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Dr Sudhir Shah MD DM Neurology Your Well Wisher... www.sudhirneuro.org 2 nd June 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Sudhir Shah MD DM Neurology Your Well Wisher... www.sudhirneuro.org 2 nd June 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Sudhir Shah MD DM Neurology Your Well Wisher nd June 2013

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4 Purpose of life Everybody wants to live Everyone wants to be happy ( nobody wants unhappiness ) Everyone wants peace ( nobody wants otherwise ) Ultimate purpose of life is to enjoy and live happily and make others happy… 4

5 Disclaimer Nobody is perfect and all of us are students Easy to Preach, but not very difficult to Practice Happiness is not really hypothetical Definition of Happiness varies from person to person Also it is dynamic in the same person usually It is journey rather than destination But it is the dialogue we have to initiate now... 5

6 Plan of my talk Defining Happiness Psychology of Happiness Neuroscience of Happiness Measuring Happiness How to be Happy Philosophical and Spiritual perspective 6

7 Happiness Defined Aristotle put it, “Happiness is the meaning and purpose of life, the whole aim and the end of human existence”! 7

8 Happiness is: A pleasant feeling A positive evaluation or judgment A favorable explanation after the fact An optimistic expectation A sense of inner peace A sense of connectedness A spiritual experience Happiness Redefined 8

9 Psychology and Evolutionary History The Triune Brain 9

10 But to Cope with Urgent Needs, We Leave Home... Avoid : When we feel threatened or harmed Leads to Anxiety disorders; PTSD; panic, terror; rage; violence → leads to insecurity & pessimism Approach : When we can’t attain important goals Leads to Addiction; over-drinking, -eating, -gambling; compulsion; hoarding; driving for goals at great cost→ Frustration & disappointment Attach : When we feel isolated, disconnected, unseen, unappreciated, unloved Leads to Borderline, narcissistic, antisocial PD; symbiosis; folie a deux; “looking for love in all the wrong places” → Rejection, unloved This is the brain in its reactive mode of functioning - a kind of inner homelessness 10

11 Three Levels of Happiness Three levels of happiness : pleasure, joy and bliss All people fall into one of three groups... those who are spiritually awake, those who are asleep and those who are somewhere in the middle. Your own personal definition of happiness will depend on which of these groups you belong to 11

12 Pleasure For those who are largely asleep Happiness is sought from outer world and is characterized by pleasure Sensual, instinctual and physiological Always perpetual and demand for more and more. Leads to inevitable pain ANIMAL INSTINCT 12

13 Where they find pleasure Food Sex Places Listening Music Fragrance 13

14 What does it do for you? 14

15 fMRI during visual imagery 15

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17 Physical Pleasure and the Ventral Striatum When people experience physical pleasure, the ventral striatum is activated (George, 1995) 17

18 Chemicals of Pleasure 18

19 NORMALDEFICIENT SEROTONIN you’re positive, confident, flexible, and easy going Become negative, obsessive, worried irritable, and sleepless CATECHOLAMINE you’re energized, upbeat, and alert you can sink into a flat, lethargic mood DOPAMINE You’re more talkative and excitable. It affects brain processes ability to experience pleasure and pain Have depression, chronic boredom, loss of satisfaction, chronic fatigue, mood swings and poor attention 19

20 Joy Begin to feel happy for no particular reason Comes from inner world (self) More psychological Refined Desires Through service to mankind, success, achievements & spiritual practices like prayer, chanting, religious reading and satsang JOY is HUMAN JO 20

21 Achievement 21

22 Engagement 22

23 Meaning 23

24 Spiritual practices 24

25 Abstract perception of joy 25

26 Neural circuitry of Joy 26

27 Chemicals of Joy NORMALDEFICIENCY OXYTOCIN Good social recognition, calm and relaxed mood, ego faculty Become negative, depressed, socially withdrawn, anxious VASOPRESSIN Good social Recognition, Prompt responsive, attentive for stressful situations Socially withdrawn, feel overwhelmed in stressful situations 27

