Presentation on theme: "Corinne Maxwell-Reid The Chinese University of Hong Kong"— Presentation transcript:
1Corinne Maxwell-Reid The Chinese University of Hong Kong Using SFL in contrastive work across languages: an example from Spanish-English bilingual educationCorinne Maxwell-ReidThe Chinese University of Hong Kong
2Using SFL in contrastive work across languages: an example from Spanish-English bilingual education The study: the effect of studying through English on students’ L1 (Spanish) written discourseIssues with contrastive work across languages: without & within SFL
3Overview Context of study Contrastive work outside SFL (CR) Historical stages of CR & current positionAssumptions as to Spanish-English discourse differences & how they are investigatedContrastive work within SFLAdvantages & difficultiesDifferences Spanish-English: ThemeThe study:Analysis & FindingsPossible explanations & avenues for future research
4Context & reason for study EMI/CLIL context: Spanish Ministry of Education (M.E.C.)/British Council Bilingual ProjectPrimary sector >Secondary sector >Partial EMI: English, Social Sciences & Science/IT through EnglishIncrease in CLILprevious research in CLILEnglish and other languages in EuropeThis study: compares argumentative texts written in Spanish by 24 EMI students and 24 SMI students (3rd year secondary) in terms of assumptions as to Spanish-English differences; today looking at half the texts (12 EMI & 12 SMI)
6The three ages of Contrastive rhetoric (CR): beginnings & early years Kaplan (1988) on roots of CR: Firthian linguistics, Prague School, text linguisticsThe birth of CR: Kaplan ‘doodle’ paper, ‘Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural education’(1966)Criticisms of early CRUnclear methodologyAnglocentricPositivesUsing ‘data’; Beyond the sentenceStudents from other cultures not just bad writersDeveloping CRText linguisticsAdvances in comparability, replicable; valuing of non-English traditionsContinued criticism: deterministic; producing static binaries; seeing concrete, unchanging entities; with a deficit approach (Zamel 1997)Nevertheless, the early achievements of Kaplan and CR were to take the study of language beyond word and sentence level to the paragraph, and show teachers in the Anglo-Saxon world that their students from other cultures were not bad writers, but writing from another tradition with different understandings of good writing (Canagarajah 2002; Connor 2002).
7CR methodology: 12 steps + explanation (Connor & Moreno 2005) Formulating clear hypotheses about the relationship between writing cultures and how textual meanings are expressed.Defining the population of expert L1 texts that can be considered comparable and specifiying the basis for the similarity constraints.Selecting a representative sample of the population in each writing culture being compared.Identifying comparable textual units, e.g. (a) moves such as establishing the territory or creating a niche; (b) discourse functions such as defining or evaluating; (c) pragmatic functions such as requesting or apologizing; and (d) relational functions (i.e. coherence relations such as cause-effect or claim-support).Validating those units of analysis as functional or pragma-discursive units recognizable by language users in each culture either through literature review or further research (e.g. through interviews with L1 informants).
85. (Cont.) This verification would allow the researcher to propose these units as language/textual universals, which can be taken as qualitative constants for the two languages compared and allow juxtaposition of comparable rhetorical phenomena.6. Quantifying the occurrence of these textual universals in each corpus. […]7. Devising objective criteria to describe the textual realizations of the universals proposed in the two languages. … designing specific criteria that do not privilege one language over the other. [..]8. Applying the devised analytical criteria to the description of the two corpora independently.9. Juxtaposing the taxonomies.10. Contrasting the quantitative results for each comparable qualitative category.11. Interpreting the significance of quantitative similarities and differences through statistical analysis.12. Drawing conclusions about the relationship between writing cultures and how textual meanings are expressed on the basis of the comparative results.
