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Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved by Bill Tandler A SmartGD&T Workshop Spatial 3D Insider’s Summit Boulder.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved by Bill Tandler A SmartGD&T Workshop Spatial 3D Insider’s Summit Boulder."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved by Bill Tandler A SmartGD&T Workshop Spatial 3D Insider’s Summit Boulder 2008 GD&T Fundamentals and potential Automation in CAD/CAM/CAI TM

2 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Workshop Overview 1.What is GD&T? 2.The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 3.A GD&T Encoded Part 4.GD&T – Design, Mfg. & Metrology Connections 5.The Anatomy of a Feature Control Frame 6.Feature Control Frame Decoding 7.The Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process SmartGD&T™

3 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved What is GD&T? $ $ $ $ $

4 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Many people think GD&T is

5 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved G rim, D epressing & T roublesome Many people think GD&T is

6 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved and a fine way to waste a

7 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved and a fine way to waste a G reat D eal of T ime

8 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Others think GD&T is the

9 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved G reatest D esign T ool ever ! Others think GD&T is the

10 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved But in fact,

11 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved But in fact, GD&T is the only tool we have for managing imperfect geometry

12 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved perfectly! But in fact, GD&T is the only tool we have for managing imperfect geometry

13 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Purpose of GD&T

14 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Most people would say... The main purpose of GD&T is to communicate Design intent unambiguously to manufacturing and inspection. Purpose of GD&T

15 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The primary purpose of GD&T, is to ensure that what we communicate to manufacturing and inspection is worth communicating, namely represents functional, assemblable parts. but in fact... Purpose of GD&T

16 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Or, in greater detail...

17 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for

18 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching

19 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching 2.refining and

20 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching 2.refining and 3.encoding the function of each feature of a part in Design,

21 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching 2.refining and 3.encoding the function of each feature of a part in Design, in order - through decoding - to

22 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching 2.refining and 3.encoding the function of each feature of a part in Design, 1.guarantee assemblability and operability prior to drawing release in order - through decoding - to

23 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching 2.refining and 3.encoding the function of each feature of a part in Design, 1.guarantee assemblability and operability prior to drawing release 2.set reduce cost and set precise objectives for manufacturing, and in order - through decoding - to

24 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T is a symbolic language for 1.researching 2.refining and 3.encoding the function of each feature of a part in Design, 1.guarantee assemblability and operability prior to drawing release 2.set reduce cost and set precise objectives for manufacturing, and 3.turn inspection and manufacturing process feedback into truly scientific processes in order - through decoding - to

25 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved In fact, without GD&T

26 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Reliable Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis is impossible... In fact, without GD&T

27 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Reliable Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis is impossible... 2.Manufacturing is a guessing game based on tribal understandings... In fact, without GD&T

28 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Reliable Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis is impossible... 2.Manufacturing is a guessing game based on tribal understandings... 3.All inspection is pure invention on the part of the inspector. In fact, without GD&T

29 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved A question...

30 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Did you notice the use of the words “encoding” and “decoding” ?

31 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Another question...

32 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Have you ever asked two or three colleagues for help “interpreting” GD&T ?

33 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved... and gotten two or three Have you ever asked two or three colleagues for help “interpreting” GD&T ?

34 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved... and gotten two or three “different interpretations” ? Have you ever asked two or three colleagues for help “interpreting” GD&T ?

35 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Surely if GD&T is used to decorate drawings for later “interpretation”

36 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Surely if GD&T is used to decorate drawings for later “interpretation” it is useless!

37 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved $ $ $ and because machine shops know that most GD&T is purely decorative, they have to charge more to cover the cost of ensuring that their interpretations are in line with those of their customers. Surely if GD&T is used to decorate drawings for later “interpretation” it is useless!

38 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now for some insights into

39 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Simplicity but Uselessness of CD&T ( C lassical D imensioning & T olerancing) Now for some insights into

40 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Classical tool kit consists of only one tool, namely the toleranced nominal dimension 50 ± 1 But is one tool enough?

