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Chapter 8: The New Nation, 1786–1800. 8.1: The Crisis Of The 1780s.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: The New Nation, 1786–1800. 8.1: The Crisis Of The 1780s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: The New Nation, 1786–1800

2 8.1: The Crisis Of The 1780s

3 A. Economic Crisis (1780s) 1. Inflation due to the war a. Shortage of goods b. Devalue of currency; too much in circulation 2. Depression sets in a. US supplier of raw goods b. Trade deficit w/GB; silver leaving US c. Banks refused new loans 3. Confederation Congress unable to raise taxes; called on states to do so.

4 B. Annapolis Convention (It was in Maryland! 1786) 1. Meeting to call a meeting in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation 2. Need for a stronger federal government was apparent 3. