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Workshop Overview SmartGD&T™ What is GD&T?

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0 GD&T Fundamentals and potential Automation in CAD/CAM/CAI
A SmartGD&T Workshop TM by Bill Tandler Spatial 3D Insider’s Summit Boulder 2008 Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

1 Workshop Overview SmartGD&T™ What is GD&T?
The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T A GD&T Encoded Part GD&T – Design, Mfg. & Metrology Connections The Anatomy of a Feature Control Frame Feature Control Frame Decoding The Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

2 $ $ What is GD&T? $ $ $ Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

3 Many people think GD&T is
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

4 Grim, Depressing & Troublesome
Many people think GD&T is Grim, Depressing & Troublesome Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

5 and a fine way to waste a Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

6 Great Deal of Time and a fine way to waste a
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

7 Others think GD&T is the
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

8 Others think GD&T is the
Greatest Design Tool ever ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

9 But in fact, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

10 But in fact, GD&T managing imperfect geometry
is the only tool we have for managing imperfect geometry Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

11 perfectly! But in fact, GD&T managing imperfect geometry
is the only tool we have for managing imperfect geometry perfectly! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

12 Purpose of GD&T Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

13 Most people would say . . . Purpose of GD&T
The main purpose of GD&T is to communicate Design intent unambiguously to manufacturing and inspection. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

14 but in fact . . . Purpose of GD&T
The primary purpose of GD&T, is to ensure that what we communicate to manufacturing and inspection is worth communicating, namely represents functional, assemblable parts. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

15 Or, in greater detail . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

16 GD&T is a symbolic language for
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

17 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

18 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching refining and
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

19 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching refining and encoding
the function of each feature of a part in Design, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

20 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching refining and encoding
the function of each feature of a part in Design, in order - through decoding - to Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

21 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching refining and encoding
the function of each feature of a part in Design, in order - through decoding - to guarantee assemblability and operability prior to drawing release Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

22 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching refining and encoding
the function of each feature of a part in Design, in order - through decoding - to guarantee assemblability and operability prior to drawing release set reduce cost and set precise objectives for manufacturing, and Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

23 GD&T is a symbolic language for researching refining and encoding
the function of each feature of a part in Design, in order - through decoding - to guarantee assemblability and operability prior to drawing release set reduce cost and set precise objectives for manufacturing, and turn inspection and manufacturing process feedback into truly scientific processes Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

24 In fact, without GD&T Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

25 In fact, without GD&T Reliable Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis is impossible . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

26 In fact, without GD&T Reliable Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis is impossible . . . Manufacturing is a guessing game based on tribal understandings . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

27 In fact, without GD&T Reliable Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis is impossible . . . Manufacturing is a guessing game based on tribal understandings . . . All inspection is pure invention on the part of the inspector. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

28 A question . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

29 ? “encoding” and “decoding” Did you notice the use of the words
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

30 Another question . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

31 Have you ever asked two or three colleagues for help
“interpreting” GD&T ? Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

32 Have you ever asked two or three colleagues for help
“interpreting” GD&T ? . . . and gotten two or three Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

33 ? “interpreting” “different interpretations” GD&T ?
Have you ever asked two or three colleagues for help “interpreting” GD&T ? . . . and gotten two or three “different interpretations” ? Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

34 Surely if GD&T is used to decorate drawings for later
“interpretation” Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

35 Surely if GD&T is used to decorate drawings for later
“interpretation” it is useless! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

36 Surely if GD&T is used to decorate drawings for later
“interpretation” it is useless! $ $ and because machine shops know that most GD&T is purely decorative, they have to charge more to cover the cost of ensuring that their interpretations are in line with those of their customers. $ Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

37 Now for some insights into
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

38 The Simplicity Uselessness of CD&T but Now for some insights into
(Classical Dimensioning &Tolerancing) Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

39 consists of only one tool, namely the
The Classical tool kit consists of only one tool, namely the toleranced nominal dimension 50 ± 1 But is one tool enough? Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

40 Technical Disadvantages of Classical Tolerancing
Although perfectly capable of controlling size, the classical alternative . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

41 Technical Disadvantages of Classical Tolerancing
Although perfectly capable of controlling size, the classical alternative . . . 1) does not clearly define coordinate systems, does not differentiate between reference and controlled features, controls the location of bores with square instead of round tolerance zones, provides no means of linking location tolerances to feature size, provides no means for controlling compound curved surfaces, provides no means for managing feature form, provides no means for researching and refining part functionality, and provides no means for guaranteeing the assemblability of mating parts. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