41 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Although perfectly capable of controlling size, the classical alternative... Technical Disadvantages of Classical Tolerancing

42 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1)does not clearly define coordinate systems, 2)does not differentiate between reference and controlled features, 3)controls the location of bores with square instead of round tolerance zones, 4)provides no means of linking location tolerances to feature size, 5)provides no means for controlling compound curved surfaces, 6)provides no means for managing feature form, 7)provides no means for researching and refining part functionality, and 8)provides no means for guaranteeing the assemblability of mating parts. Although perfectly capable of controlling size, the classical alternative... Technical Disadvantages of Classical Tolerancing

43 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Classical Tolerancing leaves us beholden to Tribal Understandings & Interpretation As a result...

44 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved How does GD&T compare ?

45 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Frustrations and Power of GD&T ( G eometric D imensioning & T olerancing)

46 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T Frustrations 1.GD&T is Complex. 2.GD&T is Sporadically used. 3.GD&T is often used to “decorate” drawings, rather than “encode” function. 4.GD&T is often “interpreted” rather than “decoded”.

47 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T Opportunities 1.GD&T encourages fault tolerant designs and can guarantee assemblability. 2.GD&T reduces Mfg. cost through unambiguous communication and looser tolerances. 3.GD&T turns 3D Metrology into a reliable, scientific process for the first time.

48 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The GD&T tool kit

49 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools

50 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools Feature Control Frames

51 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools Feature Control Frames Basic Dimensions, and

52 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The GD&T tool kit Geometry Control Tools Feature Control Frames Basic Dimensions, and Datum Feature Labels

53 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1)clearly defines coordinate systems, 2)clearly differentiates between reference and controlled features, 3)controls the location of bores with cylindrical tolerance zones, 4)links location tolerances to feature size using (M) and (L) Modifiers 5)provides powerful tools for controlling compound curved surfaces, 6)provides powerful tools for managing feature form, 7)provides powerful means for researching and refining part functionality, and 8)through tolerance stack-up analysis, makes it possible to guarantee assemblability. GD&T is perfectly capable of controlling size, and... Technical Advantages of GD&T

54 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved GD&T liberates us from Tribal Understandings & Interpretation As a result...

55 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now for some Fundamental GD&T Concepts

56 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T Let’s take a closer look at

57 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T

58 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie.

59 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie.

60 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Tube-like

61 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Tube-like Cylindrical

62 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

63 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

64 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Wall Thickness Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

65 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Wall Thickness Diameter Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

66 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Wall Thickness Diameter Width The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

67 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Perfect imaginary reference points, lines and planes.

68 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Perfect imaginary reference points, lines and planes. Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

69 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4.Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

70 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4.Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

71 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4.Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5.Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

72 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4.Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5.Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

73 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4.Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5.Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 6.A symbolic Language Sets of Geometry Control Tools for imposing the perfect imaginary world on the imperfect real world. Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical

74 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Perfect Imaginary World of GD&T Diameter Tool Position Tool Cylindricity Tool Wall Thickness Diameter Width Tube-like Slab-like Cylindrical 1.Tolerance Zones Bounded regions of space within which a particular component of a feature is required to lie. 2.Tolerance Values The sizes of tolerance zones. 3.Datums Reference points, lines and planes. 4.Coordinate Systems Frames of reference for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 5.Basic Dimensions Tools for orienting and locating tolerance zones. 6.A symbolic Language Sets of Geometry Control Tools for imposing the perfect imaginary world on the imperfect real world.

75 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now let’s put it all to work...

76 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

77 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

78 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Labels Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

79 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Labels identify the functionally most important features of a part. Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

80 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Geometry Control Tools Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

81 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Geometry Control Tools control the size, form, orientation and location of part features Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

82 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frames Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

83 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

84 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved In Particular Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,... Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems

85 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved In Particular Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,... Tolerance Zone Shape Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems

86 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,... Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size In Particular

87 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frames specify tolerance zones and coordinate systems Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,... Tolerance Zone Shape Coordinate System Establishment Instructions Tolerance Zone Size In Particular

88 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Basic Dimensions Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

89 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Basic Dimensions locate tolerance zones Here’s a partially GD&T encoded drawing,...

90 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved... and here’s the actual part,...

91 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved... and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !

92 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved A slab-like Flatness Tolerance Zone... and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !

93 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved A slab-like Perpendicularity Tolerance Zone... and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !

94 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved A tube-like Diameter Tolerance Zone... and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !

95 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved A cylindrical Position Tolerance Zone... and here are the GD&T defined Tolerance Zones !

96 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Design Connection

97 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Design Connection 1.Encourages aggressive feature function analysis 2.Encourages fault tolerant design 3.Supports truly Functional Datum Feature selection 4.Requires effective Geometry Control Tool selection 5.Encourages balanced Tolerance value selection to guarantee Operability, Assemblability & Manufacturability 6.Permits truly functional Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis (TSUPA™) to guarantee functionality prior to model release Important Concepts & Processes

98 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Manufacturing Connection

99 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Manufacturing Connection 1.Enables reliable manufacturing process planning through unique Feature Control Frame decoding 2.Permits aggressive Design feedback on questionable call-outs 3.Requires religious use of specified Datum Features where possible 4.Allows use of Temporary Datum Features where necessary 5.Enables scientific manufacturing process quality assessment Important Concepts & Processes

100 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Metrology Connection

101 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now a quick overview of The GD&T – Metrology Connection Important Concepts & Processes 1.Completely defines CMM based inspection processes through potentially fully automated Feature Control Frame decoding 2.Essentially automates Functional Gage design 3.Requires adequate raw data point cloud densities 4.Requires adequate raw data accuracy – at least 20X the tightest tolerance value 5.Permits fully automated Rule based Datum Reference Frame establishment 6.Enables strict, Rule based Actual Value processing

102 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Clearly Functional GD&T is essential for reliable manufacturing and metrology processes Clearly bad GD&T is nothing but trouble !

103 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Primary Focuses in this presentation:

104 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Feature Control Frame Anatomy 2.Material Condition Modifier clarifications 3.Feature Control Frame decoding 4.Datum Feature, Datum Feature Simulator and Datum definitions 5.Rules for Datum Feature Simulation and Datum Reference Frame establishment 6.The Datum Reference Frame establishment Process. Primary Focuses in this presentation:

105 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Let’s start with the Anatomy of a Feature Control Frame

106 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy

107 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Feature Control Frames have three major compartments

108 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Feature Control Frames have three major compartments

109 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool

110 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool

111 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

112 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Tolerance Zone Shape 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

113 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

114 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size Tolerance Zone Size Modifier 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

115 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Primary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

116 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Primary Datum Feature Secondary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

117 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Primary Datum Feature Secondary Datum Feature Tertiary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

118 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Anatomy Tolerance Zone Size Modifier Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Primary Datum Feature Secondary Datum Feature Tertiary Datum Feature Tolerance Zone Shape Tolerance Zone Size 1. Specifies the Geometry Control Tool 3. Specifies the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process 2. Specifies the Tolerance Zone

119 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Ø25±1

120 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Ø25±1

121 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M Impact on the Tolerance Zone M ore tolerance The Encoded Function Ø25±1

122 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M Impact on the Tolerance Zone M ore tolerance The Encoded Function Clearance Ø25±1

123 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M L Impact on the Tolerance Zone M ore tolerance L ots of tolerance The Encoded Function Clearance Ø25±1

124 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M L Impact on the Tolerance Zone M ore tolerance L ots of tolerance The Encoded Function Clearance Interference / Overlap Ø25±1

125 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M ore tolerance L ots of tolerance S tuck at 0.5 mm M L S Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Clearance Interference / Overlap Ø25±1

126 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M ore tolerance L ots of tolerance S tuck at 0.5 mm M L S Impact on the Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Clearance Interference / Overlap Centering / Aiming Ø25±1

127 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Impact on Manufacturing Ø25±1

128 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Encourages pushing features toward their LMC ! M Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing

129 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Encourages pushing features toward their LMC ! M L Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages pushing features toward their MMC !

130 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers M L S Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages pushing features toward their LMC ! Encourages pushing features toward their MMC ! Encourages keeping features at their mean sizes !

