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The Last Leaf O. Henry. Pre-reading Task True Friends.

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1 The Last Leaf O. Henry

2 Pre-reading Task True Friends

3 True Friends (1) People today, in all this new world technology and thinking, have lost sight of what a true friendship is. So, in sprit of my best friend Tellie, I thought I would help the world out a little and explain what real, true friends are.

4 True Friends (2) 1. Friends don't have to be exactly the same. Friends have similarities but they also have their differences. They key to opening up the world of friendship is not only to expand on similarities but to accept each other's faults. Because you can't ever judge your friend.

5 True Friends (3) 2. Friends have to argue! No one likes to but it is necessary to be healthy. Cause if you agree on everything, either the government has expanded cloning subjects or someone isn't being true and is trying a little too hard.

6 True Friends (4) 3. You have to be comfortable together or else you just aren't going to click. If you feel edgy around the person then something isn't quite right.

7 True Friends (5) 4. Friends love unconditionally. They have there little angry moments but what's done is done and all is forgive and forget. Why let something that happened in the past ruin what happiness you could have in the future?

8 True Friends (6) 5. Believe in love at first sight because there is the equivalent in friendship. Some people think that you have to know someone really well to become good friends. Trust me, it's not true. If the first time you really spend time together you talk for 25 hours straight until 4:30 in the morning about some topic you thought no one else in the world understood, hun, that's real love at first sight.

9 True Friends (7) These are only a few of the basics. Just remember, friends are forever. But only if you keep it that way. Don't diss your buds, love them instead. And when they drive you nuts, love them that much more for being just a little bit different and maybe just a little bit quirky! Once more

10 Questions for discussion 1.What is your definition of friendship? 2.Faith, hope and charity are traditionally grouped together as three important virtues. What do you think of it? 3.Some say that charity begins at home, that we should take care of those closest to us rather than worrying about strangers. What do you think of that? 4.Can you figure out what the stories of this unit are going to be about?

11 Cultural Notes Who is him? O. Henry ( )

12 O. Henry ( ): pseudonym of William Sydney Porter( ), American writer of short stories, best known for his ironic plot twists and surprise endings. Born and raised in Greensboro, North Carolina, O. Henry attended school only only until age 15, when he dropped out to work in his uncle ’ s drugstore.

13 During his 20s he moved to Texas, where he worked for more than ten years as a clerk and a bank teller. O. Henry did not write professionally until he reached his mid-30s, when he sold several pieces to the Detroit Free Press and the Houston Daily Post. In 1894 he founded a short-lived weekly humor magazine, The Rolling Stone.

14 In 1896 O. Henry was charged with embezzling funds from the First National Bank of Austin, Texas, where he had worked from 1891 to The amount of money was small and might have been an accounting error; however, he chose to flee to Honduras rather than stand trial.

15 Learning that his wife was dying, he returned to Texas in 1897 and, after her death, turned himself in to the authorities. He served three years of a five-year sentence a the federal penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio, where he first began to write short stories and use the pseudonym O. Henry.

16 Released from prison, O. Henry moved to New York City in 1901 and began writing full time. In his storieds he made substantial use of his knowledge of Texas, Central America, and life in prison. He also became fascinated by New York street life, which provided a setting for many of his later stories.

17 During the last ten years of his life, O. Henry became one of the most popular writers in America, publishing over 500 short stories in dozens of widely read periodicals.

18 O. Henry ’ s most famous stories, such as “ The Gift of the Magi, ” “ The Furnished Room, ” and “ The Ransom of Red Chief, ” make simple yet effective use of paradoxical coincidences to produce ironic endings.

19 For example, in “ The Gift of the Magi ” a husband sells his watch to buy his wife a Christmas present of a pair of hair combs; but, she cuts and sells her long hair to buy him a Christmas present of a new chain for his watch. His style of storytelling became a model not only for short fiction, but also for American motion pictures and television programs.

20 Writing at the rate of more than one story per week, O. Henry published ten collections of stories during a career that barely spanned a decade. They are Cabbages and Kings (1904), The Four Million (1906), Heart of the West (1907), The trimmed Lamp (1907), The Gentle Grafte r(1908), The Voice of the City(1908), Options(1909), Roads of Destiny(1909), Whirligigs(1910), and Strictly Business(1910).

21 The collections Sixes and Sevens (1911), Rolling Stones (1912), and for the best American short stories published each year were founded by the Society of Arts and Sciences. The Complete Works of O. Henry was published in 1953.

22 The last leaf

23 Pre-questions (1) Q1:What was, at first, Johnsy determined to do if the last ivy leaf should fall? A1:She made up her mind to die when the last leaf fell. Q2:What did she decide to do when she saw the last leaf still cling to the vine after two nights ’ rain and wind? A2:She decided not to give up her life.

24 Pre-questions (2) Q3:How was it that the cold fierce wind did not blow away the last leaf? A3:Behrman, a kind neighbor, who was aware of Johnsy ’ s state of mind, risked death to paint the last leaf and save her. Q4:Why did Sue call the painted leaf Behrman ’ s masterpiece? A4:Because it was so perfect the girls both mistook it for the real thing.

25 Text Organization ScenesParagraphsCharactersEvents 1Paraa 1-2Sue, JohnsySue’s roommate Johnsy caught pneumonia 2Paras 3-8The doctor, Sue The doctor told Sue that Johnsy needed a strong will to live on. 3Paras 9-17Johnsy, SueJohnsy decided that she would die when the last ivy leaf fell. 4Paras 18-21Behrman, Sue Sue told Behrman about Johnsy’s fancy.

26 Text Organization Scene s Paragraph s CharactersEvents 5Paras Sue, Johnsy As Johnsy was encouraged by the last leaf that wouldn’t give in to the weather, her will to live returned. 6Paras The doctor, Sue The doctor told Sue that Johnsy would recover, but Behrman caught pneumonia himself and his case was hopeless 7Paras Sue, Johnsy Sue told Johnsy that Behrman had performed a kind deed without any thought of self

27 Language Study: in tune in tune: harmonious(ly (often followed by with; the opposite: out of tune)) Examples: His ideas are in tune with the times. His ideas are in tune with the times. The price of gold coins fluctuates in tune with that of commodities. The price of gold coins fluctuates in tune with that of commodities. Her character is quite out of tune with her beauty. Her character is quite out of tune with her beauty.

28 Language Study: joint joint: held or done by two or more persons together Examples: She had taken he money out of the joint account she had with her husband. She had taken he money out of the joint account she had with her husband. There are a number of different forms of business ownership, such as partnerships corporations and joint ventures. There are a number of different forms of business ownership, such as partnerships corporations and joint ventures. To attract foreign capital, China issued new economic regulations giving more preferential treatment to joint ventures. To attract foreign capital, China issued new economic regulations giving more preferential treatment to joint ventures.

29 Language Study: stalk stalk: (of and evil force) move through (a place) in a threatening way, move quietly and cautiously in order to get near Example: When night falls, danger stalks the streets of the city. When night falls, danger stalks the streets of the city.

30 Language Study: here and there here and there: in various places Example: During the summer vacation he will do a bit of teaching here and there. During the summer vacation he will do a bit of teaching here and there.

31 Language Study: victim victim: person, animal, etc. suffering death, injury or loss Example: Police and hospital records indicate that the majority of victims of domestic violence are women. Police and hospital records indicate that the majority of victims of domestic violence are women.

32 Language Study: scarcely scarcely: not quite; almost not Example: I can scarcely remember when I last ate home-baked bread. I can scarcely remember when I last ate home-baked bread.

33 Language Study: merry merry: happy; cheerful; bright and gay Example: From the other room, we could hear the merry sound of laughter and glasses clinking. From the other room, we could hear the merry sound of laughter and glasses clinking.