28 Bliss The highest state Here mind and all its activity ceases Our consciousness becomes identified with universal consciousness Experience of just being Permanent meditative state Fully awake PIOUS PERSONS 28

29 Inner Peace Inner Peace refers to a state of being “mentally” and “spiritually” at peace, with enough knowledge and understanding to keep oneself strong in the face of discord or stress. Peace of mind is generally associated with happiness, bliss and contentment 29

30 Mindfulness Practice Observing the body and mind intentionally Letting experiences unfold from moment to moment and accepting them as they are Observing thoughts without getting caught up in them. No effort to control anything except the focus and direction of the attention. Not a passive process, yet does not involve trying to get anywhere Eating meditation, sitting meditation, working meditation and meditation during each act is the goal of mindfulness practice 30

31 Meditation  Patanjal Dhyana  Anapan Sati  Smriti Upasthan  Vipashyana  Preksha Dhyana  Jain Dhyana  Spand Dhyana  Mantra Dhyana  Nabhi Dhyana  Swapna Dhyana  Nidra Dhyana  Yoga nidra, Nyas  Kriya Yoga  Mrutyu Dhyana  T.S Meditation  Kundalini  Kayotsarga  Tratak  Suryasamyam  Adarshdhyana (mirror)  Swaminarayan Dhyana  Arup Dhyana  Purnayoga Dhyana  Atit Dhyana (past)  Bhavidhyana (future)  Sarpalanchan Dhyana  Samarpana Dhyana  Tathata  Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation)  Sahaj Dhyana  Your own system All methods are great 31

32 Vipashyana Operation of the mind, by the mind Calm and quiet mind Awake and attentive mind Equanimous mind 32

33 symbolic representation of the self 33

34 Neural Circuits of Meditation 34

35 Endorphins 35

36 Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus Prefrontal cortex Glutamate Endorphins Activation by Meditation Experience of Well being

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38 Reticular nucleus of Thalamus Glutamate GABA Inhibition of Superior Parietal lobe Experience of just being Prefrontal cortex Activation by Meditation

39 The process of meditation apparently increases activation in the prefrontal cortex and stimulates the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, leading to release of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GABA have a central role in cortical inhibition and Cortical Silent Period, modulating cortical excitability and neural plasticity 39

40 Blissful chemicals NORMALDEFICIENT ENDORPHINS you’re full of cozy feelings of comfort, pleasure, and euphoria. you may be crying during commercials and overly sensitive to hurt. GABA you’re relaxed and stress-free. you’ll be wired, stressed, and overwhelmed 40

41 So, in conclusion Pleasure is dependent on others, joy less so and bliss is completely independent of anything Pleasure is animal, joy is human and bliss is next to Divine 41

42 Three levels of Happiness PLEASURE JOY BLISS Time and knowledge Happiness Worldly things Serotonin, Dopamine, Catachoalmines Happiness within Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Dopamine Being part of something bigger than yourself GABA, Endorphins 42

43 Instruments Used in the Study of the Brain and Happiness Can we really measure happiness, and how? Who would know better than Neurologists and psychologists? 43

44 Neuropsychological testing (three level questions ) 1) How are you feeling right now (from 1 to 7)? Introspection 2) All things considered, how happy are you these days (from 1 to 7)? Introspection, comparative judgement 3) On the whole, how good do you think your life is (from 1 to 7)? Introspection, comparative judgement, relative to conception of ‘the good life’ 44

45 Happiness ‘Continuum’ Level 1 - Momentary feelings - Mood - Pleasures - Not suffering Level 2 -Judgements about feelings -Net level 1 happiness -Well-being -satisfaction Level 3 -Holistic evaluation of value of life -Flourishing -Needn’t include pleasures More emotional, sensual, and reliable More cognitive, moral, and easily biased 45

46 Electroencephalogram (EEG) 46

47 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses changes in electrically charged molecules when they are place in a magnetic field to assess differences in cerebral activity in different regions of the brain 47

