Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: The Human Situation"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 3: The Human Situation We are here to do geography!
2From Now until Christmas What is development?Looking at different ways to measure developmentAbout the impact of water on the development of a countryExploring the Millennium development goalsLooking at the big trans-national companies, AID and trade as a means to helping countries become developed
3By the end of today We are going to work towards: An idea of what development isWays to measure how rich a country isWays to classify how well off people feelAnd to suggest links between how rich a country is, the kind of work carried out there and other measures of the quality of their lives
4The simplest definition is ‘the process of countries becoming richer’ What is development?The simplest definition is‘the process of countries becoming richer’
5‘process by which countries become richer’. All countries are trying to increase their wealth.As people earn more, they can afford to buy more ‘things’ and so we say their ‘standard of living’ improves.Not all countries are developing at the same rate, and the gap between the rich and poor is growing.
6So development involves more than just the wealth of a country. You need to take into account:that standard of living andthe quality of lifeof the people who live there.
7The standard of life is the material well-being of a person: the value of their possessions,the type of home they live in andwhether they own such things asa TV,a washing machine,a car,a telephone ora computer
8The quality of life is the general well-being of a person. It includes the standard of life but alsoaccess to education andhealth care,availability of the utilitiesi.e. electricity,water,rubbish collection,but also political and religious freedom,social opportunities,environmental quality
9In conclusionDevelopment is the improvements in standard of living and quality of life that follow on from a country becoming richerTo the whiteboard
10In 1980 the term North-South divide was coined The idea behind this was that the North was developed, and the South was undeveloped.This was simply decided on the basis of how rich a country wasBut it is not as simple as that - as we saw money isn’t everything, as standard of living and quality of life counts as well.Not only that, a simple rich and poor no longer works as there are countries in between, like China and Brazil, that in the middle between the 2 groups.
11One measure of the wealth of a country is … …the GDP which is usually given in dollars ($).GDP stands forGross (All the money earned)Domestic (By just the one country)Product (added together)Large countries will have bigger incomes than smaller countries who were just as wealthy.So the population size needs to come into it tooIf you divide the income by the population, then this gives a figure of dollars per headThis is called GDP per capita.
12These figures measure the GDP per capita These are 2009 figures
13Geographers love classifying things! So in order to classify the level of development they have concentrated on the level of economic (money) developmentSo there are 3 basic groups that you have come across before:LIC – roughly less than US$ 1000 a year GDP per capitalMIC – US$ ,000 GDP per capitaHIC – more than $12,000 GDP per capitaDo you know what these stand for?Can you think of any examples of countries in each group?
14Remember this map?The red ones are called HICs – this stands for high income countries -The orange ones are called MICs – this stands for middle income countriesThe yellow ones are LICs – this stands for low income countries
15So where have we got to so far? Development is the improvements in standard of living and quality of life that follow on from a country becoming richerMost things, even the quality of life concepts come with a price tag – I can think of one aspect, tho’, that does not. Can you?Some countries are richer than others, and so tend to be more developed.Countries are divided into LICs, MICs and HICsThe LICs are in general less developed than the HICs.
16SECTORS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY Something you may have come across(You know geographers love to classify things)SECTORS OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
17Economic activity is concerned with the production of goods and services (or more simply the jobs people do)
18Economic activity has 4 sectors... PrimarySecondaryQuaternaryTertiary
19Major businesses in this sector include agriculture, fishing, forestry and all mining and quarrying industriesPRIMARY INDUSTRYThe primary sector of industry is also called extraction. It generally involves changing natural resources into primary products. Most products from this sector are considered raw materials for other industries.Primary industry is a larger sector in developing countries; for instance, animal husbandry is more common in Africa than in Japan.
20The secondary sector (manufacturing) produces finished, usable products. This sector of industry generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for use by other businesses, for export, or sale to domestic consumers.SECONDARY INDUSTRY* Aerospace manufacturing* Automobile manufacturing* Brewing industry* Chemical industry* Clothing industry* Electronics* Engineering* Energy industries* Metalworking* Steel production* Software engineering* TelecommunicationsIndustry* Tobacco industryThis sector is often divided into light industry and heavy industry.
21TERTIARY INDUSTRYThe tertiary sector of industry is also known as the service sector or the service industry.It involves the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport, distribution and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, or may involve the provision of a service, such as in pest control or entertainment.Goods may be transformed in the process of providing a service, as happens in the restaurant industry or in equipment repair. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods* News media* Leisure industry/hotels* Consulting* Healthcare/ hospitals* Waste disposal* Real estate* Business services
22QUATERNARY INDUSTRYIndustrial research looks for new ways to cut costs, find new markets, produce new ideas, new production methods and methods of manufacture.But there a relative few of these, even in HICs, that we will concentrate more on the first 3.
23Why are HICs more developed? They tend to have well developed industries, often high-tech – why is that? What are they saving on?Farming is for profit and uses machines and chemicalsHICs have many service industries because people have spare money for luxuriesChildren have free education and almost everyone can read and writePeople have plenty to eat and in fact many are over weightClean water comes directly into their homesHealthcare is easily available and is of high qualityHIC employment structure (Germany)
24On the other hand, LICsIndustry tends to be primary – do you remember what that is?Or it is industry that needs a lot of people and is much less mechanised – why is that?Farming is often subsistence – what does that mean?There fewer service industries because people do not have much money to spend on leisureNot all children go to school – many people have to pay towards the education. Girls in particular tend not have the chance of education.Not everyone has enough to eat1.1 million ( 1/6 of the world) are without access to clean waterHealthcare where available is often basic as there are too few doctors and hospitalsLIC employment structure (Mali)
25Facts about World development 1/5 of the world are HICs but they own 4/5 of the wealthThe richest 3 people own more than the poorest 600 million100 million people are homeless900 million have no education880 million do not have enough to eatOnly 1/3 of the world can read1% go to university and 1% have a computerThe cost of providing basic healthcare and food for everyone who does not have it would be less that Europe and USA spend on pet food each year.What is the population of the whole world?
26But there are lots of other measures These are called development indicators, for instance:Income – this is only helpful if you know how much things costPoverty – the % living on US$1 a day or less – this is about 60p in the UKThe kind of work the people doBut we look at some more of these next time
27HomeworkQu1 Print out page 2. Plot the countries as points onto the graph below. For each point the GDP in $ is the horizontal axis and the % of people who work in agriculture is the vertical axis. Use the list position to label each X on the graph.Qu 2: Can you explain the pattern you see? Can you make a rule about the pattern?Task: How are you going to get it back? Scan the graph or maybe photograph it?You may want to type the answer to Qu 2 or write it on the sheet you are scanning perhaps?
28This is part of the table Burkina Faso is no 149 with a GDP of $458 where 90% of the people work in agriculture