42 Tribal Understandings & Interpretation
As a result . . . Classical Tolerancing leaves us beholden to Tribal Understandings & Interpretation Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

43 How does GD&T compare ? Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

44 (Geometric Dimensioning &Tolerancing)
The Frustrations and Power of GD&T (Geometric Dimensioning &Tolerancing) Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

45 GD&T Frustrations GD&T is Complex. GD&T is Sporadically used.
GD&T is often used to “decorate” drawings, rather than “encode” function. GD&T is often “interpreted” rather than “decoded”. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

46 GD&T Opportunities GD&T encourages fault tolerant designs and can guarantee assemblability. GD&T reduces Mfg. cost through unambiguous communication and looser tolerances. GD&T turns 3D Metrology into a reliable, scientific process for the first time. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

47 The GD&T tool kit Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

48 The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

49 The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools Feature Control Frames
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

50 The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools Feature Control Frames
Basic Dimensions, and Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

51 The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools Feature Control Frames
Basic Dimensions, and Datum Feature Labels Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

52 Technical Advantages of GD&T
GD&T is perfectly capable of controlling size, and . . . 1) clearly defines coordinate systems, clearly differentiates between reference and controlled features, controls the location of bores with cylindrical tolerance zones, links location tolerances to feature size using (M) and (L) Modifiers provides powerful tools for controlling compound curved surfaces, provides powerful tools for managing feature form, provides powerful means for researching and refining part functionality, and through tolerance stack-up analysis, makes it possible to guarantee assemblability. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

53 Tribal Understandings
As a result . . . GD&T liberates us from Tribal Understandings & Interpretation Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

54 Fundamental GD&T Concepts
Now for some Fundamental GD&T Concepts Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

55 Let’s take a closer look at
The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

56 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

57 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

58 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

59 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

60 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Cylindrical Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

61 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Cylindrical Slab-like Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

62 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Cylindrical Slab-like Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

63 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Slab-like Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

64 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

65 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

66 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Perfect imaginary reference points, lines and planes. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

67 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Perfect imaginary reference points, lines and planes. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

68 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4. Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

69 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4. Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

70 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4. Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5. Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

71 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4. Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5. Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

72 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4. Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5. Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 6. A symbolic Language Sets of Geometry Control Tools for imposing the perfect imaginary world on the imperfect real world. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

73 The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T
Tube-like 1. Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2. Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3. Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4. Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5. Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 6. A symbolic Language Sets of Geometry Control Tools for imposing the perfect imaginary world on the imperfect real world. Cylindrical Wall Thickness Diameter Slab-like Width Diameter Tool Position Tool Cylindricity Tool Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

74 Now let’s put it all to work . . .
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

75 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

76 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

77 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Datum Feature Labels Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

78 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Datum Feature Labels identify the functionally most important features of a part. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

79 Geometry Control Tools
Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . . Geometry Control Tools Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

80 Geometry Control Tools
Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . . Geometry Control Tools control the size, form, orientation and location of part features Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

81 Feature Control Frames
Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . . Feature Control Frames Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

82 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

83 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems In Particular Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

84 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems In Particular Tolerance Zone Shape Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

85 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems In Particular Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

86 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems In Particular Tolerance Zone Shape Coordinate System Establishment Instructions Tolerance Zone Size Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

87 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Basic Dimensions Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

88 Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing, . . .
Basic Dimensions locate tolerance zones Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

89 . . . and here’s the actual part, . . .
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

90 . . . and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

91 . . . and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !
A slab-like Flatness Tolerance Zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

92 . . . and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !
A slab-like Perpendicularity Tolerance Zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

93 . . . and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !
A tube-like Diameter Tolerance Zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

94 . . . and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !
A cylindrical Position Tolerance Zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

95 The GD&T – Design Connection
Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Design Connection Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

96 The GD&T – Design Connection
Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Design Connection Important Concepts & Processes Encourages aggressive feature function analysis Encourages fault tolerant design Supports truly Functional Datum Feature selection Requires effective Geometry Control Tool selection Encourages balanced Tolerance value selection to guarantee Operability, Assemblability & Manufacturability Permits truly functional Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis (TSUPA™) to guarantee functionality prior to model release Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