9The present: CR to IR - Intercultural Rhetoric & underlying problems CR -> IR (Connor et al 2008): definition of rhetoric as ‘communication, shaped by situation’, ‘impact on consumer’; using overlapping theories/methods; writing as social construction; ‘everything exists between cultures’ (Connor 2008)text analysis in CR x-> ‘reliable understanding of the context’ (culture), text-context link often ‘no better than guesswork’, need ‘methodological link between text & context’ in IR (Li 2008)Methodology stage 13: explanation; provide richer description & focus on correspondingly smaller cultureExplanations without underlying theory
10CR investigations into intuitions of Spanish-English differences Complexity: words/sentence, t-unit, clause (S>E)Complexity: ‘subordination’ (S>E, sometimes E>S)In/direct; digression; valuing form v content: text structure/metatext (E>S); thematic progressionIm/personal: unclear; overgeneralising
11Thematic progression in CR Previous studies use Prague School work in a range of wayswith ‘theme’ variously interpreted, often conflated withtopic and with no structural characteristic. They usevariations on two main patterns:‘repeated theme’ pattern (Constant Theme)The cat sat on the mat. The cat was black.rheme -> theme pattern (Linear Theme)The cat sat on the mat. The mat was hairy.English text is found to use both more than Spanish does; LT in particular
12SFL toolsComplexity: within & between clauses; ranking clauses & embedded clausesGenre analysis: stagingThematic progressionTheme analysis (Textual & Interpersonal, inc 1st person projection)Theme is the “point of departure of the message … which locates and orients the clause within its context” (IFG3p64); Theme is located at the beginning of the clause and extends up to the first experiential element: “This means that the Theme of a clause ends with the first constituent that is either participant, circumstance or process.” (IFG3p79)Theme, much disputed, most common interpretation… (if not before when CR -> SFL)
13Key differences in Spanish-English language resources & issues for analysis: Subject & clitics Explicit subject less often needed in SpanishTengo hambre.[I] have (1s) hunger – I’m hungryRecogió el papel‘She picked up the paper.’ (SFGS)Process is thus the first experiential element in many Spanish clauses.Clitics (weak pronouns)are bound to the verb; orthographically separate when before the verb, but cannot act independently of the verb – can they be thematic independent of the verb?
14Theme as 1st experiential element for Spanish: effect on thematic progression analysis Taboada (2004): Finite as experiential Theme – verb stem, not participant suffixes.Text with constant participant (suffix) but changing process (vb stem) analysed as having a high number of new Themes (Themes not mentioned before)Equivalent English text with repetition of Subject pronoun analysed as constant ThemeUsing English-based thematic analysis leads to the conclusion that Spanish text is more digressive
15Arguments for extending Theme beyond 1st experiential element Theme as wave/ continuum of diminishing prominence; not discrete but discrete units needed for analysis; boundary depends on purpose (Berry 1996; Thompson 2007)Participant identities have special importance – often the most consistent thematic elements; needed to track method of development (Downing 1991; Lavid et al 2010; Rose 2001)Language-specific strategies other than sequencing to resolve the “competition for thematic status” (Rose 2001: 112): conflation & use of cliticsAdd eg of word order possibilities – Pedro buying a house etc. Clitics not used to get thematic status in Spanish though, as theme without following part??
16ConflationConflation: two functions within one element, here process and participant identity in the Finite, as stem verb and suffixTengo hambre.‘I’m hungry.’Recogió el papel‘She picked up the paper’
17Spanish Theme structure: SFGS’s response to the issues Experiential Theme‘She picked up the paper’Experiential themeRhemePre-Head HeadRecogióel papel(pick up) s pastthe paperUsing interpretation of Theme as extending up to “the first element with a function in the experiential configuration of the clause which is more central to the unfolding of the text by allowing the tracking of the discourse participants” p299
18Effect on thematic progression analysis She picked up the paperand went to her room.Thematic fieldRhematic fieldTextualExperientialPre-HeadHeadRecogió3s pastel papelYse fuea su cuarto.
19SFGS Theme analysisShe picked up the paper and went to her room. Furtively, she hid it in a drawer, …Thematic fieldRhematic fieldOuter Thematic fieldInner Thematic fieldTextualInterpersonalAbsoluteExperientialPre-HeadHeadRecogió3s pastel papelyse fuea su cuarto.Furtivamenteloguardó en un cajón
20SFGS: Absolute ThemeThe rest of the disk, honestly, I don’t know how to define it.The rest of the disk, the truth, no know-1s how to define itThematic fieldRhematic fieldOuter Thematic fieldInner Thematic fieldAbsoluteInterpersonalExperientialPre-HeadHeadEl resto del disco,la verdad,no sé1s Prcómo definirlo.
21Summary of analysis for school uniform texts Clause complexing & unitsText structure framework & signalling (two-sided discussion; not explicitly taught)Theme:Interpersonal Theme (1st person projecting)TextualThematic progressionmain strategy per texttotal no. CP & LP patterns
22Student text promptAt the moment, only students at private schools wear a uniform. However, some politicians also want public schools to have a uniform for their students. Do you think it is a good idea for public schools to have school uniform? Write a page for your school magazine on this question, explaining your opinion on the topic. Include examples to help make your explanations clear.
