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Homework checking 4.2. Count & Noncount nouns 1. C - N 2. C - N 3. N - C 4. C - N 5. N - N - C 6. C - C 7. N - N 8. N 9. C 10. C - N.

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Presentation on theme: "Homework checking 4.2. Count & Noncount nouns 1. C - N 2. C - N 3. N - C 4. C - N 5. N - N - C 6. C - C 7. N - N 8. N 9. C 10. C - N."— Presentation transcript:

1 Homework checking 4.2. Count & Noncount nouns 1. C - N 2. C - N 3. N - C 4. C - N 5. N - N - C 6. C - C 7. N - N 8. N 9. C 10. C - N

2 Homework checking 4.5. Specific and Generic reference 1. G - G 2. S - S 3. S - G - G 4. S - G 5. G - G 11. Progressive aspect 6. S - S 7. G - G 8. S - G 9. S - G 10. S - S

3 Homework checking 4.6. Use of the articles 1. The - X 2. X - X 3. The - the - the - X 4. X - X 5. X - X 6. a - the - X - the - a/the 7. The - a - X 8. the - a - a 9. X - a/the - X 10. a 11. the - the 12. the/X - X 13. A 14. The 15. X 16. a 17. The 18. an 19. the 20. the

4 Homework checking 4.12. Uses of the genitive 1. The departure of the plane 2. The capture of the lion 3. The man's cake 4. The men's store 5. The city of Chicago 6. The team's coach 7. The one week's vacation 8. The hand of the clock 9. The man's dog 10. that of Jim's 11. a student of Plato's 12. The doctor's office

5 Homework checking Exercise 69 2. It3. their4. them5. it 6. one 7. which8. we9. The10. this/the 11. an12. their13. their/the14. they 15. the16. a17. what18. which 19. us20. its21. It22. their 23. we/one24. their25. It26. they 27. them28. the29. this/the 30. their

6 E_English Grammar Course Unit 3 NOUN PHRASE (cont.)

7 Issues NOUN PHRASE – Basic NP Determiners – Predeterminers – Central determiners – Postdeterminers –Complex NP Modification – Premodification – Postmodification – Multiple modification

8 = typically constructed by either a noun or a pronoun as the head & other constituents as modifiers Eg. A nice girl leaning against the wall Noun Phrase Noun Phrase Basic NP Complex NP Noun phrases

9 Noun Phrase Basic NP Complex NP

10 Basic Noun phrases E.g.: All these 10 pupils Basic NP (Determiners) Head noun +

11 Determiners = words of close-system used before a N to determine the precise meaning of the N Pre-determiners Central determiners Post-determiners

12 Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half multipliers fractions such, what mutually exclusive E.g.: all girls, both girls BUT NOT: all both girls

13 Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half + before: articles (a, an, the, zero article) E.g.: all the time possessive determiners (my, his, her, etc.) E.g.: both his sisters demonstrative determiners (this, that, etc.) E.g.: half those days + not before: quantitative determiners (no, each, any, some, enough, (n)either, every)

14 Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half + take partitive of-phrases optional with nouns E.g.: all (of) the time obligatory with pronouns E.g.: all of them, both of us, half of it + all, both: occur after the head, either immediately or after the operator E.g.: They (all) were (all) accepted.

15 Determiners Pre-determiners multipliers + used to denote the quantity of the nouns E.g.: twice her age, double their salaries + occur with the determiners a, every, each and per to indicate frequency E.g.: once a week, twice every day, three times each year Once, twice, three times, double, etc. Once, twice, three times, double, etc.

16 Determiners Pre-determiners fraction + the fractions have the alternative of- construction. E.g.: He took only two-thirds of the books. + the indefinite article can replace one. E.g.: He did it in one-third / a third (of) the time it took me. (one-third, two-fifths, three-quarters, etc.) (one-third, two-fifths, three-quarters, etc.)

17 Determiners Pre-determiners Such/ what + occur before the head noun + such: combined with all, quantifiers, cardinal numbers E.g.: What/ Such a surprise! no/many/41 such incidents

18 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners 6 classes based on their co-occurrence with the noun classes (singular count, plural count, and non-count) 6 classes based on their co-occurrence with the noun classes (singular count, plural count, and non-count) (1) the, possessive, wh-words, Some, any (stressed), no (2) zero article some, any (unstressed) enough (4) this that (5) these those (3) a(n) every each Either neither (6) much

19 Central Determiners Central Determiners in respect to their co-occurrence with the noun classes COUNTNON-COUNT SINGULAR PLURAL bottle furniture bottles (See more in 4.5)

20 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (1) the, possessive, wh-words, some, any (stressed), no E.g.: - Do you want me to turn off the light? - I love my family. - What colour do you like? - I have some friends in London. - I wont give this pen to any student. - She has no idea at all.

