3There is no better time to be happy than… Happiness is a Journey,not a destinationThere is no better time to be happy than…NOW!So be Happy Now…
4Purpose of life Everybody wants to live Everyone wants to be happy ( nobody wants unhappiness )Everyone wants peace ( nobody wants otherwise )Ultimate purpose of life is to enjoy and live happily and make others happy…
5Disclaimer Nobody is perfect and all of us are students Easy to Preach, but not very difficult to PracticeHappiness is not really hypotheticalDefinition of Happiness varies from person to personAlso it is dynamic in the same person usuallyIt is journey rather than destinationBut it is the dialogue we have to initiate now...
6Plan of my talk Defining Happiness Psychology of Happiness Neuroscience of HappinessMeasuring HappinessHow to be HappyPhilosophical and Spiritual perspective
7Happiness DefinedAristotle put it, “Happiness is the meaning and purpose of life, the whole aim and the end of human existence”!
8Happiness RedefinedHappiness is: A pleasant feeling A positive evaluation or judgment A favorable explanation after the fact An optimistic expectation A sense of inner peace A sense of connectedness A spiritual experience
9Psychology and Evolutionary History The Triune Brain
10But to Cope with Urgent Needs, We Leave Home . . . Avoid: When we feel threatened or harmedLeads to Anxiety disorders; PTSD; panic, terror;rage; violence → leads to insecurity & pessimismApproach: When we can’t attain important goalsLeads to Addiction; over-drinking, -eating, -gambling; compulsion; hoarding; driving for goals at great cost→ Frustration & disappointmentAttach: When we feel isolated, disconnected, unseen, unappreciated, unlovedLeads to Borderline, narcissistic, antisocial PD;symbiosis; folie a deux; “looking for love in all thewrong places” → Rejection, unlovedThis is the brain in its reactive mode of functioning- a kind of inner homelessness
11Three Levels of Happiness Three levels of happiness : pleasure, joy and blissAll people fall into one of three groups... those who are spiritually awake, those who are asleep and those who are somewhere in the middle.Your own personal definition of happiness will depend on which of these groups you belong to
12Pleasure For those who are largely asleep Happiness is sought from outer world and is characterized by pleasureSensual, instinctual and physiologicalAlways perpetual and demand for more and more. Leads to inevitable painANIMAL INSTINCT
13Where they find pleasure FoodSexPlacesListening MusicFragranceBut does happiness reside here?
19you’re positive, confident, flexible, and easy going NORMALDEFICIENTSEROTONINyou’re positive, confident, flexible, and easy goingBecome negative, obsessive, worried irritable, and sleeplessCATECHOLAMINEyou’re energized, upbeat, and alertyou can sink into a flat, lethargic moodDOPAMINEYou’re more talkative and excitable. It affects brain processes ability to experience pleasure and painHave depression, chronic boredom, loss of satisfaction, chronic fatigue, mood swings and poor attention
20Joy JOY is HUMAN Begin to feel happy for no particular reason Comes from inner world (self)More psychologicalRefined DesiresThrough service to mankind, success, achievements & spiritual practices like prayer, chanting , religious reading and satsangJOY is HUMANJO
27Chemicals of Joy Good social recognition, calm and relaxed mood, NORMALDEFICIENCYOXYTOCINGood socialrecognition, calm and relaxed mood,ego facultyBecome negative, depressed , socially withdrawn , anxiousVASOPRESSINRecognition, Prompt responsive , attentive for stressful situationsSocially withdrawn, feel overwhelmed in stressful situations
28Bliss The highest state Here mind and all its activity ceases Our consciousness becomes identified with universal consciousnessExperience of just beingPermanent meditative stateFully awakePIOUS PERSONS
29Inner PeaceInner Peace refers to a state of being “mentally” and “spiritually” at peace, with enough knowledge and understanding to keep oneself strong in the face of discord or stress.Peace of mind is generally associated with happiness, bliss and contentment
30Mindfulness PracticeObserving the body and mind intentionally Letting experiences unfold from moment to moment and accepting them as they areObserving thoughts without getting caught up in them. No effort to control anything except the focus and direction of the attention. Not a passive process, yet does not involve trying to get anywhereEating meditation, sitting meditation, working meditation and meditation during each act is the goal of mindfulness practice