48 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) tracks the brain’s blood flow and oxygen use - two measures of neuron activity fMRI is useful to find out emotional processing in particular areas of brain 48

49 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are good for showing the many brain structures that may be involved in a functions like pleasure and help to examine the processing of neurotransmitters 49

50 The Brain and Happiness Different components of happiness are found in different areas of the brain. That is, happiness does not seem to have a clearly defined neurobiological home 50

51 Happiness and the Pre-frontal Cortex Laughter responses are generated in the prefrontal cortex. (George, 1995) Pleasant film clips, pleasant tastes, &cash incentives increase left pre-frontal cortex activity Unpleasant film clips, unpleasant tastes, and a threat of cash loss raise activity in the right pre-frontal cortex 51

52 Happiness, the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Amygdala When people think about good events the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and the amygdala are activated. However, the correlation with optimism was biggest with the cingulate cortex (Phelps & Sharot, 2007) 52

53 Happiness and the Temporal and Parietal Lobes When people feel happy, the characteristic pattern shows a decrease of activity in the brain that are committed to forethought and planning—the temporal and parietal lobe (George, 1995) 53

54 Who is more Happy? Young, middle-aged, or old? Married or Single? Men or Women? Spirituality? Rich vs. Poor? 54

55 Geography of Happiness Green = Happiest > Blue > Purple > Orange > Red = Least Happy; Grey = Data not available 55

56 AGE-WISE: % “Satisfied” or “Very Satisfied” with Life as a Whole Age group Percent 56

57 Gender and Well-Being in Sixteen Nations SatisfiedVery happy Males Females Percent Pooled data from 169,776 interviews. 57

58 Married Never married Separated Divorced 58

59 Spirituality and Happiness LowHigh Percent “very happy” Spiritual commitment 59

60 65 % Very Happy and Felt Closeness to God (n = 9896, NORC, ) 60

61 Money and happiness Money produces short- term benefits; More money will not raise well-being 61

62 Does money buy Happiness? 62

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64 Money and happiness Money can bring security as well as comfort & pleasure It can bring improved standard of living and education But Money corrupts, success corrupts They take away morality, relationships, health, bliss and peace 64

65 Understanding happiness Happiness is not something that happens, that money or power can command It is only by controlling our inner experience that we can become happy Happiness cannot be reached by consciously searching for it 65

66 Money Fame Achievements Awards Possessions Road to Success Road to Joy, Bliss and Peace Godhoodness Spirituality Philosophy Morality Religion 66

67 What do you remember? Applause dies away! Trophies gather dust! Winners are soon forgotten But you remember,the ones who take care of you & appreciate you 67

68 “PHYSICIAN HEAL THYSELF” 68

69 Why Doctors are not happy Professional carrier Teaching Academics Research Administration Family life Children issues Interpersonal relationships Competition Negative emotions like ego jealousy Money, fame Time management Traffic, mobile Staff management Misunderstandings Legal issues Paper work Demanding patients Caregivers stress Physical and Mental HEALTH 69

70 Determinants of Happiness 70

71 Gene therapy VMAT : Vesicular Mono Amine Transporter gene on chromosome 10q25 Produces the sensations of mystic experiences, including the presence of God and spirituality as a state of mind MAOA : Monoamine oxidase A on X chromosome Low-expression is associated with higher self- reported happiness in women 71

72 Determinants of Happiness 72

73 To control your circumstances 1. Reduce your commitments 2. Reduce your interactions with persons sanjog mula jiven pattaa dukha parmpara... The more you have contacts with persons and situations, the more will be your unhappiness ( cascade of problems ) Lord Mahavir 73

74 How to enjoy journey of life ? Key to Happiness Physical Moral Mental Religious Spiritual 74

75 Happiness And Peace : A Physical perspective Eat right Exercise Get enough sleep Good excretory functions ( biju sukh ?! ) Learn to relax Laugh exhaustingly Love abundantly pahelu sukh te jate narya 75