97 The GD&T – Manufacturing Connection
Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Manufacturing Connection Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

98 The GD&T – Manufacturing Connection
Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Manufacturing Connection Important Concepts & Processes Enables reliable manufacturing process planning through unique Feature Control Frame decoding Permits aggressive Design feedback on questionable call-outs Requires religious use of specified Datum Features where possible Allows use of Temporary Datum Features where necessary Enables scientific manufacturing process quality assessment Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

99 The GD&T – Metrology Connection
Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Metrology Connection Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

100 The GD&T – Metrology Connection
Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Metrology Connection Important Concepts & Processes Completely defines CMM based inspection processes through potentially fully automated Feature Control Frame decoding Essentially automates Functional Gage design Requires adequate raw data point cloud densities Requires adequate raw data accuracy – at least 20X the tightest tolerance value Permits fully automated Rule based Datum Reference Frame establishment Enables strict, Rule based Actual Value processing Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

101 bad GD&T Clearly is nothing but trouble !
Clearly Functional GD&T is essential for reliable manufacturing and metrology processes Clearly bad GD&T is nothing but trouble ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

102 Primary Focuses in this presentation:
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

103 Primary Focuses in this presentation:
Feature Control Frame Anatomy Material Condition Modifier clarifications Feature Control Frame decoding Datum Feature, Datum Feature Simulator and Datum definitions Rules for Datum Feature Simulation and Datum Reference Frame establishment The Datum Reference Frame establishment Process. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

104 Anatomy Feature Control Frame
Let’s start with the Anatomy of a Feature Control Frame Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

105 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

106 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
Feature Control Frames have three major compartments Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

107 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
Feature Control Frames have three major compartments Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

108 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

109 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

110 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

111 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

112 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

113 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

114 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Primary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

115 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Primary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Secondary Datum Feature Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

116 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Primary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Secondary Datum Feature Tertiary Datum Feature Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

117 Feature Control Frame Anatomy
1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone Tolerance Zone Shape Primary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Secondary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Tertiary Datum Feature Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

118 Material Condition Modifier Effects
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

119 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

120 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M ore tolerance Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

121 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M ore tolerance Clearance Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

122 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M ore tolerance Clearance L L ots of tolerance Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

123 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M ore tolerance Clearance L L ots of tolerance Interference / Overlap Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

124 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M ore tolerance Clearance L L ots of tolerance Interference / Overlap S S tuck at 0.5 mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

125 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M ore tolerance Clearance L L ots of tolerance Interference / Overlap S S tuck at 0.5 mm Centering / Aiming Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

126 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

127 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing M Encourages pushing features toward their LMC ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

128 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing M Encourages pushing features toward their LMC ! L Encourages pushing features toward their MMC ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

129 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing M Encourages pushing features toward their LMC ! L Encourages pushing features toward their MMC ! S Encourages keeping features at their mean sizes ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

130 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

131 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology Requires determining the unconstrained, in-space actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone M Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

132 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology Requires determining the unconstrained, in-space actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone M Requires determining the unconstrained, in-material actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone L Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

133 Ø25±1 Material Condition Modifier Effects Modifiers
Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology Requires determining the unconstrained, in-space actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone M Requires determining the unconstrained, in-material actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone L S Easy to implement, because there is nothing to do ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

134 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

135 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

136 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function M M obilizes the tolerance zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

137 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { M M obilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

138 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { M M obilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance This will be demonstrated in the application at the end of the workshop! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

139 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { M M obilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance L L oosens the tolerance zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

140 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { M M obilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance { L L oosens the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-material overlap Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

141 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { M M obilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance { L L oosens the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-material overlap S S tabilizes the tolerance zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

142 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { M M obilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance { L L oosens the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-material overlap { S S tabilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part centering Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

143 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

144 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary M M Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

145 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary M M Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Least Material Boundary L L Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

146 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary M M Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Least Material Boundary L L Requires the Simulator to expand or contract to consume all the available space S S Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

147 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

148 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. M should always be treated as S for set-up M Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

149 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. M should always be treated as S for set-up M Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their MMC. L should always be treated as S for set-up L Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

150 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. M should always be treated as S for set-up M Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. L should always be treated as S for set-up L S Encourages keeping Datum Features at their mean sizes Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