31Meditation All methods are great Kayotsarga Patanjal Dhyana Tratak SuryasamyamAdarshdhyana (mirror)Swaminarayan DhyanaArup DhyanaPurnayoga DhyanaAtit Dhyana (past)Bhavidhyana (future)Sarpalanchan DhyanaSamarpana DhyanaTathataHoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation)Sahaj DhyanaYour own systemPatanjal DhyanaAnapan SatiSmriti UpasthanVipashyanaPreksha DhyanaJain DhyanaSpand DhyanaMantra DhyanaNabhi DhyanaSwapna DhyanaNidra DhyanaYoga nidra, NyasKriya YogaMrutyu DhyanaT.S MeditationKundaliniAll methods are great
32Vipashyana Operation of the mind, by the mind Calm and quiet mind Awake and attentive mindEquanimous mind
38GABA Experience of just being + + - + Glutamate Reticular nucleus of ThalamusPrefrontal cortexActivation by Meditation+GABA-+Experience of just beingInhibition of SuperiorParietal lobe
39The process of meditation apparently increases activation in the prefrontal cortex and stimulates the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, leading to release of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. GABA have a central role in cortical inhibition and Cortical Silent Period, modulating cortical excitability and neural plasticity
40Blissful chemicalsNORMALDEFICIENTENDORPHINSyou’re full of cozy feelings of comfort, pleasure, and euphoria.you may be crying during commercials and overly sensitive to hurt.GABAyou’re relaxed and stress-free.you’ll be wired, stressed, and overwhelmed
41So, in conclusion Pleasure is dependent on others, joy less so and bliss is completely independent of anythingPleasure is animal, joy is human and bliss is next to Divine
42Three levels of Happiness BLISSBeing part of somethingbigger than yourselfGABA, EndorphinsHappinessJOYHappiness withinOxytocin, Vasopressin, DopaminePLEASUREWorldly thingsSerotonin, Dopamine , CatachoalminesTime and knowledge
43Instruments Used in the Study of the Brain and Happiness Can we really measure happiness, and how?Who would know better thanNeurologists and psychologists?
44Neuropsychological testing (three level questions ) How are you feeling right now (from 1 to 7)?IntrospectionAll things considered, how happy are you these days (from 1 to 7)?Introspection, comparative judgementOn the whole, how good do you think your life is (from 1 to 7)?Introspection, comparative judgement, relative to conception of ‘the good life’
45Happiness ‘Continuum’ Level 2Judgements about feelingsNet level 1 happinessWell-beingsatisfactionLevel 3Holistic evaluation of value of lifeFlourishingNeedn’t include pleasuresLevel 1Momentary feelingsMoodPleasuresNot sufferingMore emotional, sensual, and reliableMore cognitive, moral, and easily biased
47Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses changes in electrically charged molecules when they are place in a magnetic field to assess differences in cerebral activity in different regions of the brain
48Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) tracks the brain’s blood flow and oxygen use -two measures of neuron activityfMRI is useful to find out emotional processing in particular areas of brain
49Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans are good for showing the many brain structures that may be involved in a functions like pleasure and help to examine the processing of neurotransmitters
50The Brain and Happiness Different components of happiness are found in different areas of the brain. That is, happiness does not seem to have a clearly defined neurobiological home
51Happiness and the Pre-frontal Cortex Laughter responses are generated in the prefrontal cortex. (George, 1995)Pleasant film clips, pleasant tastes, &cash incentives increase left pre-frontal cortex activityUnpleasant film clips, unpleasant tastes, and a threat of cash loss raise activity in the right pre-frontal cortex
52Happiness, the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Amygdala When people think about good events the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and the amygdala are activated. However, the correlation with optimism was biggest with the cingulate cortex (Phelps & Sharot, 2007)
53Happiness and the Temporal and Parietal Lobes When people feel happy, the characteristic pattern shows a decrease of activity in the brain that are committed to forethought and planning—the temporal and parietal lobe(George, 1995)
54Who is more Happy?Young, middle-aged, or old? Married or Single? Men or Women? Spirituality? Rich vs. Poor?
