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U.S. History Fall Exam Review

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1 U.S. History Fall Exam Review

2 Timeline Gilded Age 1877 – 1900 U.S. Imperialism 1890 – 1915ish
Riches covering up poverty/corruption Technological/industrial revolution U.S. Imperialism 1890 – 1915ish Manifest Destiny Expanding/acquiring territory Spanish-American War Progressive Era Making progress as a nation by cleaning up the messes of the Gilded Age Reforms, new laws, women’s rights, African- American rights

3 The Great Depression/New Deal
Boom Time – Consumer Economy with buying on credit, stock prices soaring Reaction to disillusionment of war leads to change in moral values of past Nativism – Red Scare, KKK Prohibition – Speakeasies/Mob Harlem Renaissance The Great Depression/New Deal Black Tuesday (Oct. 29, 1929)– Stock Market Crash due to speculation and buying on margin Bank failures and economic collapse with catastrophic Dust Bowl FDR and his New Deal promising hope with programs for Relief, Recovery and Reform

4 Business cycle – cycles where the economy grows then contracts (boom & bust)
Laissez-faire – belief that government should not interfere in business – “hands off” - policy during Gilded Age Nativism – movement discriminating against immigrants – favoritism of native born Americans – restrict immigration (hmm… there any nativist thinking today?) Social Darwinism – “survival of the fittest” in business or success – government shouldn’t interfere in business -

5 Constitutional Amendments
16th – gave Congress right to levy income tax 17th – provided for direct election of U.S. Senators 18th – prohibited manufacture and sale of alcohol 19th – Granted women full suffrage 20th – (lame duck) Presidential inauguration moved to January 20th 21st – Repealed Prohibition

6 Referendum – citizens approve or reject a law passed by the legislature
Recall – procedure that allows voters to remove an elected official from office before the next election. Initiative – a way citizens can put a proposed new law on the ballot by collecting voters signatures on a petition Economies of scale – as production increases cost of each item produced decreases Land speculators – people who would buy up large plots of land hoping the price would increase and they would make huge amounts of $$$$

7 Gilded Age Circa 1877-1900 Era of tremendous industrial growth
Robber barons/ captains of industry Large groups of immigrants Large gap between super-rich and poor (mostly poor) Political corruption Urban growth – tenement living Unsafe working conditions – child labor “gild” covered all the corruption, poverty, unsafe working conditions, etc.

8 Vertical Consolidation Carnegie invested in steel
Quickly prospered and was able to buy out companies that performed all the phases in steel production Carnegie Steel Company Coke fields Iron ore deposits Steel mills Ships Railroads ALL purchased by Carnegie

9 Purchased by Rockefeller
Horizontal Consolidation Rockefeller cut production costs, set lower prices and was able to undersell his competitors Expanded his business by trying to buy out all other oil refineries Standard Oil Company Purchased by Rockefeller Independent Oil Refineries

10 Monopoly – when the production of an item or supply of an item is controlled by a single owner, factory, corporation etc. no competition Trust – when a group of companies join together under a board of trustees – limits competition (a new kind of monopoly) ex: Rockefeller Trust (Standard Oil) Cartel – an association of businesses that make the same product – they can control the market by limiting the supply – keeps the price high aka. - price fixing

11 Boomers – settlers who raced to claim land in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) in 1889
Sooners - - settlers who sneaked into Indian Territory early & illegally to stake a land claim (boooooo)

12 Graft – pay off to a city official to gain favors – a major way political machines (aka Boss Tweed) made money in the Gilded Era Vice – immoral or corrupt behavior Corruption – misuse of political power for personal gain – like paying off a politician for favors. (Boss Tweed was corrupt) Bessemer Process – a process that made steel stronger and easier to produce – led to huge industrial growth

13 Monroe Doctrine – President Monroe’s doctrine that proclaimed The Americas closed to colonization by Europe Productivity – the amount of good and services created in a given time period Patent – the license to make, use or sell an invention Mass Production – production in great amounts Populists – supported farmers and William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 presidential campaign Chief Joseph – sled the Nez Perce in their flight from the United States Army Political machine – organization designed to keep a particular group in office usually headed by a boss

14 Suburbs – residential communities surrounding a city
Tenement – cheap apartment buildings often crammed with people Infrastructure – the public property and services that a society uses Compulsory – required, mandatory Racism – belief that differences in character or intelligence are due to one’s race

15 7. Morrill Land Grant – provided ways for settlers to get land - $ from sale of land to build colleges (A&M) 8. Homestead Act – provided ways for settlers to get cheap land (21 years old or hoh, live on land 6 months, farm for 5 years) 9. Manifest Destiny – the idea that it was the “destiny”/fate of the U.S. to spread across North America (this idea is going to lead to U.s. imperialism)

16 10. TCRR – 1st railroad to extend from coast to coast – the government gave loans and land grants to companies to build the railroad 11. What revolutionized American communications in the late 1880s? Telephone and telegraph

17 12. Robber Barons - negative name given to powerful industrialists because critics saw them as greedy and non-caring about their employees or the environment Captains of Industry - positive name given to powerful industrialists by people who saw them creating jobs and promoting the technological and economic development of America

18 13. What problem led to the need for government regulation of business
13. What problem led to the need for government regulation of business? Unfair business practices 14. Who was John D. Rockefeller and how did he gain control of the oil industry? Standard Oil -horizontal consolidation 15. Many agreements between Native Americans and the federal government fell apart why? Differing concepts of land ownership 16. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed to do what? regulate railroad rates & practice 17. What was Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis? It held that the frontier helped create the strong, individualistic American character

19 18. What were the major beliefs of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age? The Democratic Party? The Populist Party? Republican party- gold standard, high tariffs, and limits on immigration Democratic part- increased money supply, lower tariffs, and higher farm prices Populist party ( Western Farmers)- free silver, increased crop prices, 8 hour work day, and government ownership of railroads

20 19. Why did farmers favor inflation? to increase crop prices
20. William Jennings Bryan lost the election of 1896 because he could not do what? carry the industrial and urban centers 21. During the late 1800s, the port of entry for the majority of immigrants was where? New York City

21 22. What effect did the rapid growth of American Cities have on urban living conditions?the rapid growth of tenements and ghettos 23. Why did many immigrants support city political machines? 24. In the 1890s, immigration patterns shifted dramatically, with most immigrants now coming from which areas? Southern & Eastern Europe

22 25. The main objective of the nativists was to do what
25. The main objective of the nativists was to do what? restrict immigration 26. Prohibitionists and purity crusaders both worked to do what? stop the sale/consumption of Alcohol 27.Why did labor unions oppose Chinese immigration? Chinese accepted lower wages and drove wages down for all workers

23 W.E.B. DuBois-African American leader who believed in higher education for African Americans to raise up leaders in the civil rights movement Booker T. Washington-African American leader who believed in vocational education for African Americans to help them achieve economic security

24 What event led to the Spanish American War
What event led to the Spanish American War? Cubans rebelling against Spanish misrule What was the central message of the Roosevelt Corollary? The U.S. would use force to prevent intervention in the affairs of neighboring countries What was the Gentlemen’s Agreement? An agreement with Japan that aimed to slow the immigration of Japanese laborers

25 32. Why did the U.S. follow a policy of expansionism in the late 1800’s? the U.S. needed new markets for its goods 33. Alfred T. Mahan argued that to protect its trade, the U.S. must build up what? Navy 34. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer used sensational stories (yellow journalism) in their newspapers to do what? Increase public sympathy for Cuban rebels

26 35. What is Imperialism? A stronger nation dominates a weaker nation 36. What was Seward’s Folly? Secretary of State Seward convinced the U.S. to purchase Alaska from Russia 37. Why did the U.S. annex the Midway Islands? For naval refueling and repair 38. As a result of the peace treaty with Spain, the U.S. gained what territories? Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam

27 39. The U.S. wanted to build a canal zone across Panama for what reason? To facilitate movement between Atlantic and Pacific ports 40. The U.S. acquired control of the Canal Zone by doing what? Backing a Panamanian revolt from Columbia which created ill-will from Latin American countries. 41. President Taft was known for a foreign policy based on what policy? Dollar diplomacy

28 42. Who were Florence Kelly and Jane Addams
42. Who were Florence Kelly and Jane Addams? Reformers who worked to reform local labor conditions and established Hull House which was part of the settlement house movement 43. President Wilson established the Federal Reserve System for what purpose? Reorganize the federal banking system 44. Which belief was held by most Progressives regarding the government? Government should be more accountable to its citizens

29 45. Which was a major contributing factor to Woodrow Wilson Winning the presidency in 1912? He ran on the reform policy and he criticized big business and big government. TR and Taft split the republican vote. 46. Identify the progressive era presidents. Theodore Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson 47. In 1906, Upton Sinclair’s novel the Jungle exposed dangerous workplace conditions where? Meat packing plants in the south. 48.Journalists known as Muckrakers worked at doing what? They used scientific data and expert testimony to investigate important issues such as how meat packing industry needed codes and change for better working conditions for the plants.

30 49. The anti-suffrage movement argued that if women could vote, then what would happen to them? They could be easily manipulated by politicians and they would be distracted from there duties at home. 50. What event sparked WWI? On June 14, 1928 Archduke Franz Ferninand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip. 51. What was the major factor in the decision for the U.S. to enter WWI? The Zimmerman note and the sinking of more U.S. boats by the Germans.