151 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

152 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology M Present significant problems for CMM software and raise the specter of the Rule of Simultaneous Requirements ! & L Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

153 Tolerance Zone Mobility
Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Ø25±1 Impact on Coordinate Metrology M Present significant problems for CMM software and raise the specter of the Rule of Simultaneous Requirements ! & L S Easy to implement, because there is nothing to do ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

154 Here’s an interesting question !
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

155 Feature Control Frame Types ?
What’s the difference between these two Feature Control Frame Types ? Compound Composite Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

156 Feature Control Frame Types ?
What’s the difference between these two Feature Control Frame Types ? Compound Composite It’s huge and very simple: Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

157 Feature Control Frame Types ?
What’s the difference between these two Feature Control Frame Types ? Compound Composite It’s huge and very simple: The differences are described on pp. 93–133 in the ASME Y14.5M 1994 Standard . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

158 Feature Control Frame Types ? . . . but can be condensed into
What’s the difference between these two Feature Control Frame Types ? Compound Composite It’s huge and very simple: The differences are described on pp. 93–133 in the ASME Y14.5M 1994 Standard . . . . . . but can be condensed into Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

159 Composite Feature Control Frames
The Rule of Composite Feature Control Frames Compound Composite Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

160 Composite Feature Control Frames
The Rule of Composite Feature Control Frames Compound Composite The Datum Features in the second and all lower tiers of a Composite Feature Control Frame may only constrain rotational degrees of freedom ! (Y14.5M 1994 – pp ) Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

161 Now we’ll illustrate the process of
Decoding GD&T Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

162 “Quick Read” But first let’s do the
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

163 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

164 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

165 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

166 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

167 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

168 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

169 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B regardless of feature size, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

170 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B regardless of feature size, and C Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

171 Reading the Feature Control Frame.
Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B regardless of feature size, and C at Maximum Material Condition. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

172 Now, let’s Decode it! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

173 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

174 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

175 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

176 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

177 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm at MMC - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

178 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

179 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm as the Unconstrained Actual Mating size of the Considered Feature departs from MMC toward LMC - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

180 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

181 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

182 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

183 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

184 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

185 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

186 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

187 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

188 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, simulated mobly at its Virtual Maximum Material Condition size. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

189 Got it? One more time ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

190 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

191 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

192 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

193 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

194 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm at MMC - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

195 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

196 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm as the Unconstrained Actual Mating size of the Considered Feature departs from MMC toward LMC - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

197 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

198 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

199 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

200 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

201 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

202 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

203 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

204 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

205 Decoding the Feature Control Frame.
- which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, simulated mobly at its Virtual Maximum Material Condition size. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

206 Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
With decoding in hand, we’re ready to investigate the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

207 We’ll use the indicated Datum Features . . .
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

208 We’ll use the indicated Datum Features . . .
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

209 We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

210 We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

211 We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

212 We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

213 And discover how the modifier M leads to
We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame ! And discover how the modifier M leads to Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

214 Tolerance Zone Mobility
We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame ! And discover how the modifier M leads to Tolerance Zone Mobility Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

215 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Concepts Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

216 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Concepts Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

217 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Concepts Tools Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

218 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Concepts Datum Feature Labels Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Feature Control Frames Tools Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

219 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Concepts Datum Feature Labels Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Feature Control Frames Tools Rules Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

220 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Concepts Datum Feature Labels Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Feature Control Frames Tools Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment Rules Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

221 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Details Concepts Datum Feature Labels Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Feature Control Frames Tools Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment Rules Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

222 Datum Features Definition:
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

223 Datum Features Definition:
Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

224 Datum Features Definition:
Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes. A is a Planar Surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

225 Datum Features Definition:
Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes. B is a Bore A is a Planar Surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

226 Datum Features Definition:
Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes. B is a Bore C is a Slot A is a Planar Surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

227 Datum Targets Definition:
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

228 Datum Targets are limited portions of Datum Features:
Definition: Datum Targets are limited portions of Datum Features: Points Lines Limited Areas which encode the fact that the mating Datum Feature, assembly or manufacturing fixture, will only engage the indicated, limited portions of the Datum Feature under consideration. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

229 Datum Targets Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

230 Datum Targets Point Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3 are to be simulated by spherical simulators of dia. 10mm Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

231 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

232 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

233 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, from which we extract Datums Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

234 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, from which we extract Datums in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

