2Progressive EraWhat is the difference between Conservatism and Progressivism?Goals of the Progressives:1. decrease the role of special interest groups in government2. To make the government more honest and responsive to citizens needs3. To increase popular participation in the American system4, To create a more active, stronger role for the Federal government to protect the public interest5. to get the government responsible for the social welfare of its citizensProgressives were essentially conservative as far as basic property rights and fundamental capitalistic structure was concerned.
5Progressive Era Origins: attitudes-muckrakers-social gospel- temperance movement –Jane Addams and the Settlement House movementMunicipal, state and national reformsBlack America-NAACPWomen’s Role—fight for the vote
6Sources of Strength Farmers—still want tighter regulation of railroads Urban Middle Classes-alarmed at he power of the giant trusts and political machinesWorkers-regulation of women and child laborWriters-Ida Tarbell-Frank Norris-Upton Sinclair-Lincoln SteffensPolitical Leaders: Robert LaFollette—Hiram Johnson-railroads in CaliforniaCharles Evans Hughes- New York-insurancesJoseph W. Folk-corruption in Missouri
7Robert M LaFolletteAs governor of Wisconsin, La Follette battled the Republican establishment and gradually managed to establish an outstanding reform record. Progressive legislation included measures to increase control over the railroads, modifications to the tax system, limitations on lobbying activities and the institution of conservation programs. He also prevailed upon the legislature to enact state civil service reform and direct primaries. La Follette advanced what came to be known as the “Wisconsin Idea,” calling upon university professors and other outside experts to help tailor reform legislation and staff the resulting regulatory agencies. In this way he hoped to free state government from the influence of self-serving politicians and special interest groups.
8Accomplishments Political Reforms: Direct primaries Australian Ballot Direct democracy-initiative-recall-referundumDirect election of SenatorsNationwide Women’s SuffrageMunicipal government changes
9Accomplishments Regulation of Railroads and utilities Consumer protection laws—state and federal-factory inspection laws—Pure Food and Drug Act-Legitimate union activities were exempted from antitrust prosecution and use of injunctions in labor disputes
10Weaknesses Only a few states participated-Wisconsin-New Jersey Courts did not uphold the legislation in the beginningFailed the African American-no changes
15TR October 27 T. R. and Alice marry. 1881 November 9 T. R. is elected to the state assembly for the twenty-first district of New York State at the age of twenty-three.1882T. R.'s book The Naval War of 1812 is published to critical acclaim.
16More TR1882--Served in New York Assembly 1884—wife and mother died Dakota Territory-lived in the saddle-driving cattle 1886-defeated for mayor of New York -married Edith Kermit Carow 1887-Publishes Life of Thomas Hart Benton member of Civil Service Commission 1895 then the Police Commissioner of New York City 1897 Assistant Secretary of the Navy 1898-Rough riders - Elected Governor of New York 1900-Vice President 1901-September 14-26th president of the United States at age 42
17More Books by TR Life of Gouverneur Morris Ranch Life and the Hunting TrailEssays in Practical PoliticsThe Winning of the WestHistory of New YorkThe Wilderness HunterHero Tales from American History in collaboration with Henry Cabot LodgeAmerican IdealsThe Rough RidersPastimes of an American HunterAfrican Game TrailsRealizable IdealsTheodore Roosevelt An AutobiographyHistory as Literature and Other EssaysThrough the Brazilian WildernessLife Histories of African Game AnimalsAmerica and the World WarA Booklover’s Holiday in the Open and Fear God and Take Your Own PartFoes of Our Own HouseholdThe Great Adventure
21The Anthracite Strike of 1902 was an effort by the United Mine Workers to get higher waves, shorter hours, and recognition of their unionRoosevelt had no authority in the matter, but summoned representatives of both sides to a White House meeting. The president proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined. Then Roosevelt angrily threatened to send in federal soldiers to take over the mines. After issuing this threat, he turned to J.P. Morgan and secured his services to act as a go-between with the mine operators.Miners receive a wage hike of ten percent, nine hour work day but no recognition of their union—brings eace to the area for fifteen years.
23Northern SecuritiesJ P Morgan was enjoying a peaceful dinner at his New York home on February 19, 1902, when his telephone rang. He was furious to learn that Roosevelt's Attorney General was bringing suit against the Northern Securities Company. Stunned, he muttered to his equally shocked dinner guests about how rude it was to file such a suit without warning.
24 Using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the federal government brought a suit against the company and the Northern Securities Company sued to appeal the ruling. The case worked its way up to the Supreme Court, where the justices ruled 5-4 in favor of the federal government. Roosevelt’s action had ignored the advice of leading conservatives in the Republican Party and demonstrated his independence from party elders. It also increased his popular support and helped in his election campaign in He went on to file 40 more suits.