34 Language Study: backward backward: with the back or end first Example: The helicopter can travel forward, backward, or sideways. The helicopter can travel forward, backward, or sideways.

35 Language Study: bare bare: without covering, clothing, or decoration Example: Soil held in place by plant roots is less likely to blow or wash away than bare soil. Soil held in place by plant roots is less likely to blow or wash away than bare soil.

36 Language Study: dreary dreary: dull; gloomy; causing low spirits Example: By the time they had waited five hours for their delayed flight, everyone looked dreary. By the time they had waited five hours for their delayed flight, everyone looked dreary.

37 Language Study: in a whisper in a whisper: in a low voice Example: He bent down and addressed her in a whisper. He bent down and addressed her in a whisper.

38 Language Study: hear of hear of : be old about or have knowledge of Examples: Three weeks passed, and nothing was heard of the missing boy. Three weeks passed, and nothing was heard of the missing boy.

39 Language Study: nonsense nonsense: foolish talk, ideas, behavior Example: I think the report is nonsense and nothing but a waste of paper. I think the report is nonsense and nothing but a waste of paper.

40 Language Study: turn loose turn loose: allow ( sth.) to be free of control Example: The sick whale will be taken care of by the scientists before being turned loose. The sick whale will be taken care of by the scientists before being turned loose.

41 Language Study: look the part look the part: have an appearance for a particular job, role, or position Example: I think he must be a captain---- he certainly looks the part. I think he must be a captain---- he certainly looks the part.

42 Language Study: masterpiece masterpiece: a piece of work, esp. art, which is the best of its type or the best a person has done Example: The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn is considered Mark Twain ’ s masterpiece. The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn is considered Mark Twain ’ s masterpiece.

43 Language Study: to excess to excess: to an extreme degree Example: His father never smoked or drank to excess. His father never smoked or drank to excess.

44 Language Study: for the rest for the rest: as regards other matters Example: The book contains some interesting passages about the author ’ s childhood. For the rest, it is rather dull The book contains some interesting passages about the author ’ s childhood. For the rest, it is rather dull

45 Language Study: fierce fierce: 1) violent and angry Example: A fierce police dog was chained to a wall. A fierce police dog was chained to a wall. 2) intense; strong Example: The world is becoming a global market, and the competition is fierce. The world is becoming a global market, and the competition is fierce.

46 Language Study: mock mock: ridicule; make fun of (used in the pattern: mock at sb./sth.) Example: They mocked at him and called him a coward. They mocked at him and called him a coward.

47 Language Study: fancy fancy: sth. Imagined; unfounded opinion or belief Example: The river streamed past my house. The river streamed past my house.

48 Language Study: stream stream: move in a continuous flow, pour out Example: The river streamed past my house. The river streamed past my house.

49 Language Study: persistent persistent: continuing; occurring again and again Example: Neither high prices nor high wages could explain persistent depression and mass unemployment. Neither high prices nor high wages could explain persistent depression and mass unemployment.

50 Language Study: mingle mingle: mix (followed by with) Example: The singer ’ s style mingles jazz and country music. The singer ’ s style mingles jazz and country music.

51 Language Study: pull up pull up: raise Example: I sat at my desk, knees pulled up to my chin. I sat at my desk, knees pulled up to my chin.

52 Language Study: stand out stand out: be easily seen above or among others Example: The working experience in Microsoft last year still stand out in my mind. The working experience in Microsoft last year still stand out in my mind.

53 Language Study: wear away wear away: 1) (of time) pass gradually Example: They didn ’ t reach an agreement. Instead they wore the afternoon away in arguing. They didn ’ t reach an agreement. Instead they wore the afternoon away in arguing. 2) (cause to) become thin or damaged by constant use Example: The steps have been worn away by the feet of thousands of visitors. The steps have been worn away by the feet of thousands of visitors.