23The student texts (Spanish) EMI studentsSMI studentsTotal words15482201Total sentences/t-units68/9878/132Words per text129183Words per sentence/t-unit23/1628/17Total ranking clauses187241Total embedded clauses70106Ranking clauses per sentence2.753Embedded clauses per sentence/clause1.0/0.41.4/0.4
25EMI student text: clause simplexes 3. Sin embargo también tiene sus contras. 4.a. - El uniforme debe llevarse con zapatos, 4.b. por lo que en los recreos resulte incomodo para practicar algún deporte La economía también influye bastante Algunas personas se sienten discriminadas por el hecho de llevarlo 7. - Con el uniforme no puedes mostrar tu personalidad.
26EMI student text clause simplexes: translation 3. Nevertheless, [it] also has its disadvantages. 4. a. - The uniform should be worn with shoes, 4.b. so in breaktimes it is awkward for doing sport Economics also have quite an influence Some people feel discriminated against by (the act of) wearing it With a uniform you can’t show your personality.
27Text structure EMI texts SMI texts Considers both sides of issue (for/against uniforms)1211Uses 2-sided discussion as organisation71Signals 2-sided organisation63Organised partially by issueOpinion(for/againstuniform) found at:beginning4end2both5
28Translation of EMI student text showing two-sided organisation, opinion, and signalling of framework My opinion is that wearing a uniform has advantages and inconveniences,its advantages are the following:All the school will dress the sameso there won’t be any type of discrimination as regards the subject of clothing,since many people are discriminated against by fault of [because of] the clothing;another advantage is that thanks to the uniform it is more difficult thatthey classify you socially that is to say, by the buying power of your family.The inconveniences are the following:People can’t show their personality,since, your clothing reflects quite a lot your personality,and wearing the uniformeveryone goes [looks] the sameso you can’t show it.All in all my opinion is that schools, be they public or private,should use a uniform,and in this way avoid a lot of conflicts among the students.
291a Mi opinión es que llevar uniforme tiene sus ventajas y sus inconvenientes, 1b sus ventajas son las siguientes:2a Todo el colegio vestirá igual2b por lo que no habría ningún tipo de discriminaciónen cuanto al tema de la vestimenta,2c ya que a muchas personas se les discrimina por culpa de la vestimenta;2d otra ventaja es que gracias al uniforme es más difícil que te clasifiquensocialmente, es decir, por el poder adquisitivo de tu familia.3 Los inconvenientes son los siguientes:4a Las personas no pueden mostrar su personalidad,4b ya que, tu vestimenta refleja bastante tu personalidad,4c y al llevar el uniforme4d todo el mundo va igual4e por lo que no la puedes mostrar.5a En defenitiva mi opinión es que los colegios, <<ya sean públicoso privados>>, deberían incorporar el uniforme5b <<ya sean públicos o privados>>,5c y así evitar muchos conflictos entre los estudiantes.
30Translation: SMI textI believe that the best thing is not to make uniform obligatory in the public schools because it is supposed that in a public school one has more freedom than in a private. In many occasions is good the uniform because in this way you don’t have to choose the clothes the day before and waste time. But it would be good that the uniform was optional because a lot of mothers prefer that their children wear street clothes because it pleases them more [they like them more] and other mothers prefer that yes they wear it because that way they save time and money
31But for children under 12 years old it’s good, for those over 12 nobecause at 12 years old is when you start to change and to see the world in another wayand it pleases you [you like] to wear clothes that please you [that you like]and not always with the uniform.But on the other hand it is good that people wear uniformbecause, supposing that each uniform of each school is different, in this way is everything more ordered.But for me, sincerely, doesn’t please me the uniform [I don’t like uniforms]and prefer to wear my clothesthe clothes that please me [I like].If you wear uniformyou feel forced and less free than if you don’t wear itand I thinkthat since it is obligatory to go to school,that they let us chooseand a bit of freedom would be good.
32SMI text1a Yo creo1b que la mejor es no poner uniforme obligatorio en las escuelas públicas1c porque se supone1d que en una escuela publica se tiene más libertad que en una privada.2a En muchas ocasiones es bueno el uniforme2b porque así no tienes que elegir la ropa el día anterior2c y perder tiempo.3a Pero estaría bien que el uniforme fuera optativo3b porque muchas madres prefieren3c que sus hijos lleven ropa de calle3d porque les gusta más3e y otras madres prefieren3f que sí lo lleven3g porque así se ahorran tiempo y dinero.