235 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, from which we extract Datums in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and with which we transfer Datum Reference Frames to actual parts. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

236 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, from which we extract Datums in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and with which we transfer Datum Reference Frames to actual parts. The machining fixtures and gages used in manufacturing and inspection processes are examples of physical Datum Feature Simulators. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

237 Datum Feature Simulators
Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, from which we extract Datums in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and with which we transfer Datum Reference Frames to actual parts. Mathematical Datum Feature Simulators are constructed by Coordinate Measuring Machine software systems during Datum Reference Frame establishment procedures. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

238 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

239 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

240 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface Datum Feature Simulator A: an inverse Planar Surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

241 Datum Target Simulator Details
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

242 Datum Target Simulator Details
Point Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3 Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

243 Datum Target Simulator Details
Point Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3 Datum Target Simulators A1, A2 and A3: Three Tooling Balls Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

244 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Datum Feature B: a Bore Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

245 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Datum Feature B: a Bore S Datum Feature Simulator B: an expanding Cylinder Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

246 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Datum Feature C: a Slot Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

247 Datum Feature Simulator Details
Datum Feature C: a Slot Datum Feature Simulator C: A fixed “Tombstone” M Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

248 Datums Definition: Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

249 Datums Definition: Datums are the minimum set of one perfect imaginary reference point, and/or straight line, and/or plane, which together, fully characterize the orientation and location of a datum feature simulator. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

250 Datum Feature Simulators & Datums
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

251 Datum Details Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

252 Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface
Datum Details Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

253 Datum Details Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface
Datum A: the tangent plane on Datum Feature Simulator A Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

254 Datum Details for Datum Targets
Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3: Points Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

255 Datum Details for Datum Targets
Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3: Points Datum A: the tangent plane on Datum Target Simulators A1, A2 and A3 Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

256 Datum Details Datum Feature B: a Bore
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

257 Datum Feature Simulator B
Datum Details Datum Feature B: a Bore Datum B: the axis of Datum Feature Simulator B Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

258 Datum Details Datum Feature C: a Slot
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

259 Datum Details Datum Feature C: a Slot Datum C: the mid-plane of
Datum Feature Simulator C Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

260 Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame
Datum Features Datum Targets Datum Feature Simulators Datums Concepts Datum Feature Labels Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Feature Control Frames Tools Details Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment Rules Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

261 Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

262 Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management
Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

263 Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management
Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. Orientation: All simulators shall be perfectly oriented by their associated basic angular dimensions. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

264 Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management
Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. Orientation: All simulators shall be perfectly oriented by their associated basic angular dimensions. Location: Unless otherwise indicated, all simulators shall be perfectly located by their associated basic linear dimensions. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

265 Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management
Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. Orientation: All simulators shall be perfectly oriented by their associated basic angular dimensions. Location: Unless otherwise indicated, all simulators shall be perfectly located by their associated basic linear dimensions. Size: - Simulators referenced RFS shall expand or contract to consume all the space available in or outside their associated Datum Features. - Simulators referenced at MMC or LMC shall be fixed at the Virtual MMC or LMC size of their associated Datum Features. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

266 Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

267 Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment
Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

268 Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment
Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. Rule of Degrees of Constraint Precedence: Each Datum Feature shall first attempt to constrain pitch & yaw, then only roll, and only then translational degrees of freedom. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

269 Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment
Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. Rule of Degrees of Constraint Precedence: Each Datum Feature shall first attempt to constrain pitch & yaw, then only roll, and only then translational degrees of freedom. Rule of Non-Override: No Datum Feature may impact degrees of freedom constrained by higher precedence Datum Features. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

270 Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment
Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. Rule of Degrees of Constraint Precedence: Each Datum Feature shall first attempt to constrain pitch & yaw, then only roll, and only then translational degrees of freedom. Rule of Non-Override: No Datum Feature may impact degrees of freedom constrained by higher precedence Datum Features. Can-May-Must Rule: - If a Datum Feature can constrain a degree of freedom, and also may, then it must. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

271 Establishment Process
Now for . . . The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

272 Establishment Process Steps
Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps Decode the Feature Control Frame Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

273 Establishment Process Steps
Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps Decode the Feature Control Frame Identify the Datum Features Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

274 Establishment Process Steps
Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps Decode the Feature Control Frame Identify the Datum Features Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

275 Establishment Process Steps
Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps Decode the Feature Control Frame Identify the Datum Features Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Extract the Datums from their Simulators Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

