Central Determiners (See more in 4.5) Central Determiners in respect to their co-occurrence with the noun classesCOUNT NON-COUNTSINGULARPLURALbottlefurniturebottles(See more in 4.5)
20Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (1) the, possessive,wh-words,some, any(stressed),noE.g.: - Do you want me to turn off the light?- I love my family.- What colour do you like?- I have some friends in London.- I won’t give this pen to any student.- She has no idea at all.
21Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (2)zero article,some, any(unstressed)enoughE.g.: - Love is not everything.- I want some beer, please.- Have we got any wine for tonight?- I did not have enough time to do this.
22Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (3)a(n)everyeacheitherneitherE.g.: - My friend gave me a flower / an apple.- I want to ask each/every person individually.- You can put it on either table.- Neither party accepted such a proposal.
23Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (4)thisthatE.g.: This chair is mine and that table is yours.I can’t stand this silence.
24Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (5)thesethoseE.g.: - Did you read these stories yesterday?- Have you seen those girls?
25Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (6)muchE.g.: He wants much sugar in his coffee.
27Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Cardinal numeralsinclude: one, two, three, etc.E.g.: my three sonhis two booksOrdinal numerals/general ordinalsClose-system quantifiersOpen-class quantifiers
28Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Cardinal numeralsordinal numerals: first,second,third, etc.general ordinals: next, last, past, (an)other, additional, furtherE.g.: the first timeanother candidateOrdinal numerals/general ordinalsClose-system quantifiersOpen-class quantifiers
29Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Cardinal numeralsbefore count Ns: many, (a) few, severalbefore non-count Ns: much, (a) littleE.g.: a few wordsmuch stressOrdinal numerals/general ordinalsClose-system quantifiersOpen-class quantifiers
30Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners include: a lot of, a great deal of, lots of, a good number of, etc.verbs has number concord with the second nouns, not the quantity nouns (lot, deal, lots, plenty, etc.)E.g.: Lots of food was on the table.There was a lot of food on the table.Cardinal numeralsOrdinal numerals/general ordinalsClose-system quantifiersOpen-class quantifiers
32Complex noun phrase Complex NP Pre-modification Post-modification + Head noun+E.g.: All the pupils playing football
33Modification Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictiveTemporary
34Modification Modification helps identify the head & indicate a limitation on the possible reference of theheadtends to come after the headtends to be given more prosodic emphasisthan the headE.g.: The flowers in your garden are nice.He visited his aunt who often lenthim money.functionstatusRestrictivePermanentNon-restrictiveTemporary
35Modification Modification gives additional information to the head but is not essential for identifying theheadthe reference: unique or as member of aclass that has been independently identifiedtends to come before the headtends to be unstressed in pre-head positionE.g.: The book, which I gave you yesterday,is quite readable. (member of a class)She is his poor, old mother. (unique)functionstatusRestrictivePermanentNon-restrictiveTemporary
36Modification Modification function status Have reference to characteristic featuresMainly the items which are placed in pre-modification positionE.g.: an ugly manthe easy-going ladyNon-restrictivePermanentRestrictiveTemporary
37Modification Modification function status Have reference only to a specific timeMainly those adjectives which have to bepredicateE.g.:A man who is timid = A timid manA man who is afraid # An afraid manNon-restrictivePermanentRestrictiveTemporary
39multiple premodification ‘s-genitive-ing/-edparticiplesE.g.: Mary's brother is very naughty.sentenceadverbialnounadjectivemultiple premodification
40multiple premodification ‘s-genitive-ing/-ed participlesE.g.: He has rented a crumbling cottage.The wanted man was last seen in Paris.sentenceadverbialNote: the participles denote the permanent.E.g. She is an interesting girl vs.She interests me.The man who is married = the married mannounadjectivemultiple premodification
41multiple premodification ‘s-genitive-ing/-edparticiplessentenceE.g.: I got angry with his I-don't-care attitude.She waved the boy away with a you-stink kind of look on her face.adverbialnounadjectivemultiple premodification
42multiple premodification ‘s-genitive-ing/-edparticiplesE.g.: I visited his far-away hometown.sentenceadverbialnounadjectivemultiple premodification
43multiple prmodification PremodificationPremodification‘s-genitive-ing/-edparticiplessentenceE.g.: He has fixed the cupboard door.adverbialnounadjectivemultiple prmodification
44multiple premodification ‘s-genitive-ing/-edparticiplessentenceadverbialE.g.: She is a lovely girl.nounadjectivemultiple premodification
45Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrasenon-finite clauseappositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonadverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
46Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesprepositional phraseE.g.: The girl who is playing in the ground is my daughter .non-finite clauseappositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonadverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
47Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesprepositional phrasenon-finite clauseE.g.: She love the monitor in your class.appositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonadverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
48Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesprepositional phrasenon-finite clauseappositive clauseE.g.: The girl playing in the ground is my daughter.Clause of time, place, manner, reasonadverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
49Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesprepositional phrasenon-finite clauseappositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonE.g.: The fact that he is rich is not the reason she loves him.adverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
50Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesE.g.: I work in the university where I studied English.12th Sep, 1983 is the date when he was born.That’s the reason why he spoke ill of me.She shows me the way how I can cook beef.prepositional phrasenon-finite clauseappositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonadverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
51Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesprepositional phrasenon-finite clauseE.g.: The girl over there is my sister.The road back is dense with traffic.appositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonadverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
52Postmodification Postmodification relative clausesprepositional phrasenon-finite clauseappositive clauseClause of time, place, manner, reasonE.g.: Something strange happened last night.adverbadjectivemultiple postmodification
54Multiple modification with single head:E.g.: his last brilliant bookwith multiple head:E.g.: the new chair and tablethe new but ugly table and chairMultiple premodificationMultiple postmodification
55Multiple modification Multiple premodificationSequence of premodifiers:Determiner general age color participle provenance noun de-nominal headE.g.: a crumbling church towelthe extravagant London social lifesome intricate old inter-locking Chinese designsMultiple postmodification
56Multiple modification with single head:E.g.: the girl in the corner talking to Johnwith multiple head:E.g.: the boy and the girl in the corner talking to JohnMultiple premodificationMultiple postmodification
57Related ReadingsQuirk, R. & Greenbaum, S. A University Grammar of English, NXB GTVT, 2002: Chapter 4 & Chapter 13