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Another Look at the Dissemination of Racial Identity Interactional Model in a Cultural- Based Service-Learning Course Lori Simons, Lawrence Fehr, Nancy.

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Presentation on theme: "Another Look at the Dissemination of Racial Identity Interactional Model in a Cultural- Based Service-Learning Course Lori Simons, Lawrence Fehr, Nancy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Another Look at the Dissemination of Racial Identity Interactional Model in a Cultural- Based Service-Learning Course Lori Simons, Lawrence Fehr, Nancy Blank, Kevin Barnes, Denise Georganas, & George Manapuram Widener University International Research Conference on Service-Learning and Community Engagement

2 2 Knowledge & Skills Course Content Service Context Cultural-Based Service-Learning (CBSL)

3 Research Questions 1.Do students reformulate their racial attitudes and acquire multicultural skills through participation in cultural-based service-learning (CBSL) by the end of the term? 2.What and how do students learn through participation in CBSL? 3.How consistent are the qualitative and quantitative findings? Do these findings help us understand the impact of CBSL on student attitude-formation and skill-development from a racial identity interaction paradigm?

4 Service Context 4

5 5 Multicultural Psychology Course Service Context Guest Speakers Service-Learning orientation and training by guest speakers. 15 hours of mentoring/ tutoring or working with High School students on their research papers and oral presentations for the senior project graduation requirement. Course Content and Service Context

6 6 Course Content The Psychology of Prejudice (Nelson, 2006) White Privilege (Rothenberg, 2008) Why Are all the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria (Tatum, 1997) Experiential activities, talking circles, and video-clips Academic Components Multicultural observation paper Multicultural movie review Intercultural interview Structured reflections Course Content

7 Participants (n = 54) Mean Age: years Gender: 76% Females, 24% Males Ethnicity: 73% White 23% African-American 2% Latino 2% Asian American Year in School 2% Freshmen 43% Sophomores 35% Juniors 20% Seniors Mean GPA: 3.06 Majors: 72% Psychology 5% Social Science 15% Nursing 4% Social Work 2% Business 2% English Service Placement: 83% Elementary School 17% High School Mean Service Hrs.: % Continued participation 40% Maintained contact 57% Future service

8 Research Methods Quantitative Measures 1.Demographic Questionnaire 2.Civic Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire (CASQ) (Moely et al., 2002) 3.Color-Blind Racial Attitudes (CoBRAS) (Neville et al., 2000) 4.Multicultural Awareness-Knowledge- Skills Survey (MAKSS) (DAndrea et al., 1991) 5.Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI-Educators) (Sodowsky et al., 1994) 6.Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney, 1992) 7.Pro-Black/Anti-Black Scale (Katz & Hass, 1998) Qualitative Measures 1.Daily journals guided by structured reflection questions before, during, and after service 2.White Racial Identity Attitude Scale (WRIAS) and Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale (BRIAS) (Helms & Carter, 1991) 3.Focus groups 4.Multicultural Environmental Inventory (MEI) (Pope-Davis et al., 2000)

9 CBSL Outcomes ***

10 CBSL Outcomes *** ***p<.001.

11 CBSL Outcomes ***p<.001, *p<.05.

12 CBSL Outcomes ** **p<.01

13 CBSL Outcomes Assignments Multicultural Movie Intercultural Interview Structured Reflections Open Coding Service Learning Cultural Competence MEI Reliability Check Selective Coding Racial Identity ModelsWRIAS

14 CBCL Outcomes Preservice During- Service Postservice

15 Racial Identity Interaction Development Paradigm ParallelRegressiveProgressiveCrossed Autonomy Immersion-Emersion Pseudo-Independence Reintegration Disintegration Contact

16 16 CBSL Outcomes 1.Contact Status : Almost all (95%) students began the course with resistance and fear, and 88% of them had preconceived notions about working with diverse recipients in an urban neighborhood. Not only was I afraid to discuss racism and sexism in class because they are controversial topics and I did not want to offend anyone, but I was concerned about working in the City since I was told not to venture very far off campus. After I participated in service and was the only White person in the classroom, I realized that my fears were associated with my stereotypes and if I did not engage in class discussions about them then my attitudes would interfere with my work with the children.