21 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (2) zero article, some, any (unstressed) enough E.g.: - Love is not everything. - I want some beer, please. - Have we got any wine for tonight? - I did not have enough time to do this.

22 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (3) a(n) every each either neither E.g.: - My friend gave me a flower / an apple. - I want to ask each/every person individually. - You can put it on either table. - Neither party accepted such a proposal.

23 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (4) this that E.g.: This chair is mine and that table is yours. I cant stand this silence.

24 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (5) these those E.g.: - Did you read these stories yesterday? - Have you seen those girls?

25 Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (6) much E.g.: He wants much sugar in his coffee.

26 Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

27 Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers include: one, two, three, etc. E.g.: my three son his two books

28 Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers ordinal numerals: first,second, third, etc. general ordinals: next, last, past, (an)other, additional, further E.g.: the first time another candidate

29 Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers before count Ns: many, (a) few, several before non-count Ns: much, (a) little E.g.: a few words much stress

30 Central Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers include: a lot of, a great deal of, lots of, a good number of, etc. verbs has number concord with the second nouns, not the quantity nouns (lot, deal, lots, plenty, etc.) E.g.: Lots of food was on the table. There was a lot of food on the table.

31 Noun phrases Noun Phrase Basic NP Complex NP

32 E.g.: All the 11 pupils playing football Complex NP Pre- modification Head noun + Post- modification + Complex noun phrase

33 Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary

34 Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary helps identify the head & indicate a limitation on the possible reference of the head tends to come after the head tends to be given more prosodic emphasis than the head E.g.: The flowers in your garden are nice. He visited his aunt who often lent him money.

35 Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary gives additional information to the head but is not essential for identifying the head the reference: unique or as member of a class that has been independently identified tends to come before the head tends to be unstressed in pre-head position E.g.: The book, which I gave you yesterday, is quite readable. (member of a class) She is his poor, old mother. (unique)

36 Modification function status Non-restrictive Permanent Restrictive Temporary Have reference to characteristic features Mainly the items which are placed in pre- modification position E.g.: an ugly man the easy-going lady

37 Modification function status Non-restrictive Permanent Restrictive Temporary Have reference only to a specific time Mainly those adjectives which have to be predicate E.g.: A man who is timid = A timid man A man who is afraid # An afraid man

38 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence adverbials adjectives noun multiple premodification

39 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: Mary's brother is very naughty.

40 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: He has rented a crumbling cottage. The wanted man was last seen in Paris. Note: the participles denote the permanent. E.g. She is an interesting girl vs. She interests me. The man who is married = the married man

41 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: I got angry with his I-don't-care attitude. She waved the boy away with a you-stink kind of look on her face.

42 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: I visited his far-away hometown.

43 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple prmodification E.g.: He has fixed the cupboard door.

44 Premodification s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: She is a lovely girl.

45 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification

46 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The girl who is playing in the ground is my daughter.

47 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: She love the monitor in your class.

48 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The girl playing in the ground is my daughter.

49 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The fact that he is rich is not the reason she loves him.

50 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: I work in the university where I studied English. 12 th Sep, 1983 is the date when he was born. Thats the reason why he spoke ill of me. She shows me the way how I can cook beef.

51 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The girl over there is my sister. The road back is dense with traffic.

52 Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: Something strange happened last night.

53 Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification

54 Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification Multiple postmodification with single head: E.g.: his last brilliant book with multiple head: E.g.: the new chair and table the new but ugly table and chair

55 Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification Multiple postmodification Sequence of premodifiers: Determiner general age color participle provenance noun de-nominal head E.g.: a crumbling church towel the extravagant London social life some intricate old inter-locking Chinese designs

56 Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification with single head: E.g.: the girl in the corner talking to John with multiple head: E.g.: the boy and the girl in the corner talking to John

57 Related Readings Quirk, R. & Greenbaum, S. A University Grammar of English, NXB GTVT, 2002: Chapter 4 & Chapter 13


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