55Geography of Happiness Green = Happiest > Blue > Purple > Orange > Red = Least Happy; Grey = Data not available
56AGE-WISE: % “Satisfied” or “Very Satisfied” with Life as a Whole Percent100Age group8060402015- 2425- 3435- 4445- 5455- 6465+AGE-WISE: % “Satisfied” or “Very Satisfied” with Life as a Whole
57Gender and Well-Being in Sixteen Nations Percent100Males80Females604020SatisfiedVery happyPooled data from 169,776 interviews.Gender and Well-Being in Sixteen Nations
64Money and happinessMoney can bring security as well as comfort & pleasureIt can bring improved standard of living and educationButMoney corrupts , success corruptsThey take away morality, relationships, health, bliss and peace
65Understanding happiness Happiness is not something that happens, that money or power can commandIt is only by controlling our inner experience that we can become happyHappiness cannot be reached by consciously searching for it
66Road to Joy, Bliss and Peace Road to Success GodhoodnessSpiritualityPhilosophyMoralityReligionMoneyFameAchievementsAwardsPossessions
67What do you remember? Applause dies away! Trophies gather dust! Winners are soon forgottenBut you remember ,the ones who take care of you & appreciate you
71Gene therapy VMAT : Vesicular Mono Amine Transporter gene on chromosome 10q25Produces the sensations of mystic experiences, including the presence of God and spirituality as a state of mind MAOA :Monoamine oxidase A on X chromosomeLow-expression is associated with higher self-reported happiness in women
73To control your circumstances Reduce your commitmentsReduce your interactions with personssanjog mula jiven pattaa dukha parmpara...The more you have contacts with persons and situations, the more will be your unhappiness( cascade of problems )Lord Mahavir
74How to enjoy journey of life ? Key to Happiness PhysicalMoralMentalReligiousSpiritual
75Happiness And Peace : A Physical perspective pahelu sukh te jate naryaEat rightExerciseGet enough sleepGood excretory functions (biju sukh?!)Learn to relaxLaugh exhaustinglyLove abundantly
89Exercise, Food & Mood (Happy Chemicals) DopamineSerotoninOxytocinEndorphinFive Ways to Boost Your Natural Happy ChemicalsYou can trigger more happy chemicals naturally. Here's how.Published on December 8, 2012 by Loretta Graziano Breuning, Ph.D. in Your Neurochemical SelfYou can stimulate more happy chemicals with fewer side effects when you understand the job your happy chemicals evolved to do. Here's a natural way to stimulate each, and to avoid unhappy chemicals. #1 Dopamine (Embrace a new goal) Approaching a reward triggers dopamine. When a lion approaches a gazelle, her dopamine surges and the energy she needs for the hunt is released. Your ancestors released dopamine when they found a water hole. The good feeling surged before they actually sipped the water. Just seeing signs of a water-hole turned on the dopamine. Just smelling a gazelle turns on dopamine. The expectation of a reward triggers a good feeling in the mammal brain, and releases the energy you need to reach the reward.See All Stories InDopamine alerts your attention to things that meet your needs. How you define your needs depends on your unique life experience. Each time dopamine flowed in your youth, it connected neurons in your brain. Now you’re wired you to meet your needs in ways that felt good in your past.Dopamine motivates you to seek, whether you’re seeking a medical degree or a parking spot near the donut shop. Dopamine motivates persistence in the pursuit of things that meet your needs, whether it’s a bar that’s open late, the next level in a video game, or a way to feed children. You can stimulate the good feeling of dopamine without behaviors that hurt your best interests. Embrace a new goal and take small steps toward it every day. Your brain will reward you with dopamine each time you take a step. The repetition will build a new dopamine pathway until it’s big enough to compete with the dopamine habit that you’re better off without.