17 CBSL Outcomes 2. Disintegration Status: All (100%) students described their initial visits at the placement as a culture-shock or eye-opening experience. Almost all students described how applying the service context to diversity content made them aware of racial differences (86%) and racial privilege (93%) in their early entries. After reading the White Privilege assignment in the Rothenberg text and reflecting on my service experiences, I felt sick to my stomach because I realized I was overextending myself to the White children at the placement. I learned that my behavior is a result from my racial privilege. I never thought about race and its implications until this class. I think this is something that most White people do not think about.

18 18 3. Reintegration Stage. Most students described a wide range of emotions ranging from shame and guilt to sadness and anger in their descriptions of their relationships with recipients. In fact, they reported how their interactions with recipients contributed to their comprehension of White (96%) or socio-economic (87%) privilege beyond racial privilege awareness in their middle entries. Although I learned about racial and social injustices in class, I did not comprehend it until I saw it firsthand at the placement. I gained a better understanding about how the school system operates and attribute the lack of enforcement of policies and the limited supplies to racial and socioeconomic privileges. The way this school operates and its lack of textbooks and outdated computers would never have been tolerated in my White, middle-class, suburban school. CBSL Outcomes

19 19 4. Pseudo-independence Stage: Most students provided examples of racial tolerance (86%) and prejudice reduction (82%) to illustrate how the course and service experiences contributed to the development of new racial attitudes (88%) in their middle entries. I forged relationships with the children with whom I was paired to work at the placement even though I was offended when they asked me if I was White because of the way I spoke and dressed. My initial impression was to get this assignment over as soon as possible. However, through my relationships with them, I learned that their perceptions of me were a result from racial, economic, and educational inequities in this community. I plan to continue to work with the children beyond the course because I know I can make a difference. CBSL Outcomes

20 20 CBSL Outcomes 5. Immersion-Emersion Stage: Few students described discomfort or resistance in their late-occurring reflections of adopting a Person of Color (79%), steps to confront racism on campus (86%), or ways to serve as an ally (79%). Most students described a deeper understanding of racism (89%) and the ways in which privilege contributes to oppression (79%) in their late entries. The best way to learn about diversity is to experience it. I never experienced racial or educational oppression because of the privileges associated with my White, middle-class background. The service experience not only made me aware of my isms but it humanized the diversity content. For example, I learned that if I remain colorblind then I am contributing to the ignorance that promotes racism.

21 21 6. Autonomy Stage: All (100%) students described how their fears about discussing racial issues in class had diminished, and almost all (97%) students provided examples about how the course taught them about themselves. Most (82%) White students learned to view themselves as racial beings and to understand their Whiteness and the privileges it affords them. Students also described the acquisition of multicultural awareness (98%), attitudes (89%), knowledge (100%), and skills (96%) in their final entries. I was afraid to cross the bridge to go from the University into the City because of the stereotypes I heard from parents and peers. I learned that by not speaking up when someone is stereotyping is just as bad as the person speaking. I am no longer afraid to confront people who stereotype, nor am I afraid to cross the bridge. CBSL Outcomes

22 StagesMSDProfiles% Contact High95 Disintegration Low71 Reintegration Very Low92 Pseudo- Independence High84 Immersion- Emersion High82 Autonomy High95 CBSL Outcomes

23 Questions% 1. The course helped me examine my own cultural bias This course helped me learn about cultural competence The assignments in this increased my knowledge of multiculturalism The experiential activities in this class increased my knowledge of multiculturalism The service-learning experiences in this class have increased my knowledge about multiculturalism I will take another class that utilized service-learning I will take another class that focuses on diversity or multiculturalism CBSL Outcomes

24 24 1.Student reflections illustrate their acquisition of multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills through their own racial identity development over the semester. 2.White students transform their colorblind views to a less, racist perspective in which they embrace their Whiteness, recognize the connection between oppression and privilege, and engage in activities that promote fairness and justice. 3.Students develop a greater interest in working with and a deeper understanding of the hardships facing culturally-diverse recipients, as well as they become less prejudiced and more aware of racial privilege, racism, and institutional discrimination through participation in CBSL by the end of the term. Discussion

25 Limitations

26 26 Discussion

27 27 Conclusion

28 28 Questions

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