Presentation on theme: "Specialized texts How do we identify them? –External parameters (elements of the communication process) –Internal parameters (formal structure; knowledge."— Presentation transcript:
Specialized texts How do we identify them? –External parameters (elements of the communication process) –Internal parameters (formal structure; knowledge structure; linguistic structure)
External Parameters A specialized text must be written by a specialist Those who want to translate specialized texts should get familiar with their specialized context, and should know the domain conventions and lexical/structural peculiarities
Internal Parameters Formal structure Knowledge structure Linguistic structure: Morphological level Lexical level Syntactic level Textual level Specialized texts are precise, more concise, and more systematic. Precision is a discreet feature. Only experts can control it.
Modality and Scientific Discourse Modality concerns with the speaker’s assumptions or assessment of possibilities;Modality concerns with the speaker’s assumptions or assessment of possibilities; It indicates the degree of confidence (or lack of confidence) the speaker has in his/her statement.It indicates the degree of confidence (or lack of confidence) the speaker has in his/her statement.
Modality is “matter of knowledge, belief or opinion rather than fact”.Modality is “matter of knowledge, belief or opinion rather than fact”. Modality is to be interpreted as “showing the status of the speaker’s understanding or knowledge.”Modality is to be interpreted as “showing the status of the speaker’s understanding or knowledge.” Strong, weak, and intermediate modalityStrong, weak, and intermediate modality
Hedging “absence of certainty”,“absence of certainty”, the “lack of commitment to the truth value of a given proposition”,the “lack of commitment to the truth value of a given proposition”, the desire not to be too categorical.the desire not to be too categorical.
How to detect hedging in scientific discourse? by surface textual featuresby surface textual features –Cognitive verbs –Lexical modifiers (verbs, adjectives, etc.) –Adverbial forms, etc.
EATING DISORDERS Disorder (med.): disturbo, indisposizione, malattia, male (liver d. mal di fegato; mental d. disturbo psichico,mentale) Eating disorders: disturbi nell’alimentazione Treatment: terapia, cura, cure Long-term treatment: terapia a lungo termine Which include: tra cui (che includono) Severe: grave To diagnose: diagnosticare To treat: curare Recovery: recupero, guarigione Incidence: incidenza May be increasing: sembra in aumento, è apparentemente in aumento Impulsive: impulsivo at high risk: a rischio elevato substance: sostanza (chimica) abuse: abuso co-occurring: concomitante
EATING DISORDERS Eating disorders often are chronic in nature and, as a result, may require long- term treatment. The medical consequences of anorexia, which include death in about 10 percent of the cases, usually are more severe than bulimia. The earlier these disorders are diagnosed and treated, the better the prospects are for full recovery.
Statistics show 95 percent of those who have eating disorders are women between the ages of 12 and 25. However, the incidence of eating disorders among people who are older and men may be increasing. Studies have found that women who have bulimia nervosa are often impulsive and are at high risk for other disorders such as substance abuse. Many people with eating disorders also appear to have co-occurring depression.
to starve to death: morire di fame to exercise: allenarsi to gorge: ingozzarsi, rimpinzarsi to make someone vomit: indurre il vomito laxatives: lassativi diuretics: diuretici to purge: purificare, purgare binge: abbuffata (binge eating: attacco bulimico) binge/purge cycle: ciclo binge-purge preoccupation with weight: l’assillo del peso trait: tratto, caratteristica
Symptoms Anorexia nervosa People who have this disorder often develop elaborate rituals around food, continue to lose weight, and can literally starve themselves to death. They also may exercise excessively. Bulimia nervosa Those who have bulimia gorge themselves, then almost immediately make themselves vomit or use laxatives or diuretics to purge their bodies of food. This often is referred to as the “binge/purge” cycle. Preoccupation with weight is a primary trait of both disorders.
breathing: respiro (to breathe/breathable/breath/breathalyser) pulse: pulsazioni blood pressure: pressione sanguigna rate: frequenza, ritmo Breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates drop Diminuisce la frequenza del respiro e del battito, e cala la pressione sanguigna; thyroid function: funzione tiroidea to grow brittle: diventare fragile covering of soft hair: una peluria morbida lanugo (lanugos): lanuggine
anemia (US anaemia) swollen: gonfio joint: giuntura muscle mass: massa muscolare light-headedness: vertigini to occur: manifestarsi, verificarsi brittle bones: ossa fragili ( modificando, anche fragilità ossea) as a result: a causa di Heart failure: collasso, arresto cardiaco Bowel movements: movimento intestinale Starvation: inedia
To wear down: consumare, corrodere Outer layer: strato esterno (smalto) Esophagus (oesophagus): esofago To enlarge: ingrossare Gland: ghiandola Cause the stomach to rupture: provocare la rottura dello stomaco (o “provocare ernie dello stomaco”) Purging: evacuazioni To result: determinare Vital: di vitale importanza
Medical complications Anorexia nervosa Breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates drop and thyroid function slows. Hair and nails may grow brittle. Similarly, skin may dry, yellow, and develop a covering of soft hair called lanugo. Mild anemia, swollen joints, reduced muscle mass, and light-headedness also commonly occur. Severe cases also lead to brittle bones that easily break as a result of calcium loss. Heart failure is a risk for those who use drugs to stimulate vomiting, or bowel movements. Starvation can also damage the heart and brain.
Bulimia nervosa Acid in vomit can wear down the outer layer of the teeth, inflame the esophagus, and enlarge the glands near the cheeks. Binge eating can also cause the stomach to rupture, and purging can result in heart failure as a result of the loss of vital minerals, such as potassium.