25Railroad ProblemElkins Act 1903-recipient and grantor liable to prosecution of rebatesHepburn Act 1906—great advance towards government regulation of railroads—gave the commission power to reduce unreasonable and discriminatory rates—burden of proof on carrier
26Conservation Considered Greatest Contribution Exposing WasteIrrigationNational ParksInternal Waterways CommissionThe National Conservation Commision
28A swarm gathers on Wall Street during the bank panic in October 1907 A swarm gathers on Wall Street during the bank panic in October Federal Hall, with its statue of George Washington, is seen on the right
29Panic of 1907 Started when the Knickerbocker Trust failed The New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50%Industry produced too much-inventory mountedThe panic may have deepened if not for the intervention of financier J. P. Morgan, who pledged large sums of his own money, and convinced other New York bankers to do the same, to shore up the banking system.Will lead to the passage of the Aldrich-Vreeland Act
34Russo-Japanese War 1904 Japan wins TR offers to mediate Treaty of Portsmouth-Russia recognizes Japan’s predominant position in Korea and Southern Manchuria and other territorial concessions.TR received Nobel Peace Prize for his role as mediator.
40Taft and the Progressives Conflict over Speaker of the House between George Norris and Uncle Joe CannonTariff Issue—Payne Aldrich TariffBallinger-Pinchot Controversy
41Conflict over Speaker of the House Progressive Republicans and Democrats objected to the autocratic power of the Speaker of the House –through his power to appoint committees and to dominate the rules committee, he prevented progressive legislation from being passed.George Norris led a campaign to defeat Cannon—Taft said he would support it—than Cannon promised to support a tariff that Taft wanted.A year later, all committees were made elective-Speaker was excluded from membership on the Rules committee.
42Tariff IssueTaft called a special session of congress to deal with the tariff issue—lowering the tariffThe House responded with the Payne Bill which followed the president’s suggestionsThe Senate added 847 amendments—becomes Payne-Aldrich TariffBitterly opposed by Progressives including La Follette and BeveridgeTaft signed it and declared”the best the Republican Party ever passed”
43Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy Gifford Pinchot who was head of the Forest Service accused Richard A. Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of a lack of zeal in protecting natural resources from private exploitationTaft assigned the problem to a special committee of Congress and they vindicated BallingerTaft dismissed Pinchot who had won the court of public opinion and now it looked as if Taft was undermining Roosevelt’s conservation program
45Accomplishments Trust buster Civil Service reform 16th and 17th AmendmentsMann-Elkins Act-telephoneand telegraph companiesDepartment of LaborBaseball-started thetradition
46Foreign Policy Dollar Diplomacy—Nicaragua Marines sent- stay until 1933Reciprocal Tariff-With Canada-failedLodge Corollary
47The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind from acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control".
49Election of 1912 Four candidates Republican party renominated Taft Progressive Republicans formed a new party and nominated TR—Bull Moose PartyDemocrats nominated Woodrow WilsonSocialist Party nominated Eugene V. Debs
51New Nationalism and New Freedom New Nationalism-honesty in government, the regulation of business, conservation of natural resources, and reconstruction of society by political action such as better working conditions- women’s suffrage-aid to agriculture etcNew Freedom-tariff reform, enforcement of Sherman Antitrust Act better banking and currency laws
55Wilson’s Administration Background: minority president- best educated – spent two decades at Princeton-reform governor of New Jersey—gave impression of being a cold fishAppointed William Jennings Bryanas Sec of State—closest advisor wasColonel House
56Wilson Strong President The Underwood Tariff(1913)-called a special session of congress to lower tariff duties—addressed congress in person.The Federal Reserve Act-the panic of 1907 showed the need to create a more elastic monetary systemPujo Committee was set up to investigate the system
58Federal Reserve System Mainly the work of Senator Carter Glass of Virginia-specialist in banking legislationChief provisions: 12 regional reserve banks-the Federal Reserve Banks were banker’s banks—Control of system was placed under a Board of Governors some chosen by member banks and others appointed by the president, they were to accept deposits and make loans to member banks—issued a new uniform currency- Board may raise discount rate—buy and sell government securities
59Regulation of Business Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)created Federal Trade Commission and empowered it to issue “cease and desist” orders to any firm found guilty of unfair methods of competitionThe Clayton Act –strengthened antitrust regulations and included “labor’s charter of freedom”
60Social LegislationLaFollette Seamen’s Bill-better living and working conditions for ocean and lake sailorsAdamson Act-8-hour workday for railroad workersKeating-Owen Act-prohibited interstate shipment of goods produced by children under the age of 14—Hammer v Dagenhart declared this act unconstitutional- Congress does not have the power to regulate commerce of goods that are manufactured by children
61Appraisal of Progressivism Need for Executive Leadership: party leadership had been lax-senators and congressmen succumbed to lobbyists-showed need for strong executive and party leaderNeed or Continued Liberal Action