31 52. What role did the federal government play in the economy during WWI? Created price controls and rationing and told manufacturers what and how much to produce. 53. The incident that triggered WWI was what event? Assassination of Franz Ferninand. 54.What did the Germans do that prompted President Wilson to declare War? Sank more U.S. boats and broke the Sussex pledge.

32 55. The sedition act made it illegal to do what
55.The sedition act made it illegal to do what? To speak out against the government or war efforts. 56. Wilson’s goal for the League of Nations was? a group of countries would join together and ensure peace and security between all of them. 57. Many Republicans in the Senate objected to Article 10 of the plan for the League of Nations because they feared that what would happen? That this would lead America in unpopular wars.

33 58. What made postwar adjustment hard for World War I veterans
58. What made postwar adjustment hard for World War I veterans? They couldn’t find jobs. 59. World War I occurred between what years? 60.What was the Great Migration? African-Americans moving from the south to the north in search of jobs and to escape Jim Crow laws. 61.What was the Harlem Renaissance? Harlem became the home for an African-American Literary awakening of the 1920’s

34 62. Identify major Authors/poets of the Harlem Renaissance
62.Identify major Authors/poets of the Harlem Renaissance. James Weldon Johnson, Alain Locke, Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Dorothy West. 63.What was at issue in the scopes trial. Fundamentalist vs. evolutionist or people who believed in Free Speech. 64.What was the Red Scare? The fear of a communist upheaval. 65.What is a consumer economy. Depends heavily on consumer spending.

35 66. What political party was in power in the 1920’s and who did they favor? Republicans and they favored big business and small government and laissez faire economics. 67.What is buying on credit and when did it become an accepted practice for the first time? It is when people would pay back there debt in installments and it became acceptable in the 1920’s. 68.How did Henry Ford transform the automobile industry? The assembly line.

36 69. How did the automobile industry impact other industries
69.How did the automobile industry impact other industries? Oil and oil refineries, gas stations, motels, restaurants and other shopping centers because people could travel to these places. 70.Where did Jazz come from and who were the influential Jazz Musicians of the 1920’s? It came from the south and New Orleans. Duke Ellington and Louie Armstrong. 71.Who was Marcus Garvey and what did he do? He was a leader of African American revival that focused on pride and a return to Africa and start there own nation in their home land. 72. What were the main causes of the Great Depression? Speculation, banking crises, cuts in production, and unemployment.

37 73. What were the effects of the Great Depression on the American Economy? Unemployment hit all time highs with the 25% of the country being unemployed and it changed the banking system in this country as well because of its failure. 74. Compare and contrast Herbert Hoover and FDR. FDR was a confident, outgoing man and Herbert Hoover was more quiet and not as confident in the public eyes and they blamed him for the depression. 75.What was the New Deal? FDR’s Relief, Recover, and Reform plan to help the struggling American Economy.

38 76. What were the main complaints against the new deal
76. What were the main complaints against the new deal? There wasn’t enough recovery and wasn’t enough change. FDR had to much power in some people’s eyes as well. 77. What New Deal agencies were designed to help unemployment? WPA, CWA, and CCC. 78. What New Deal agencies were designed to restore the public’s faith in financial institutions? FDIC and SEC. 79.What New Deal agency was responsible for helping farmers and how did it help them? TVA and the AAA which helped farmers in the second new deal by giving migrant workers loans so they could continue to sharecrop.

39 80. How was the New Deal similar to progressive era politics
80. How was the New Deal similar to progressive era politics? It was trying to reign in big business and focus on reform and spreading the wealth out. 81.What was the primary purpose of the Federal Reserve? Control the country’s money supply and credit. 82.What was Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first action when he took office in 1933? Assess the banking crisis and shut down the Banks for Banking Holiday so he could figure out how to restore public faith in the banking system.

40 83. What was the second new deal. It was an even bolder plan
83.What was the second new deal? It was an even bolder plan. It was his response to critics saying that he didn’t do enough for ordinary people. 84.What New Deal agencies still exist today? Social security, FDIC, TVA. 85.Who was Dorothea Lange and why was she important? She was a photographer who took thousands of pictures of people who were suffering during the great depression. 86.What major natural disaster occurred in the 1930’s and what region did it affect? The dust bowl and southwest.

41 87. What is the subject matter of John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath
87.What is the subject matter of John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath? The dust bowl. 88.What was the Mexican Reparation Act and what was its significance? Sent back Mexicans and Mexican-Americans due to job shortage. 89.What was FDR’s court packing plan and was it successful? Why or why not? It did not work because the Supreme court noticed what was going on and stopped it.

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