54 Language Study: cling to cling to: hold tight to Example: The child is clinging to his mother ’ s legs. The child is clinging to his mother ’ s legs.

55 Language Study: call to call to: attract the attention of (sb.) by speaking out Example: The fisherman called to the villagers on the shore. The fisherman called to the villagers on the shore.

56 Language Study: sin sin: offence against God, religion or good morals Example: In Christian theology, the first sin was committed by Adam. In Christian theology, the first sin was committed by Adam.

57 Language Study: sit up sit up: raise yourself into an upright sitting position after you have been lying down or leaning back Example: The patient is well enough to sit up in bed now. The patient is well enough to sit up in bed now.

58 Language Study: acute acute: 1) (of diseases) coming quickly to the critical stage Example: She was taken to the hospital suffering from acute appendicitis. She was taken to the hospital suffering from acute appendicitis. 2) severe Example: The company is said to be suffering from acute financial difficulties. The company is said to be suffering from acute financial difficulties.

59 Language Study: be wet through be wet through: be wet all over Example: My mother came home wet through. My mother came home wet through.

60 Language Study: flutter flutter: (cause to) move about in a quick, irregular way Example: The ugly ducking fluttered into the milk- pan, and splashed the milk about the room. The ugly ducking fluttered into the milk- pan, and splashed the milk about the room.

61 Post-questions: (for group discussion) 1.Which character in the story impresses you most? Why? 2.What is the essential message the writer wants to convey to his readers through the story? Is it of social significance? Explain. 3.What do you think can support you in your moments of depression, despair or a setback?

62 Translation Translate the following passage into English, using the words and phrases given below: Bare cling to fancy here and there in tune look the part masterpiece persistent to excess stand out Bare cling to fancy here and there in tune look the part masterpiece persistent to excess stand out 我们到处都能看到 “ 抢眼 ” 的青年艺术家。他们要么 一年四季穿着破旧的牛在裤;要么大冬天也打赤 脚;要么饮酒过度;要么就是抱着创作一部杰作 的幻想,实际上并不作任何创作的事。其实,他 们中的很多人只不过是为了看上去像名艺术家, 或为了同其他艺术家 “ 保持一致 ” 才这么做的。他 们忘了,只有通过不懈的努力才能获得成功。

63 Translation: Keys Here and there we see young artists who stand out from other people. They may be in worn out jeans all year round, or walk barefoot/ in bare feet even in winter, or drink to excess, or cling to the fancy of creating a masterpiece without actually doing any creative work. In fact, many of them act like this just to look the part, or to be “ in tune with ” other artists. They have forgotten that only through persistent effort can one achieve success.

64 Test B: Key words exercises (1) 1.Many campers are tempted by backpacks with extra_______, zippers and other options, but a simple, well-made pack is sufficient on most trips. 2.Born in Boston, American natural history writer Elizabeth Cary was educated at home because of ________health. 3.Abstract expressionism involves_______ and splashing paint in an impulsive, loosely controlled manner without any predetermined design. 4.Biological clocks release a hormone that__________ complex behaviors in humans and animals alike. 5.__________, play fair. That is what every mother teaches her child to do.

65 Test B: Key words exercises (2) 6.Early women basketball players were prohibited from______ the ball from the hands of another player. 7.The Ford Trimotor, the first plane designed to carry passengers rather than mail, had an interior cabin with a ceiling high enough for people to walk down the aisle without________. 8.The Andrew Johnson Homestead, where US President Johnson lived between 1851 and 1875, is __________with his original articles. 9.With 1300 meters remaining, Barbara and Decker Slaney were among the group of leading runners. However, the two bumped, causing Barbara to ________. 10.Although all Americans do not speak the same way, their speech _________enough ________so that American English can be recognized as a variety of English different from British English, Australian English, etc.