276 Establishment Process Steps
Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps Decode the Feature Control Frame Identify the Datum Features Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Extract the Datums from their Simulators Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the simulators by constraining the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of a starter coordinate system Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

277 Establishment Process Steps
Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps Decode the Feature Control Frame Identify the Datum Features Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Extract the Datums from their Simulators Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the simulators by constraining the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of a starter coordinate system Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the Datum Reference Frame to the actual part. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

278 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

279 Decode the Feature Control Frame
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Step 1. Decode the Feature Control Frame Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

280 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
What ? One more time ? No ! Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

281 Identify the Datum Features
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

282 Identify the Datum Features
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Feature A: a planar surface Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

283 Identify the Datum Features
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Feature A: a planar surface Feature B: a hollow cylinder Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

284 Identify the Datum Features
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Feature A: a planar surface Feature B: a hollow cylinder Feature C: a slot Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

285 Construct the Datum Feature Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

286 Construct the Datum Feature Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

287 A Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators A Simulator A: a planar surface Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

288 B Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Simulator A: a planar surface Simulator B: an expanding solid cylinder Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. B Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

289 C Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators C Simulator A: a planar surface Simulator B: an expanding solid cylinder Simulator C: a slab fixed in size at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary of the slot Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

290 Extract the Datums from their Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

291 A Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators Datum A: the tangent plane on Simulator A Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. A Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

292 B Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators Datum A: the tangent plane on Simulator A Datum B: the axis of Simulator B Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. B Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

293 C Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators
The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators C Datum A: the tangent plane on Simulator A Datum B: the axis of Simulator B Datum C: the mid-plane of Simulator C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

294 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

295 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum Set Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

296 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum Set Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. “Starter” Coordinate System Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

297 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz A Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

298 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz A Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

299 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. B Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

300 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. B Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

301 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. C Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty Datum C constrains Rz (roll) Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

302 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. C Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty Datum C constrains Rz (roll) Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

303 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

304 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

305 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C] . . . may rock relative to Datum Feature A. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

306 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C] . . . may rock relative to Datum Feature A. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Unless Datum Feature A is represented by Datum Targets . . . Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

307 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C] . . . may rock relative to Datum Feature A. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Unless Datum Feature A is represented by Datum Targets . . . . . . in which case DRF [A,B,C] will be stable relative to Datum Feature A ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

308 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

309 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

310 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Why? DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

311 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Because . . . Simulator C does not consume all the space inside Datum Feature C ! DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

312 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
Because . . . Simulator C does not consume all the space inside Datum Feature C ! DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

313 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

314 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

315 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

316 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone, . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

317 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone, . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

318 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone, . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

319 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone, . . . DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

320 The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process
And . . . although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone, the Considered Feature comes into tolerance ! DRF [A,B,C] . . . will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Voice Over #1: “With these concepts well established, we are finally ready to proceed with the Datum Reference Frames process itself, starting with step #1”. Decode the Feature Control Frame Accompanying Animations: The above is said as the slide appears. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

321 This is exactly what a functional gage would do, and therefore exactly what CMM software does – i.e. should do – Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

322 This is exactly what a functional gage would do, and therefore exactly what CMM software does -
at least on sunny days ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

323 And in really sophisticated systems, the whole process is automated !
This is exactly what a functional gage would do, and therefore exactly what CMM software does - at least on sunny days ! And in really sophisticated systems, the whole process is automated ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

324 Concluding Remarks Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

325 We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be
Concluding Remarks We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

326 “encoded” and “decoded”
Concluding Remarks We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be “encoded” and “decoded” Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

327 “encoded” and “decoded”
Concluding Remarks We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be “encoded” and “decoded” and that many GD&T processes can and should be Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

328 Automated ! “encoded” and “decoded” Concluding Remarks
We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be “encoded” and “decoded” and that many GD&T processes can and should be Automated ! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

329 SmartGD&T Solutions: And so it’s time for
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

330 What is SmartGD&T ? SmartGD&T is a rule-based, process driven approach to either the ASME Y14.5M 1994 or ISO 1101 standard, which makes it possible to “encode” and “decode”, rather than “interpret” GD&T, and get it right the first time. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

331 SmartGD&T Solutions: 1. Systematize the language with precisely defined Concepts Tools Rules Processes 2. Automate GD&T related design, manufacturing and inspection processes 3. Provide on-demand, web based support. 4. Build internal, live support teams. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