#2 Serotonin (Believe in yourself) Confidence triggers serotonin. Monkeys try to one-up each other because it stimulates their serotonin. People often do the same. This brain we’ve inherited rewards social dominance because that promotes your genes in the state of nature. As much as you may dislike this, you enjoy the good feeling of serotonin when you feel respected by others. Your brain seeks more of that feeling by repeating behaviors that triggered it in your past. The respect you got in your youth paved neural pathways that tell your brain how to get respect today. Sometimes people seek it in ways that undermine their long-term well-being. The solution is not to dismiss your natural urge for status, because you need the serotonin. Instead, you can develop your belief in your own worth. People are probably respecting you behind your back right now. Focus on that instead of scanning for disrespect. Everyone has wins and losses. If you focus on your losses you will depress your serotonin, even if you’re a rock star or a CEO. You can build the habit of focusing on your wins. You may think it’s cocky or risky or lame, but your serotonin will suffer if you don’t.#3 Oxytocin (Build trust consciously) Trust triggers oxytocin. Mammals stick with a herd because they inherited a brain that releases oxytocin when they do. Reptiles cannot stand the company of other reptiles, so it’s not surprising that they only release oxytocin duringsex. Social bonds help mammals protect their young from predators, and natural selection built a brain that rewards us with a good feeling when we strengthen those bonds. Sometimes your trust is betrayed. Trusting someone who is not trustworthy is bad for your survival. Your brain releases unhappy chemicals when your trust is betrayed. That paves neural pathways which tell you when to withhold trust in the future. But if you withhold trust all the time, you deprive yourself of oxytocin. You can stimulate it by building trust consciously. Create realistic expectations that both parties can meet. Each time your expectations are met, your brain rewards you with a good feeling. Continual small steps will build your oxytocin circuits. Trust, verify, and repeat. You will grow to trust yourself as well as others.#4 Endorphin (Make time to stretch and laugh) Pain causes endorphin. That’s not what you expect when you hear about the “endorphin high.” But runners don’t get that high unless they push past their limits to the point of distress. Endorphin causes a brief euphoria that masks pain. In the state of nature, it helps an injured animal escape from a predator. It helped our ancestors run for help when injured. Endorphin evolved for survival, not for partying. If you were high on endorphin all the time, you would touch hot stoves and walk on broken legs. Endorphin was meant for emergencies. Inflicting harm on yourself to stimulate endorphin is a bad survival strategy. Fortunately, there are better ways: laughing and stretching. Both of these jiggle your innards in irregular ways, causing moderate wear and tear and moderate endorphin flow. This strategy has its limits. A genuine laugh cannot be produced on demand. A genuine stretch requires a little skill. But when you believe in the power of laughing and stretching, you create opportunities to trigger your endorphin in these ways.#5 Cortisol (Survive, then thrive) Cortisol feels bad. It alerts animals to urgent survival threats. Our big brain alerts us to subtle threats as well as urgent ones. The bad feeling of cortisol will always be part of life because your survival is threatened as long as you’re alive. Cortisol especially grabs your attention when it’s not being masked by happy chemicals. You might have a sudden bad feeling when your happy chemicals dip, even though there’s no predator at your door. If you can’t get comfortable with that, you might rush to mask it with any happy-chemical stimulant you’re familiar with. Your well-being will suffer. You will lose the information the cortisol is trying to give you, and your happy habit will have side effects. More cortisol will flow, thus increasing the temptation to over-stimulate your happy chemicals. This vicious cycle can be avoided if you learn to accept the bad feeling you get when a happy chemical surge is over. It doesn’t mean something is wrong. Cortisol is part of your mammalian steering mechanism, which motivates an organism to approach rewards and avoid threats. You need unhappy chemicals to warn you of potential harm as much as you need happy chemicals to alert you to potential rewards. If you learn to accept