66 Test B: Key words exercises (3) 11._____________ of the Cluny Museum is a large beautiful garden. 12.Shellery felt a _______ at her heart at the sudden attraction of him, the perfect body and the face that looked so much more natural and attractive out here in the warm southern wind. 13.Dealing with your children ’ s friends who __________round in the evening calls for diplomacy and the setting of time limits. 14.Aunt Louise seemed to swell up, her eyes about to ________of her head. 15.Hearing her baby scream all of a sudden, Robyn made a _________for the bedroom.

67 Test B: Key words exercises (4) 16.Some managed to _________their boat while others were swept uncontrollably downstream. 17.When the thief saw a police officer coming, he ___________in the other direction. 18.They were working_________ in order to finish the assignment on time. 19.If you are __________Sam Walton, you will become a better person. 20.I expect a handsome paycheck when I _________translating this book.

68 Keys: Key words exercises (1) 1.Many campers are tempted by backpacks with extra _straps_, zippers and other options, but a simple, well- made pack is sufficient on most trips. 2.Born in Boston, American natural history writer Elizabeth Cary was educated at home because of _frail_ health. 3.Abstract expressionism involves _dripping_ and splashing paint in an impulsive, loosely controlled manner without any predetermined design. 4.Biological clocks release a hormone that _swiches on_ complex behaviors in humans and animals alike. 5._Behave yourself_, play fair. That is what every mother teaches her child to do.

69 Keys: Key words exercises (2) 6.Early women basketball players were prohibited from _snatching_ the ball from the hands of another player. 7.The Ford Trimotor, the first plane designed to carry passengers rather than mail, had an interior cabin with a ceiling high enough for people to walk down the aisle without _stooping_. 8.The Andrew Johnson Homestead, where US President Johnson lived between 1851 and 1875, is _furnished_ with his original articles. 9.With 1300 meters remaining, Barbara and Decker Slaney were among the group of leading runners. However, the two bumped, causing Barbara to _lose her balance_. 10.Although all Americans do not speak the same way, their speech _has_ enough _in common_ so that American English can be recognized as a variety of English different from British English, Australian English, etc.

70 Keys: Key words exercises (3) 11._At the rear of_ of the Cluny Museum is a large beautiful garden. 12.Shellery felt a _tug_ at her heart at the sudden attraction of him, the perfect body and the face that looked so much more natural and attractive out here in the warm southern wind. 13.Dealing with your children ’ s friends who _pop_ round in the evening calls for diplomacy and the setting of time limits. 14.Aunt Louise seemed to swell up, her eyes about to _pop out_ of her head. 15.Hearing her baby scream all of a sudden, Robyn made a _dash_ for the bedroom.

71 Keys: Key words exercises (4) 16.Some managed to _catch hold of_ their boat while others were swept uncontrollably downstream. 17.When the thief saw a police officer coming, he _took off_ in the other direction. 18.They were working _(at) full blast_ in order to finish the assignment on time. 19.If you are _in contact with_ Sam Walton, you will become a better person. 20.I expect a handsome paycheck when I _am/get through with_ translating this book.

72 Test B: Comprehension Check Choose the best answer for each of the following: 1.The boy fell because____ A.the lady pushed him B.the purse was heavy C.it was dark D.he was running too fast

73 2.The first thing the lady did was to_____ A.make the boy pick up her purse B.make the boy apologize C.shake the boy D.kick the boy

74 3.In answer to the woman ’ s question, the boy____ A.lied B.replied truthfully C.cried D.stayed silent

75 4.We can infer that the woman___ A.owned the house B.rented the house C.rented a room in the house D.none of the above

76 5.We can learn from the story that the boy____ A.was beaten by his parents B.had no parents to care for him C.was stealing because he was hungry D.disliked school

77 6.The woman told the boy that____ A.she too had been poor, but had not tried to steal B.she had also done bad things when she was young C.she knew he was lying when he said he wanted the money for shoes D.she knew it was like to have no one to care for one

78 Comprehension Check: Keys 1. B 2. D 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. B


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