332 Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following
Products Services Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

333 Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following
Products SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code Detailed Guidelines for automating GD&T processes in CAD, CAM and CAI software Services Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

334 Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following
Products SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code e-GAD – on-line electronic GD&T Aided Design Training Manuals & Presentation Materials Training Models Reference Books Services Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

335 Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following
Products SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code e-GAD – on-line electronic GD&T Aided Design Training Manuals & Presentation Materials Training Models Reference Books Services SmartGD&T Technology Licensing Patents and Support for automating GD&T processes in CAD, CAM and CAI software Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

336 Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following
Products SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code e-GAD – on-line electronic GD&T Aided Design Training Manuals & Presentation Materials Training Models Reference Books Services SmartGD&T Technology Licensing Corporate GD&T Implementation Planning On-Site GD&T End–user and Trainer Training On-Site GD&T Encoding & Decoding Services Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

337 Solution Details SmartGD&T TM
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

338 clarify and systematize the language!
SmartGD&T Solution #1 clarify and systematize the language! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

339 clarify and systematize the language!
SmartGD&T Solution #1 clarify and systematize the language! SmartGD&T TM Technology is all about Crystalline Definitions ! Explicit, easily found Rules ! Smooth Processes Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

340 Provide web based electronic support!
SmartGD&T Solution #2 Provide web based electronic support! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

341 electronic GD&T Aided Design
SmartGD&T Solution #2 Provide web based electronic support! e-GAD TM electronic GD&T Aided Design Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

342 electronic GD&T Aided Design
SmartGD&T Solution #2 Provide web based electronic support! e-GAD TM electronic GD&T Aided Design Consists of: 1. The “SmartGD&T Best Practices Guide” 2. The “SmartGD&T On-Line Tutor” Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

343 A searchable, Encyclopedia of GD&T
SmartGD&T Solution #2 The SmartGD&T Best Practices Guide A searchable, Encyclopedia of GD&T Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

344 SmartGD&T Best Practices Guide
The Home Page For clarity, we break GD&T down into the four groups: Concepts Tools Rules Processes Users click on any item in the top or bottom bars to access the desired content or function. Click on Search to scan any or all groups Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

345 A Collection of Voiced Over, Animated Training Segments
SmartGD&T Solution #2 The SmartGD&T On-Line-Tutor A Collection of Voiced Over, Animated Training Segments Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

346 SmartGD&T On-Line Tutor
The On-Line Tutor This is an example of the just-in-time GD&T tutorials which make up the On-Line Tutor. This segment describes the sixth and final step in the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

347 The On-Line Tutor SmartGD&T On-Line Tutor
This is an example of the pop-up Topic Menu for the On-Line Tutor. The Topic Menu provides access to each segment of the tutorial and also indicates their duration. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

348 build internal support teams!
SmartGD&T Solution #3 build internal support teams! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

349 Implementation & Training
SmartGD&T Solution #3 build internal support teams! Multi Metrics. Inc. provides on-site & remote ASME Y14.5M 1994 based Implementation & Training Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

350 Automate GD&T processes!
SmartGD&T Solution #4 Automate GD&T processes! Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

351 Multi Metrics licenses
SmartGD&T Solution #4 Automate GD&T processes! Multi Metrics licenses SmartGD&T Technology to help software developers automate GD&T encoding in the CAD world and GD&T decoding in the CAM and CAI worlds Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

352 InnovMetric Software Inc.
Multi Metrics’ first SmartGD&T Technology partner is InnovMetric Software Inc. the masters of dense point cloud metrology. IMI has built a comprehensive SmartGD&T Technology based GD&T decoding and processing engine in PolyWorks, their highly esteemed dense point cloud metrology software system, has completely automated geometry processing algorithm selection in keeping with SmartGD&T Technology based fundamental rules, has completely automated the Datum Reference Frame establishment process, based on the applicable SmartGD&T Technology patent, and has produced a GD&T processing system which is as ergonomic as it is powerful. PolyWorks/Modeler is a software suite for building accurate 3D polygonal models from 3D digitized points. Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

353 How can we help you ? Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

354 Please visit and give us a call at www.multimetrics.com 650-328-0200
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved

355 Thank you ! & Special Thanks to Spatial ! Bill Tandler
Copyright © by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved


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