your cortisol, you will be free from the rush to mask it in ways that don’t serve you. You will make better decisions and end up with more happy chemicals.Building New Happy Habits Your brain got wired from past experience. Each time your neurochemicals surged, your neurons built connections. Experience wired you to turn on your brain chemicals in the ways they turned on in the past.When you're young, your neurons build new connections easily. After eighteen, it's not easy to build new circuits to turn on in new ways. It takes a lot of repetition. So pick a new happy habit and start repeating it. Over time, your new happy habits will feel as natural as your old ones, and you won't have the unfortunate side effects.Lots more on rewiring your happy chemical circuits in my new book, Meet Your Happy Chemicals.Exercise, Food & Mood (Happy Chemicals)
90DopamineThe omega-3 fatty acids are proven to create dopamine. Kauncha like seeds also.Useful sources of building blocks for dopamine:ApplesBeetCucumberGreen leafy vegetablesHoneyCheeseSweet peppersWatermelon
91SerotoninTo create serotonin eat low sugar carbohydrates such as fruits and vegetablesBananas are especially powerful serotonin inducers and bring on an immediate calming effect because of the complex B vitamins they haveTry some light stretching or breathing exercises along with some soothing music to complete the mood.
92OxytocinEating comfort foods: Eating your favorite food such as chocolate, ice-cream or any meal that you really enjoy will release oxytocin
93How Chocolate Could Influence Brain and Behavior
94EndorphinComplex carbs like pasta, breads, and foods with natural glucose, like grapes make the perfect mixture for creating endorphinsEating spicy food like hot chili pepperA routine of aerobic activity: brisk walking, biking, or swimming or massage
95Medical managementIf happiness has a biological cause in the brain, then we will be able to influence it with drugs, surgery, bionics etc… but should we?If our brains show equal ‘happiness activity’, then are we equally happy? How can we know this?
108Happiness and friendship A person doesn’t need a large number of friends to be happy – he needs one the best friend
109Learning from Children Spend time with children. Learn more about laughter, spontaneity, curiosity, acceptance, resilience, trust, determination, and your imaginationThey are here to teach us!
110Happiness for children By giving themYour TimeEducation and knowledgeCulture and attitudeWisdom and art
111How to enjoy journey of life ? Key to Happiness PhysicalMoralMentalReligiousPhilosophicalSpiritual
112Happiness : religious, philosophical and spiritual key
113Address of HappinessAt some stage you realize that peace and happiness are not outsideThe root cause of miseries : thoughts, desires, emotions , ego, attitude , mind wondering between past & future, raga and dwesha ( anger, greed, deceit and passion) …etc all functions of mind
114Thoughts... We are what we think All that we are arises with our thoughtsWith our thoughts we make the worldSpeak or act with an impure mind and trouble will follow you, as the wheel follows the ox that draws the cartYour worst enemy cannot harm you as much as your own thoughts, unguarded
115AttitudeAttitude is a little thing that makes a big difference
116Attitude“ The Longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. Attitude to me, is more important than facts. It is more important than the past, than education, successes, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearance, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a company…….. a church…. a home. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day. We can not change our past..... we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is to play on the only string we have, and that is our attitude……. I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it. And so it is with you….. We are in charge of our Attitudes ”.- Charles Swindoll
117Forgiveness REACH (Everett Worthington) Use wisdom and discretion: Recall the hurtEmpathize with the perpetratorAltruistic gift of forgivenessCertify you forgiveHold on to the forgivenessUse wisdom and discretion:Typically you do NOT tell the perpetrator that you have forgiven him/herGHALIB…..hum ne jindgi ko aasan kar diya…..