131 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Impact on Coordinate Metrology Ø25±1

132 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Impact on Coordinate Metrology Ø25±1 M Requires determining the unconstrained, in-space actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone

133 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Impact on Coordinate Metrology Ø25±1 M L Requires determining the unconstrained, in-space actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone Requires determining the unconstrained, in-material actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone

134 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Material Condition Modifier Effects Tolerance Zone Size Modifiers Easy to implement, because there is nothing to do ! M L S Impact on Coordinate Metrology Ø25±1 Requires determining the unconstrained, in-space actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone Requires determining the unconstrained, in-material actual mating size of a feature to expand the Tol Zone

135 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Ø25±1

136 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Ø25±1

137 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Ø25±1 M obilizes the tolerance zone

138 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { Mating Part play due to in-space clearance Ø25±1 M obilizes the tolerance zone

139 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { Ø25±1 M obilizes the tolerance zone This will be demonstrated in the application at the end of the workshop! Mating Part play due to in-space clearance

140 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M L Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { Ø25±1 M obilizes the tolerance zone L oosens the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance

141 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M L Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Mating Part play due to in-material overlap { { Ø25±1 M obilizes the tolerance zone L oosens the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance

142 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M obilizes the tolerance zone L oosens the tolerance zone S tabilizes the tolerance zone M L S Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function { { Ø25±1 Mating Part play due to in-space clearance Mating Part play due to in-material overlap

143 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers M L S Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the DRF & Tolerance Zone The Encoded Function Mating Part centering { { { Ø25±1 M obilizes the tolerance zone L oosens the tolerance zone S tabilizes the tolerance zone Mating Part play due to in-space clearance Mating Part play due to in-material overlap

144 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Ø25±1

145 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Ø25±1 MM Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary

146 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Ø25±1 L M L M Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Least Material Boundary

147 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers S S Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on the Datum Feature Simulators Ø25±1 L M L Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary Fixes the size of the Simulator at the Virtual Least Material Boundary M Requires the Simulator to expand or contract to consume all the available space

148 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on Manufacturing Ø25±1

149 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. M should always be treated as S for set-up M

150 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing M L Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. M should always be treated as S for set-up Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their MMC. L should always be treated as S for set-up

151 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Ø25±1 Impact on Manufacturing Encourages keeping Datum Features at their mean sizes M L S Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. M should always be treated as S for set-up Encourages pushing Datum Features toward their LMC. L should always be treated as S for set-up

152 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects Impact on Coordinate Metrology Ø25±1

153 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects M L Impact on Coordinate Metrology Ø25±1 Present significant problems for CMM software and raise the specter of the Rule of Simultaneous Requirements ! &

154 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers Material Condition Modifier Effects S Impact on Coordinate Metrology Easy to implement, because there is nothing to do ! M L Present significant problems for CMM software and raise the specter of the Rule of Simultaneous Requirements ! Ø25±1 &

155 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Here’s an interesting question !

156 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Types ? CompoundComposite What’s the difference between these two

157 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Types ? CompoundComposite What’s the difference between these two It’s huge and very simple:

158 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Types ? CompoundComposite What’s the difference between these two The differences are described on pp. 93–133 in the ASME Y14.5M 1994 Standard... It’s huge and very simple:

159 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Feature Control Frame Types ? CompoundComposite What’s the difference between these two The differences are described on pp. 93–133 in the ASME Y14.5M 1994 Standard... It’s huge and very simple:... but can be condensed into

160 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Composite Feature Control Frames CompoundComposite The Rule of

161 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved CompoundComposite The Datum Features in the second and all lower tiers of a Composite Feature Control Frame may only constrain rotational degrees of freedom ! (Y14.5M 1994 – pp. 93-133) Composite Feature Control Frames The Rule of

162 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Decoding GD&T Now we’ll illustrate the process of

163 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved But first let’s do the “Quick Read”

164 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Reading the Feature Control Frame.

165 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - Reading the Feature Control Frame.

166 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm Reading the Feature Control Frame.

167 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - Reading the Feature Control Frame.

168 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A Reading the Feature Control Frame.

169 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B Reading the Feature Control Frame.

170 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B regardless of feature size, Reading the Feature Control Frame.

171 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B regardless of feature size, and C Reading the Feature Control Frame.

172 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position - within a diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - relative to A, B regardless of feature size, and C at Maximum Material Condition. Reading the Feature Control Frame.