76 GET ENOUGH SLEEP 76

77 Nix Coffee? 77

78 WALKING 78

79 RESISTANCE TRAINING 79

80 VENTING 80

81 Massage 81

82 YOGA 82

83 Laugh frequently At yourself and not others Laugh from the core of your spirit not in artificial ways Learn to laugh out in all mistakes and bad situations 83

84 Smile! Smiling is the main way to tell if someone’s happy… but only if they are real smiles Smile solves many problems 84

85 Silence! Silence avoids so many problems 85

86 Love abundantly 86

87 The Rewards of Love 87

88 Helping Others 88

89 Exercise, Food & Mood (Happy Chemicals)DopamineSerotoninOxytocinEndorphin 89

90 Dopamine The omega-3 fatty acids are proven to create dopamine. Kauncha like seeds also. Useful sources of building blocks for dopamine: Apples Beet Cucumber Green leafy vegetables Honey Cheese Sweet peppers Watermelon 90

91 Serotonin To create serotonin eat low sugar carbohydrates such as fruits and vegetables Bananas are especially powerful serotonin inducers and bring on an immediate calming effect because of the complex B vitamins they have Try some light stretching or breathing exercises along with some soothing music to complete the mood. 91

92 Oxytocin Eating comfort foods: Eating your favorite food such as chocolate, ice-cream or any meal that you really enjoy will release oxytocin 92

93 How Chocolate Could Influence Brain and Behavior 93

94 Endorphin Complex carbs like pasta, breads, and foods with natural glucose, like grapes make the perfect mixture for creating endorphins Eating spicy food like hot chili pepper A routine of aerobic activity: brisk walking, biking, or swimming or massage 94

95 Medical management If happiness has a biological cause in the brain, then we will be able to influence it with drugs, surgery, bionics etc… but should we? If our brains show equal ‘happiness activity’, then are we equally happy? How can we know this? 95

96 Psychological counselling 96

97 Mood elevators 97

98 Future of Happiness 98

99 The God Gene 99

100 Building on Strengths Key to Engagement and Meaning Gratification and satisfaction 100

101 Six Virtues for Gratification From the great philosophies and religions of the world: wisdom and knowledge courage love and humanity justice temperance spirituality and transcendence 101

102 Six Areas of Strength Wisdom & Knowledge Courage, firmness Love, warmth Temperance Transcendence Leadership,Justice 102

103 KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence LEADERSHIP & JUSTICE 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciation of excellence and beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality 103

104 3 “C’s” of Happiness Control CommitmentChallenge 104

105 *Challenge*Openness To New Experiences ExpandingSocialSupportNetwork 105

106 Self Awareness and Reflection *Commitment* 106

107 Self Discipline andSelf*Control* 107

108 Happiness and friendship A person doesn’t need a large number of friends to be happy – he needs one the best friend 108

109 Learning from Children Spend time with children. Learn more about laughter, spontaneity, curiosity, acceptance, resilience, trust, determination, and your imagination They are here to teach us! 109

110 Happiness for children By giving them Your Time Education and knowledge Culture and attitude Wisdom and art 110

111 How to enjoy journey of life ? Key to Happiness Physical Moral Mental Religious Philosophical Spiritual 111

112 Happiness : religious, philosophical and spiritual key 112

113 Address of Happiness At some stage you realize that peace and happiness are not outside The root cause of miseries : thoughts, desires, emotions, ego, attitude, mind wondering between past & future, raga and dwesha ( anger, greed, deceit and passion) …etc all functions of mind 113

114 Thoughts... We are what we think All that we are arises with our thoughts With our thoughts we make the world Speak or act with an impure mind and trouble will follow you, as the wheel follows the ox that draws the cart Your worst enemy cannot harm you as much as your own thoughts, unguarded We are what we think All that we are arises with our thoughts With our thoughts we make the world Speak or act with an impure mind and trouble will follow you, as the wheel follows the ox that draws the cart Your worst enemy cannot harm you as much as your own thoughts, unguarded 114

115 Attitude Attitude is a little thing that makes a big difference 115

116 Attitude “ The Longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. Attitude to me, is more important than facts. It is more important than the past, than education, successes, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearance, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a company…….. a church…. a home. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day. We can not change our past..... we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is to play on the only string we have, and that is our attitude……. I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it. And so it is with you….. We are in charge of our Attitudes ”. - Charles Swindoll 116

117 Forgiveness REACH (Everett Worthington) Recall the hurt Empathize with the perpetrator Altruistic gift of forgiveness Certify you forgive Hold on to the forgiveness Use wisdom and discretion: Typically you do NOT tell the perpetrator that you have forgiven him/her GHALIB…..hum ne jindgi ko aasan kar diya….. 117

118 Interpersonal relationships 1. Altruism & Friendship ( Maitri) 2. Appreciation & Respect ( Pramod ) 3. Equanimity & Guidance ( Madhyastha ) 4. Forgiveness, Compassion & Prayers (Karunya ) 118

119 Acceptance “ God grant me the courage to change the things I can, the serenity to accept the things I cannot, and the wisdom to know the difference.” Cultivating an attitude of non-judgment Acceptance is not resignation It is a realization and appreciation of the inherent imperfections of life 119

120 Buddhism on Happiness There is no fire like desire. There is no weakness like anger. There is no suffering like the khandhas. There is no happiness greater than peace (Dhammapada, 202 & 208) 120

121 Mathematics of happiness Happiness = 2 x happiness 2 Happiness = Objects Desires Total units of Happiness remains same 121

122 Ambitions Where Ambitions end, Happiness begins Amount of balance in the bank at the time of your death is the extra work that you have done, which you should not have done 122

123 ichao rahi jaya Ane swas KhutiI jaya tene Mrutyu kahevay, ichao pauri thai jaya Ane swas rahi jaya tene Moksha kahevay. 123

124 Vaishnavajan Eyes : compassion and satisfaction and not reflecting greed or jealousy ( lobha ) Words : forgiveness, appreciation and care and not anger or criticism ( krodha) Mind : equanimous and fair and not having raga (attachment) or dwesha(disliking ) Emotions : calm and passionless and not having perversions or aspirations ( kama ) Nature : gentle, humble and reliable and not fraudulent or hippocrate ( maya ) Behaviour : Loveful and kind and not hatred or discard 124

125 Religion Opens Doors of Happiness Religion confers upon man eternal life and guides his footsteps in the world of morality It opens the doors of unending happiness and bestows everlasting honor upon the human kingdom It has been the basis of all civilization and progress in the history of mankind 125

126 Ethics 126

127 Spiritual reading Philosophy of Karma 127

128 Satsang 128

129 Chanting 129

130 Prayer : four steps

131 Baseline Scan LIMBIC Comparison of Baseline to Prayer : Limbic inhibition LIMBIC Prayer Scan 131

132 Ratnatrayi Righteous knowledge Righteous perspective Righteous conduct Lead to eternal happiness 132

133 PATANJAL RAJ YOGA Yama : Nonviolence, truth, non-stealing celibacy and aparigriha (Non-collectiveness) Niyama : Purity, Penance (Austerity) Satisfaction Spiritual learning Worship & dedication Asana : Pranayama : Pratyaahar : Dharna : Dhyana : Samadhi : 133

134 T.S.MEDITATION 134

135 Baseline Meditation Prefrontal Cortex SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation 135

136 Superior Parietal Lobe Superior Parietal Lobe Baseline Meditation SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation 136

137 Christian Nuns, Recalling Profound Spiritual Experiences Beauregard, et al., Neuroscience Letters, 9/25/06 137

138 Lazar, et al Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16,

139 Set Peace of mind and Happiness, your highest goal and organize your life around it Ask yourself before each thought, action and speech… whether this will bring happiness and peace 139

140 12 Secrets of Happiness Accept What You Have : NOBODY GETS MORE OR BEFORE Enjoy What You Do and without expectations Live For Today and in this present moment Choose Happiness Improve Relationships… Always appreciate, never criticize Don't Compare, but Be Yourself Preserve health and monitor it Stop Worrying : THIS WILL ALSO GO AWAY Get Organized and financial management Think Positive Moral values : DO ONLY THOSE THINGS TO OTHERS, WHICH… Spiritual practices 140