119Acceptance“ God grant me the courage to change the things I can, the serenity to accept the things I cannot, and the wisdom to know the difference.”Cultivating an attitude of non-judgment Acceptance is not resignationIt is a realization and appreciation of the inherent imperfections of life
120Buddhism on HappinessThere is no fire like desire. There is no weakness like anger. There is no suffering like the khandhas. There is no happiness greater than peace (Dhammapada, 202 & 208)
121Mathematics of happiness Happiness = 2 x happiness2Happiness = ObjectsDesiresTotal units of Happiness remains same
122Ambitions Where Ambitions end, Happiness begins Amount of balance in the bank at the time of your death is the extra work that you have done, which you should not have done
124Vaishnavajan Eyes : compassion and satisfaction and not reflecting greed or jealousy ( lobha )Words : forgiveness , appreciation and careand not anger or criticism ( krodha)Mind : equanimous and fairand not having raga (attachment) or dwesha(disliking )Emotions : calm and passionlessand not having perversions or aspirations ( kama )Nature : gentle , humble and reliableand not fraudulent or hippocrate ( maya )Behaviour : Loveful and kindand not hatred or discard
125Religion Opens Doors of Happiness Religion confers upon man eternal life and guides his footsteps in the world of moralityIt opens the doors of unending happiness and bestows everlasting honor upon the human kingdomIt has been the basis of all civilization and progress in the history of mankind
138Lazar, et alMeditationexperience isassociatedwith increasedcortical thickness.Neuroreport, 16,
139Set Peace of mind and Happiness, your highest goal and organize your life around it Ask yourself before each thought, action and speech… whether this will bring happiness and peace
14012 Secrets of HappinessAccept What You Have : NOBODY GETS MORE OR BEFOREEnjoy What You Do and without expectationsLive For Today and in this present momentChoose HappinessImprove Relationships… Always appreciate, never criticizeDon't Compare, but Be YourselfPreserve health and monitor itStop Worrying : THIS WILL ALSO GO AWAYGet Organized and financial managementThink PositiveMoral values : DO ONLY THOSE THINGS TO OTHERS, WHICH…Spiritual practices12 secrets of being happy: Using research from 100 world experts, a new book shows how to look on the bright sideBy LINDA KELSEY Every time I saw my father in the couple of years before he died, he would say: ‘Tell me Linda, are you happy?’ I think he knew he was coming to the end of his life and wanted to reassure himself of my well-being. Maybe it would have been kinder to reply: ‘Yes, Dad, I’m happy.’ But my relationship had come to an end after more than 20 years and the future looked bleak. Value happiness: Happiness can be learned, but finding meaning and a purpose in life is what leads to it, not the other way aroundI found myself saying: ‘Right now, no, but I will be again, I’m pretty sure of that. And you’re not to worry. No one can expect to be happy all the time.’ And yet it seems the pursuit of happiness has become a national preoccupation. Eminent economists, politicians and psychologists debate endlessly about the best way to create a happy society, while David Cameron’s ‘happiness index’ aims to pin down just how content we are. Plenty of woolly self-help books exist which promise to unlock the secret of happiness. Just last week, the Institute of Economic Affairs concluded rather prosaically that money had a large part to play. But I’ve found, when my life isn’t going to plan, there are plenty of simple things that help — for starters, my friends, my son and my dog. Then there’s walking in the countryside, getting lost in a good book, learning something new, still being a size 10 as I approach 60, a new recipe that turns out well. The list is endless.But a new book tries to probe deeper. In it, you won’t find spiritual philosophy, but evidence-based material that aims to unlock the secrets of happy people. In the World Book Of Happiness, Leo Bormans has drawn together the research and discoveries of the world’s leading experts on the psychology of happiness. Researchers have questioned thousands of people and what he has discovered is as surprising as it is inspiring.ACCEPT WHAT YOU HAVEResearch shows that happy people have modest