334a Pero para los niños menos de 12 años está bien, 4b para los que superan los 12 años no4c porque a los 12 años es cuando empiezas a cambiary a ver el mundo de otra forma4d y le gusta vestirte con ropa que te guste. y no siempre con el uniforme.5a Pero por otra parte está bien que la gente lleve uniforme5b porque, suponiendo que cada uniforme de cada colegio seadistinto, así seria todo mas ordenado.5c <<suponiendo que cada uniforme de cada colegio sea distinto>>6a Pero a mi, sinceramente, no me gusta el uniforme6b y prefiero llevar mi ropa; la ropa que me gusta.7a Si llevas uniforme7b te sientes obligado y menos libre que si nolo llevases7c y yo pienso,7d que ya que es obligatorio ir a la escuela,7e que nos dejen elegir7f y un poco de libertad estaría bien.
34Themes EMI texts SMI texts Themes Total no. % t-units Interpersonal 31 3229221st person projecting18129Textual338464
35Thematic progression Main strategy per text: similar for EMI/SMI Half texts use CP, LP or, more commonly, a combination of CP & LPHalf don’tTotal no. of each pattern:Analysis prior to SFGS:main strategy: EMI using CP, LP or CP/LP more than SMITotals: EMI using LP more than SMI; totals similarEMI student textsSMI student textsTotal%CP233527LP202922
36Summary of differences As with previous studies of Spanish-English text:EMI students more likely to chooseDis/advantages text framework, & to signal that frameworkMore simplexes, in a shorter textMore 1st person projecting clausesIn contrast with previous studies EMI students’ textsshow fewer textual Themes,thematic progression strategies are similar for each group
37Possible influences on the EMI students’ written Spanish English classes: indirect effect of writing taskSocial Science classes: text types, expository and explanatory texts; bullet pointsReading habits: time spent reading English; preferencesProject effect? (group identity, status & conformity)
38Conclusions (not) to be drawn Limitations of studyExposure to EnglishEnglish classesSocial science textsReading habits & attitudesProject effectGlobalisation & homogenisationMethodology & language-specific analysis
39ReferencesArús Hita, J English and Spanish structures: the textual metafunction as a contrastive tool for the analysis of languages. In D. Banks (ed.). Text and Texture: Systemic Functional viewpoints on the nature and structure of text, pp Paris: L’HarmattanBerry, M What is Theme? – A(nother) personal view. In M. Berry, C. Butler, R. Fawcett and G. Huang. Meaning and choice in language: Studies for Michael Halliday, pp Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Caffarel, A., J.R.Martin and C.M.I.M. Matthiessen (eds.). Language typology: A functional perspective. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Canagarajah, S Multilingual writers and the academic community: towards a critical relationship. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 1:Connor, U. and A. Moreno Tertium comparationis: a vital component in contrastive rhetoric research. In Bruthiaux, P., D. Atkinson, W. Eggington, W. Grabe & V. Ramanathan. Directions in Applied Linguistics: Essays in honor of Robert B. Kaplan, pp Cleveland: Multilingual Matters.Connor, U., E. Nagelhout & W. Rozycki (eds.) Contrastive Rhetoric: Reaching to intercultural rhetoric. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
40Downing, A An alternative approach to theme: a sytemic-functional perspective. Word 42/2:Kaplan, R ‘Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural education’. Language Learning 16, nos. 1 and 2, pp.1-20.Kaplan, R Contrastive rhetoric and second language learning: notes toward a theory of contrastive rhetoric. In A. Purves (ed.). Writing across languages and cultures: Issues in contrastive rhetoric, pp Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Lavid, J., J. Arús and J.R. Zamorano-Mansilla Systemic Functional Grammar of Spanish: A contrastive study with English. London: Continuum.Li, X From contrastive rhetoric to intercultural rhetoric: A search for collective identity. In U. Connor, E. Nagelhout & W. Rozycki (eds.).Rose, D Some variations in Theme across languages. Functions of Language 8/1:Thompson, G Unfolding Theme: the development of clausal and textual perspectives on Theme. In R. Hasan, C. Matthiessen & J. Webster (eds.). Continuing Discourse on Language: A Functional Perspective, vol 2, pp London: Equinox.Zamel, V Toward a model of transculturation. TESOL Quarterly, 31: