A skills development activity for GCSE

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A skills development activity for GCSE
What’s the conclusion? Student Sheets A skills development activity for GCSE

Contents Sheet number Title Notes SS1 Test results (reusable)
b is a version for higher ability students. SS2 Program outline (consumable) SS3 Hazard perception (reusable) b is a version for higher ability students SS4 Flow chart (reusable) SS5 Flow chart (teacher guide) SS6 Report from the Daily Post (reusable) SS7 Marking guide (reusable) For teacher use but can be used by students for self/peer assessment SS8 Flow chart (reusable) Optional extra for the explain task SS9 Flow chart (teachers guide)

mean reaction time (ms) mean hand-eye coordination score
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS1a Test results group 1 group 2 group 3 alcohol only (same amount as Buzz) alcohol plus 50 mg of caffeine (half amount of Buzz) alcohol plus 100 mg of caffeine (same amount as Buzz) mean reaction time (ms) before after before after before after mean hand-eye coordination score before after before after before after © OCR 2012

Test results increase in reaction time (ms) amount of caffeine (mg)
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS1b Test results increase in reaction time (ms) amount of caffeine (mg) Buzz (100 mg) decrease in hand-eye coordination test score amount of caffeine (mg) Buzz (100 mg) © OCR 2012

OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
SS2 Program outline Intro: Abigail, our presenter, introduces Buzz and discusses the hypothesis we are testing. Our prediction is that drinking both caffeine and alcohol together will result in their effects being cancelled out. The tests: Reaction times and hand-eye coordination: Abigail explains the tests and discusses the results. Write conclusions to describe what the evidence shows. Do both pieces of evidence match our prediction? If so, describe our conclusion and the evidence that we collected which supports it. The controversy: Abigail explains that it seems that the makers are claiming that you can drink Buzz and drive. We discuss the hazard perception results. Explain how confident we are in the hypothesis that the effects of alcohol are cancelled out by caffeine. Do we think you can drink Buzz and drive? Wrapping up: Abigail gives our final thoughts. How could we make our conclusion more secure? © OCR 2012

Hazard perception group 1 group 2 group 3 The test Method
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS3a Hazard perception The test You take a driving hazard perception test. The higher your score out of 50, the more aware you are of hazards when driving. Method 120 people were split into 3 groups and each person did the test. The people in each group drank a different drink. They waited 20 minutes and did the test again. alcohol only (same amount as Buzz) alcohol plus 50 mg of caffeine (half amount of Buzz) group 1 group 2 group 3 alcohol plus 100 mg of caffeine before after before after before after mean score © OCR 2012

amount of caffeine taken (mg)
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS3b Hazard perception The test You take a driving hazard perception test. The higher your score out of 50, the more aware you are of hazards when driving. Method 120 people were split into 7 groups. Each person did the test and then was given a drink that contained: A fixed amount of alcohol (same as Buzz) A different amount of caffeine (between 0-150mg) The people were not told what was in their drink. They waited 20 minutes and did the test again. decrease in score amount of caffeine taken (mg) Buzz (100 mg) © OCR 2012

? ? ? START HERE No No Yes Yes No Yes Look at all the evidence.
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS4 Look at all the evidence. START HERE ? ? No No Does most of the evidence match your predictions? Does it all match your predictions? Yes Yes You can have a HIGH level of confidence in the hypothesis. You can have a LOW level of confidence in the hypothesis. Your cannot draw a clear conclusion about whether the hypothesis is correct. Describe the evidence that supports it. Describe the evidence that supports and opposes it. Describe the evidence that opposes it. Look at the method used to collect each piece of evidence. ? Are there errors that could lead to inconsistent results? No The hypothesis could be wrong. Yes Describe how to improve the method, to see if the hypothesis is really correct. Suggest other hypotheses that would explain the results you got. © OCR 2012

? ? ? Teacher notes START HERE No No Yes Yes No Yes
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS5 Look at all the evidence. START HERE Teacher notes ? The reaction times tests and hand-eye coordination do but not the hazard perception test. ? No No Does most of the evidence match your predictions? Does it all match your predictions? Yes Yes You can have a HIGH level of confidence in the hypothesis. You can have a LOW level of confidence in the hypothesis. Your cannot draw a clear conclusion about whether the hypothesis is correct. Describe this and the evidence that supports it. Describe the evidence that supports and opposes it. Describe the evidence that opposes it. The effects of alcohol are not cancelled out by the affects of caffeine (or it does but at concentrations not tested) Discussion about the results from the tests. Look at the method used to collect each piece of evidence. ? Students could take both routes here to a certain extent. Good area for debate – the students may spot some parts of the test that they feel were mistakes e.g. not waiting long enough after drinking and before taking the test. Are there any mistakes that could lead to inconsistent results? No The hypothesis could be wrong. Yes Describe how to improve the method, to see if the hypothesis is really correct. Suggest other hypotheses that would explain the results you got. © OCR 2012

OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS6 Report from The Daily Post Research published last week found that a chemical found in broccoli slows down the growth of cancer cells. Scientists grew cancer cells and normal healthy cells outside of the body. They then added different concentrations of the chemical to each (higher than amounts naturally found in broccoli) and measured the growth of the cells. These graphs show the results: graph A graph B Our conclusion from this study is that eating broccoli can prevent the growth of cancer. growth of normal cells growth of cancer cells concentration of chemical added concentration of chemical added 1 Use the results on graph A to explain how The Daily Post came up with their conclusion. 2 Study graph B. a Comment on how confident you are with their conclusion and explain why. b What further data would help you to be more confident in the conclusion? © OCR 2012

Report from The Daily Post : Marking Guide
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS7 SS9 Report from The Daily Post : Marking Guide Working critically with science General criteria Report from The Daily Post Typical student response Low demand Explain how a conclusion is based on the scientific evidence which has been collected. The Daily Post came up with their conclusion that eating broccoli can prevent the growth of cancer. The results in graph A shows that as you increase the concentration of the chemical found in broccoli, the growth of cancer cells slows down. (1-2 marks) Standard demand Discuss the level of confidence in a conclusion based on the identification of a qualitative relationship between variables and the way further predictions can lead to more evidence being obtained. As above plus: Graph B shows that the increasing the concentration of the chemical found in broccoli also slows down the growth of normal, healthy cells. This shows that the chemical could slow down the growth of all cells in the body, not just cancer cells. (3-4 marks) High demand Identify and critically analyse conflicting evidence, or weaknesses in the data, which lead to different interpretations, and give a detailed explanation of what further data would help to make the conclusion more secure. Confidence in The Daily Post’s conclusion is low because the concentrations of chemicals used in the experiments were much higher than what is normally found in broccoli. This means that eating broccoli will not provide the body with a high enough concentration of the chemical to affect cancer cells. The tests were done on cells outside of the body so the effects of the chemical inside the body may be totally different for example, the chemical may be digested in the stomach and never enter the bloodstream. Also, it might be more or less effective on different types of cancer cell e.g. might be highly effective on (say) stomach cancer cells but less effective on (say) brain cancer cells. Further data needs to be collected using the same concentration as found in broccoli on cancer cells inside a human body. (5-6 marks) © OCR 2012

OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION?
SS8 START HERE Look at the 1st piece of evidence (graph/chart/table) Describe what it shows. Describe how you think the problem led to inconsistent results. Yes Look at the 2nd piece of evidence (graph/chart/table) ? ? Can you find any problems? Describe what it shows. Yes ? Do both pieces of evidence match your prediction? No Your cannot draw a clear conclusion, as the results are inconsistent. Describe the evidence which supports and opposes the hypothesis. Look at the method used to collect each piece of evidence. You can draw a clear conclusion to answer the original question. Write the conclusion and describe the evidence that supports it. © OCR 2012

? ? ? Teacher notes START HERE Yes No Yes
OCR SKILLUP : WHAT’S THE CONCLUSION? SS9 START HERE Look at the 1st piece of evidence (graph/chart/table) Teacher notes Drinking Buzz will result in no change to your reaction times. They clearly show that as the amount of caffeine increases the depressive effects of the alcohol are cancelled out. Describe what it shows. Describe how you think the problem led to inconsistent results. Yes Look at the 2nd piece of evidence (graph/chart/table) ? ? Drinking Buzz will very slightly decrease your hand-eye coordination (around one less ball caught in 30 seconds). They clearly show that as the amount of caffeine increases the depressive effects of the alcohol are cancelled out. Can you find any problems? Describe what it shows. The prediction is that drinking buzz will result in no change to reaction times and hand-eye coordination and both sets of results show that this is true. Yes ? Do both pieces of evidence match your prediction? No Your cannot draw a clear conclusion, as the results are inconsistent. Describe the evidence which supports and opposes the hypothesis. Look at the method used to collect each piece of evidence. You can debate here that this route should be taken in light of the hand-eye coordination results. Do the students think that this result is enough proof that the results are inconsistent? You can draw a clear conclusion to answer the original question. Write the conclusion and describe the evidence that supports it. The conclusion is that drinking Buzz has no effect on reaction times and hand-eye coordination, and this is supported by the data. © OCR 2012

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