levels of expectation and aspirations — they want what they can get — while unhappy people never seem to get what they want. They also know how to avoid disappointments and how to generate pleasant surprises. This is because they strive for realistic goals and are happy with their lot. As Dr Jose de Jesus Garcia Vega, of the University of Monterrey, Mexico, confirms, we must accept things as they come. ‘We spend a lot of time complaining about the things that happen to us, but this is a waste of time and effort,’ he says. ‘To be happy, we need to enjoy what we have.’ENJOY WHAT YOU DOHappy people do what they enjoy and enjoy what they do — and don’t do it for the money or glory. There’s no point being stuck in a job you hate, surrounded by unfriendly colleagues just because the money is good — people forget that they are allowed to be happy at work, too. Many spend the best years of their lives trying to make money, sacrificing their health and family in the process, says Dr Garcia Vega. Later, they spend the same money they made working trying to recover their lost health and estranged family. LIVE FOR TODAYDon’t dwell on the past, on things that went wrong or previous failures. Similarly, don’t dream about an idealised future that doesn’t exist or worry about what hasn’t happened yet. Happy people live for the now; they have positive mind sets. If you can’t be happy today, what makes you think tomorrow will be different?CHOOSE HAPPINESSDon’t be afraid to step back and re-evaluate your goals. Imagine your life as a story that you can edit and revise as you go along. This kind of flexible approach requires positive thinking and an open mind — you need to actively choose to be happy.NICELAND Iceland has the happiestpopulation, while Britain came ninth in a world survey‘You always have the freedom to choose the manner in which you wish to approach any given situation,’ says Dr Garcia Vega.This theory is backed up by Ingrida Geciene of Vilnius University, Lithuania, who researched the happiness of people in 31 European countries. She found that ‘voluntarists’ (people who feel they have free choice and complete control over their life) were happier than fatalists (people who think little can be changed by personal intervention). Luckily for us, Northern European countries contain more voluntarists while Latin European countries such as Spain and Italy have a higher percentage of fatalists. RELATIONSHIPSWe get our happiness from other people, and from supporting other people. Remember that just as other people can make us happy, we are all ‘other people’ to someone else. And cherish people who are important to you. Research also shows that married people are happier than single people.STAY BUSYIf you want to be happier, develop an outgoing, social personality — accept that drinks invitation, join the walking club, book group or choir. The best way to savour pleasure is in the company of others. Build a rich social life, says Eunkook M. Suh, a psychology professor at Yonsei University in Seoul, not as an obligation, but because it is rewarding, meaningful and fun.Active, busy, social people are the healthiest and happiest, in society. Get involved: make your motto ‘use it or lose it.’ In the World Book Of Happiness, Leo Bormans has drawn together research from the world's leading experts on the psychology of happinessDON'T COMPAREAmbition is healthy and makes people happy, explains Claudia Senik, a professor at the University of Paris-Sorbonne, but envy makes them unhappy. Yet comparisons with others can spoil the benefits of ambition and are only useful if you learn something from them. Focus on your goals and dreams so you can enjoy your ambition and achievements.BE YOURSELFJust as you shouldn’t compare yourself with others, it’s important not to worry about what others think about you — then you can truly be yourself. Happy people are spontaneous, natural and real; they say what they think and feel, and aren’t concerned what others think of them. Being oneself makes one feel free and authentic.STOP WORRYINGDon’t take yourself too seriously. Happy people don’t worry and they recognise that 90 per cent of worries never come true.GET ORGANISEDYou might envy those laid-back bohemian types who just do things on the spur of the moment, but don’t be fooled. Happy people plan and organise, they