173 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Now, let’s Decode it!

174 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

175 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

176 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

177 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

178 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm at MMC - Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

179 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

180 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm as the Unconstrained Actual Mating size of the Considered Feature departs from MMC toward LMC - Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

181 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

182 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

183 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

184 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

185 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

186 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

187 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

188 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

189 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, simulated mobly at its Virtual Maximum Material Condition size. Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

190 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Got it? One more time !

191 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

192 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

193 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

194 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

195 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone of diameter 0.5 mm at MMC - Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

196 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

197 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Position requires the bounded axis of the Considered Feature to lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone diameter of 0.5 mm at MMC - expanding by as much as 1 mm as the Unconstrained Actual Mating size of the Considered Feature departs from MMC toward LMC - Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

198 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

199 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

200 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

201 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

202 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

203 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

204 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

205 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

206 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved - which is oriented and located by BASIC dimensions - relative to a Datum Reference Frame established using Datum Feature A, simulated rocking, Datum Feature B, simulated stably, regardless of its size, and Datum Feature C, simulated mobly at its Virtual Maximum Material Condition size. Decoding the Feature Control Frame.

207 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved With decoding in hand, we’re ready to investigate the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process

208 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features...

209 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features...

210 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers

211 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers

212 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame !

213 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame !

214 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame ! And discover how the modifier M leads to

215 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We’ll use the indicated Datum Features and their Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers to establish the specified Datum reference Frame ! And discover how the modifier M leads to Tolerance Zone Mobility

216 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame

217 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums Concepts Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame

218 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts Tools Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums

219 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts 1.Datum Feature Labels 2.Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers 3.Feature Control Frames Tools Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums

220 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts 1.Datum Feature Labels 2.Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers 3.Feature Control Frames Tools Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame Rules 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums

221 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts 1.Datum Feature Labels 2.Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers 3.Feature Control Frames Tools Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame Rules 1.Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 2.Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums

222 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts 1.Datum Feature Labels 2.Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers 3.Feature Control Frames Tools Rules 1.Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 2.Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame Details 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums

223 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Features Definition:

224 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Features Definition: Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes.

225 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Features Definition: Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes. A is a Planar Surface

226 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Features Definition: Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes. A is a Planar Surface B is a Bore

227 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Features A is a Planar Surface B is a Bore C is a Slot Definition: Datum Features are specially labeled, imperfect, physical surfaces of real parts, which serve to constrain degrees of rotational and translational freedom during assembly processes.

228 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Targets Definition:

229 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Targets Definition: Datum Targets are limited portions of Datum Features: which encode the fact that the mating Datum Feature, assembly or manufacturing fixture, will only engage the indicated, limited portions of the Datum Feature under consideration. Points Lines Limited Areas

230 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Targets

231 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Targets Point Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3 are to be simulated by spherical simulators of dia. 10mm

232 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators Definition:

233 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features,

234 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators 1.from which we extract Datums Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features,

235 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators 1.from which we extract Datums 2.in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features,

236 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators 1.from which we extract Datums 2.in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and 3.with which we transfer Datum Reference Frames to actual parts. Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features,

237 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators 1.from which we extract Datums 2.in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and 3.with which we transfer Datum Reference Frames to actual parts. Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, The machining fixtures and gages used in manufacturing and inspection processes are examples of physical Datum Feature Simulators.

238 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators 1.from which we extract Datums 2.in which we establish Datum Reference Frames, and 3.with which we transfer Datum Reference Frames to actual parts. Definition: Datum Feature Simulators are conceptually perfect, or physically almost perfect, inverse Datum Features, Mathematical Datum Feature Simulators are constructed by Coordinate Measuring Machine software systems during Datum Reference Frame establishment procedures.

239 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulator Details

240 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface Datum Feature Simulator Details

241 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulator A: an inverse Planar Surface Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface Datum Feature Simulator Details

242 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Target Simulator Details

243 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Point Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3 Datum Target Simulator Details

244 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Target Simulators A1, A2 and A3: Three Tooling Balls Point Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3 Datum Target Simulator Details

245 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature B: a Bore Datum Feature Simulator Details

246 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulator B: an expanding Cylinder Datum Feature B: a Bore S Datum Feature Simulator Details

247 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature C: a Slot Datum Feature Simulator Details

248 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulator Details Datum Feature Simulator C: A fixed “Tombstone” Datum Feature C: a Slot M

249 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datums Definition:

250 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datums Definition: Datums are the minimum set of one perfect imaginary reference point, and/or straight line, and/or plane, which together, fully characterize the orientation and location of a datum feature simulator.

251 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Feature Simulators & Datums

252 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Details

253 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Details Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface

254 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum A: the tangent plane on Datum Feature Simulator A Datum Details Datum Feature A: a Planar Surface

255 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Details for Datum Targets Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3: Points

256 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum A: the tangent plane on Datum Target Simulators A1, A2 and A3 Datum Targets A1, A2 and A3: Points Datum Details for Datum Targets

257 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Details Datum Feature B: a Bore

258 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum B: the axis of Datum Feature Simulator B Datum Details Datum Feature B: a Bore

259 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Details Datum Feature C: a Slot

260 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum C: the mid-plane of Datum Feature Simulator C Datum Details Datum Feature C: a Slot

261 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concepts 1.Datum Feature Labels 2.Tolerance Zone Mobility Modifiers 3.Feature Control Frames Tools Rules 1.Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 2.Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment Foundations for establishing a Datum Reference Frame Details 1.Datum Features 2.Datum Targets 3.Datum Feature Simulators 4.Datums

262 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management

263 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 1.Form: All simulators shall have perfect form.

264 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 1.Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. 2.Orientation: All simulators shall be perfectly oriented by their associated basic angular dimensions.

265 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 1.Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. 2.Orientation: All simulators shall be perfectly oriented by their associated basic angular dimensions. 3.Location: Unless otherwise indicated, all simulators shall be perfectly located by their associated basic linear dimensions.

266 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Rules of Datum Feature Simulator Management 1.Form: All simulators shall have perfect form. 2.Orientation: All simulators shall be perfectly oriented by their associated basic angular dimensions. 3.Location: Unless otherwise indicated, all simulators shall be perfectly located by their associated basic linear dimensions. 4.Size: - Simulators referenced RFS shall expand or contract to consume all the space available in or outside their associated Datum Features. - Simulators referenced at MMC or LMC shall be fixed at the Virtual MMC or LMC size of their associated Datum Features.

267 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment

268 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment

269 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. 2.Rule of Degrees of Constraint Precedence: Each Datum Feature shall first attempt to constrain pitch & yaw, then only roll, and only then translational degrees of freedom. Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment

270 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. 2.Rule of Degrees of Constraint Precedence: Each Datum Feature shall first attempt to constrain pitch & yaw, then only roll, and only then translational degrees of freedom. 3.Rule of Non-Override: No Datum Feature may impact degrees of freedom constrained by higher precedence Datum Features. Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment

271 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Rule of Datum Feature Precedence: Datum Features shall be used in the order in which they appear in the Feature Control Frame, reading from left to right. 2.Rule of Degrees of Constraint Precedence: Each Datum Feature shall first attempt to constrain pitch & yaw, then only roll, and only then translational degrees of freedom. 3.Rule of Non-Override: No Datum Feature may impact degrees of freedom constrained by higher precedence Datum Features. 4.Can-May-Must Rule: - If a Datum Feature can constrain a degree of freedom, and also may, then it must. Rules of Natural Datum Reference Frame Establishment

272 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Now for...

273 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps 1.Decode the Feature Control Frame

274 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Decode the Feature Control Frame 2.Identify the Datum Features Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps

275 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Decode the Feature Control Frame 2.Identify the Datum Features 3.Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps

276 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Decode the Feature Control Frame 2.Identify the Datum Features 3.Construct the Datum Feature Simulators 4.Extract the Datums from their Simulators Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps

277 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Decode the Feature Control Frame 2.Identify the Datum Features 3.Construct the Datum Feature Simulators 4.Extract the Datums from their Simulators 5.Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the simulators by constraining the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of a starter coordinate system Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps

278 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved 1.Decode the Feature Control Frame 2.Identify the Datum Features 3.Construct the Datum Feature Simulators 4.Extract the Datums from their Simulators 5.Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the simulators by constraining the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of a starter coordinate system 6.Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the Datum Reference Frame to the actual part. Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Steps

279 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process

280 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Step 1. Decode the Feature Control Frame The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process

281 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process What ? One more time ? No !

282 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features

283 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features Feature A: a planar surface

284 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 2. Identify the Datum Features Feature A: a planar surface Feature B: a hollow cylinder

285 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Feature A: a planar surface Feature B: a hollow cylinder Feature C: a slot Step 2. Identify the Datum Features

286 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators

287 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators

288 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators A Simulator A: a planar surface

289 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators B Simulator A: a planar surface Simulator B: an expanding solid cylinder

290 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 3. Construct the Datum Feature Simulators Simulator A: a planar surface Simulator B: an expanding solid cylinder Simulator C: a slab fixed in size at the Virtual Maximum Material Boundary of the slot C

291 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators

292 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators Datum A: the tangent plane on Simulator A A

293 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators Datum A: the tangent plane on Simulator A Datum B: the axis of Simulator B B

294 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 4. Extract the Datums from their Simulators Datum A: the tangent plane on Simulator A Datum B: the axis of Simulator B Datum C: the mid-plane of Simulator C C

295 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system.

296 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum Set

297 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. “Starter” Coordinate System Datum Set

298 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz A

299 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz A

300 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty B

301 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty B

302 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty Datum C constrains Rz (roll) C

303 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 5. Use the Datums to establish the DRF in the Simulators by constraining a “starter” coordinate system. C Datum A constrains Rx & Ry (pitch & yaw) plus Tz Datum B constrains Tx and Ty Datum C constrains Rz (roll)

304 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part.

305 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part.

306 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process may rock relative to Datum Feature A. DRF [A,B,C]... Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part.

307 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process may rock relative to Datum Feature A. DRF [A,B,C]... Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. Unless Datum Feature A is represented by Datum Targets...

308 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process may rock relative to Datum Feature A. DRF [A,B,C]... Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. Unless Datum Feature A is represented by Datum Targets...... in which case DRF [A,B,C] will be stable relative to Datum Feature A !

309 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C]...

310 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C Step 6. Marry the Datum Features to their simulators to transfer the DRF to the actual part. DRF [A,B,C]...

311 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Why? DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C

312 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Simulator C does not consume all the space inside Datum Feature C ! Because... DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C

313 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process Simulator C does not consume all the space inside Datum Feature C ! Because... DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C

314 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C And...

315 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance...

316 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance...

317 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance... if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone,...

318 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance... if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone,...

319 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance... if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone,...

320 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance... if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone,... DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C

321 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The Six Step Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process And... although the Considered Feature seems to be out of tolerance... if we roll the DRF, which also rolls the tolerance zone,... the Considered Feature comes into tolerance ! DRF [A,B,C]... will rock relative to Datum Feature A. will be stable relative to Datum Feature B. will be partially roll mobile relative to Datum Feature C

322 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved This is exactly what a functional gage would do, and therefore exactly what CMM software does – i.e. should do –

323 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved This is exactly what a functional gage would do, and therefore exactly what CMM software does - at least on sunny days !

324 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved And in really sophisticated systems, the whole process is automated ! This is exactly what a functional gage would do, and therefore exactly what CMM software does - at least on sunny days !

325 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concluding Remarks

326 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concluding Remarks We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be

327 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Concluding Remarks We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be “encoded” and “decoded”

328 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved and that many GD&T processes can and should be Concluding Remarks We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be “encoded” and “decoded”

329 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved We have come here to demonstrate that GD&T can and must only be “encoded” and “decoded” and that many GD&T processes can and should be Automated ! Concluding Remarks

330 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved SmartGD&T Solutions: And so it’s time for

331 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved What is SmartGD&T ? SmartGD&T is a rule-based, process driven approach to either the ASME Y14.5M 1994 or ISO 1101 standard, which makes it possible to “encode” and “decode”, rather than “interpret” GD&T, and get it right the first time.

332 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved SmartGD&T Solutions: 1. Systematize the language with precisely defined Concepts Tools Rules Processes 2.Automate GD&T related design, manufacturing and inspection processes 3. Provide on-demand, web based support. 4. Build internal, live support teams.

333 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following Services Products

334 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following Services SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code Products Detailed Guidelines for automating GD&T processes in CAD, CAM and CAI software

335 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following Services SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code e-GAD – on-line electronic GD&T Aided Design Training Manuals & Presentation Materials Training Models Reference Books Products

336 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following SmartGD&T Technology Licensing Services SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code e-GAD – on-line electronic GD&T Aided Design Training Manuals & Presentation Materials Training Models Reference Books Products Patents and Support for automating GD&T processes in CAD, CAM and CAI software

337 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Founded in 1975, Multi Metrics currently provides the following SmartGD&T Technology Licensing Corporate GD&T Implementation Planning On-Site GD&T End–user and Trainer Training On-Site GD&T Encoding & Decoding Services Services SmartGD&T Pseudo-Code e-GAD – on-line electronic GD&T Aided Design Training Manuals & Presentation Materials Training Models Reference Books Products

338 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Solution Details SmartGD&T TM

339 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved clarify and systematize the language! SmartGD&T Solution #1

340 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Crystalline Definitions ! Explicit, easily found Rules ! Smooth Processes is all about SmartGD&T TM Technology clarify and systematize the language! SmartGD&T Solution #1

341 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved SmartGD&T Solution #2 Provide web based electronic support!

342 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved e-GAD electronic GD&T Aided Design TM Provide web based electronic support! SmartGD&T Solution #2

343 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved e-GAD electronic GD&T Aided Design TM 1. The “SmartGD&T Best Practices Guide” 2. The “SmartGD&T On-Line Tutor” Provide web based electronic support! SmartGD&T Solution #2 Consists of:

344 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The SmartGD&T Best Practices Guide SmartGD&T Solution #2 A searchable, Encyclopedia of GD&T

345 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved SmartGD&T Best Practices Guide The Home Page For clarity, we break GD&T down into the four groups: 1.Concepts Users click on any item in the top or bottom bars to access the desired content or function. 2.Tools 3.Rules 4.Processes Click on Search to scan any or all groups

346 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved The SmartGD&T On-Line-Tutor SmartGD&T Solution #2 A Collection of Voiced Over, Animated Training Segments

347 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved This is an example of the just-in-time GD&T tutorials which make up the On-Line Tutor. This segment describes the sixth and final step in the Datum Reference Frame Establishment Process. SmartGD&T On-Line Tutor The On-Line Tutor

348 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved This is an example of the pop-up Topic Menu for the On-Line Tutor. The Topic Menu provides access to each segment of the tutorial and also indicates their duration. The On-Line Tutor SmartGD&T On-Line Tutor

349 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved build internal support teams! SmartGD&T Solution #3

350 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Multi Metrics. Inc. provides on-site & remote ASME Y14.5M 1994 based Implementation & Training build internal support teams! SmartGD&T Solution #3

351 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Automate GD&T processes! SmartGD&T Solution #4

352 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Automate GD&T processes! SmartGD&T Solution #4 Multi Metrics licenses to help software developers automate 1.GD&T encoding in the CAD world and 2.GD&T decoding in the CAM and CAI worlds SmartGD&T Technology

353 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved InnovMetric Software Inc. the masters of dense point cloud metrology. IMI has built a comprehensive SmartGD&T Technology based GD&T decoding and processing engine in PolyWorks, their highly esteemed dense point cloud metrology software system, has completely automated geometry processing algorithm selection in keeping with SmartGD&T Technology based fundamental rules, has completely automated the Datum Reference Frame establishment process, based on the applicable SmartGD&T Technology patent, and has produced a GD&T processing system which is as ergonomic as it is powerful. Multi Metrics’ first SmartGD&T Technology partner is

354 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved How can we help you ?

355 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Please visit www.multimetrics.com and give us a call at 650-328-0200

356 Copyright © 2004 - 2008 by Multi Metrics, Inc. Menlo Park, CA All Rights Reserved Thank you ! & Special Thanks to Spatial ! Bill Tandler


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