141 Address of Happiness 1, Spiritual mansion, Meditation hall, Self realization lane, Philosophy society, Charity chowk, Morality area, PIN : Religion station 141

142 Happiness is inside you 142

143 So Remember... Its not easy to find happiness in ourselves, and it is not possible to find it elsewhere The road to success is different from highway to peace, bliss and longevity 143

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146 Great Books Holy vedas, jain aagam, tripitak, patanjal yog sutra, sukh sadhak vidya Austin, J Selfless Insight. MIT Press. Begley. S Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain. Ballantine. Carter, C Raising Happiness. Ballantine. Hanson, R. (with R. Mendius) Buddha’s Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love, and Wisdom. New Harbinger. Johnson, S Mind Wide Open. Scribner. Keltner, D Born to Be Good. Norton. Kornfield, J The Wise Heart. Bantam. LeDoux, J Synaptic Self. Penguin. Linden, D The Accidental Mind. Belknap. Sapolsky, R Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers. Holt. Siegel, D The Mindful Brain. Norton. Thompson, E Mind in Life. Belknap. 146

147 Key Papers - 1 Guglietti CL et al, Meditation-Related Increases in GABA B Modulated Cortical Inhibition, BRAIN STIMULATION,Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages , May 2013 Atmanspacher, H. & Graben, P Contextual emergence of mental states from neurodynamics. Chaos & Complexity Letters, 2: Baumeister, R., Bratlavsky, E., Finkenauer, C. & Vohs, K Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5: Braver, T. & Cohen, J On the control of control: The role of dopamine in regulating prefrontal function and working memory; in Control of Cognitive Processes: Attention and Performance XVIII. Monsel, S. & Driver, J. (eds.). MIT Press. Carter, O.L., Callistemon, C., Ungerer, Y., Liu, G.B., & Pettigrew, J.D Meditation skills of Buddhist monks yield clues to brain's regulation of attention. Current Biology. 15:

148 Key Papers - 2 Davidson, R.J Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 359: Farb, N.A.S., Segal, Z.V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., and Anderson, A.K Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reflection. SCAN, 2, Gillihan, S.J. & Farah, M.J Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 131: Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Meuli, R., Honey, C.J., Wedeen, V.J., & Sporns, O Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex. PLoS Biology. 6: Hanson, R Seven facts about the brain that incline the mind to joy. In Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality. Sounds True. 148

149 Key Papers - 3 Lazar, S., Kerr, C., Wasserman, R., Gray, J., Greve, D., Treadway, M., McGarvey, M., Quinn, B., Dusek, J., Benson, H., Rauch, S., Moore, C., & Fischl, B Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport. 16: Lewis, M.D. & Todd, R.M The self-regulating brain: Cortical-subcortical feedback and the development of intelligent action. Cognitive Development, 22: Lieberman, M.D. & Eisenberger, N.I Pains and pleasures of social life. Science. 323: Lutz, A., Greischar, L., Rawlings, N., Ricard, M. and Davidson, R Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. PNAS. 101: Lutz, A., Slager, H.A., Dunne, J.D., & Davidson, R. J Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 12:

150 Key Papers - 4 Rozin, P. & Royzman, E.B Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5: Takahashi, H., Kato, M., Matsuura, M., Mobbs, D., Suhara, T., & Okubo, Y When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: Neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude. Science, 323: Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M.K., Fan, M., & Posner, M Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. PNAS, 104: Thompson, E. & Varela F.J Radical embodiment: Neural dynamics and consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5: Walsh, R. & Shapiro, S. L The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: A mutually enriching dialogue. American Psychologist, 61:

151 Gratitude Dr. Shailesh Darji Dr. Hansal Bhachech Mr. Chintan Bavishi Dr. Shehnaz Chinwala Dr. Prakash Chauhan Dr. Pratik Shashtri Dr. Amit Bhatt 151

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