have goals and a purpose. You can only get what you want or desire if you know what it is you want or desire in the first place. So while those chilled-out friends might seem happy, they’re actually just drifting along. THINK POSITIVEBottling up emotions and bad feelings creates psychological distress and physical discomfort. Happy people get things off their chest, their motto is: get rid of it, or it will get rid of you. Similarly, work at developing optimistic thinking; happy people always look on the bright side. Successful athletes know to focus on winning, not losing, explains Miriam Akhtar, one of the first positive psychologists in the UK. We need to switch from a negative, glass-half-empty outlook to a glass-half-full and put optimism into practice to be happiest. Optimism is the mind’s natural self-defence mechanism against depression.VALUE HAPPINESSHappiness can be learned, but finding meaning and a purpose in life is what leads to it, not the other way around. The happiest people appreciate and realise that being happy adds years to their life, and life to their years
141Address of Happiness1, Spiritual mansion , Meditation hall , Self realization lane, Philosophy society, Charity chowk, Morality area , PIN : Religion station
146Great BooksHoly vedas, jain aagam, tripitak, patanjal yog sutra, sukh sadhak vidyaAustin, J Selfless Insight. MIT Press.Begley. S Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain. Ballantine.Carter, C Raising Happiness. Ballantine.Hanson, R. (with R. Mendius) Buddha’s Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love, and Wisdom. New Harbinger.Johnson, S Mind Wide Open. Scribner.Keltner, D Born to Be Good. Norton.Kornfield, J The Wise Heart. Bantam.LeDoux, J Synaptic Self. Penguin.Linden, D The Accidental Mind. Belknap.Sapolsky, R Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers. Holt.Siegel, D The Mindful Brain. Norton.Thompson, E Mind in Life. Belknap.
147Key Papers - 1Guglietti CL et al, Meditation-Related Increases in GABAB Modulated Cortical Inhibition, BRAIN STIMULATION,Volume 6, Issue 3 , Pages , May 2013Atmanspacher, H. & Graben, P Contextual emergence of mental states from neurodynamics. Chaos & Complexity Letters, 2:Baumeister, R., Bratlavsky, E., Finkenauer, C. & Vohs, K Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology, 5:Braver, T. & Cohen, J On the control of control: The role of dopamine in regulating prefrontal function and working memory; in Control of Cognitive Processes: Attention and Performance XVIII. Monsel, S. & Driver, J. (eds.). MIT Press.Carter, O.L., Callistemon, C., Ungerer, Y., Liu, G.B., & Pettigrew, J.D Meditation skills of Buddhist monks yield clues to brain's regulation of attention. Current Biology. 15:
148Key Papers - 2Davidson, R.J Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 359:Farb, N.A.S., Segal, Z.V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., and Anderson, A.K Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reflection. SCAN, 2,Gillihan, S.J. & Farah, M.J Is self special? A critical review of evidence from experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 131:76-97.Hagmann, P., Cammoun, L., Gigandet, X., Meuli, R., Honey, C.J., Wedeen, V.J., & Sporns, O Mapping the structural core of human cerebral cortex. PLoS Biology. 6:Hanson, R Seven facts about the brain that incline the mind to joy. In Measuring the immeasurable: The scientific case for spirituality. Sounds True.
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150Key Papers - 4Rozin, P. & Royzman, E.B Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5:Takahashi, H., Kato, M., Matsuura, M., Mobbs, D., Suhara, T., & Okubo, Y When your gain is my pain and your pain is my gain: Neural correlates of envy and schadenfreude. Science, 323:Tang, Y.-Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M.K., Fan, M., & Posner, M Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. PNAS, 104:Thompson, E. & Varela F.J Radical embodiment: Neural dynamics and consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5:Walsh, R. & Shapiro, S. L The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: A mutually enriching dialogue. American Psychologist, 61:
151Gratitude Dr. Shailesh Darji Dr. Hansal Bhachech Mr. Chintan Bavishi Dr. Shehnaz ChinwalaDr. Prakash Chauhan Dr. Pratik ShashtriDr. Amit Bhatt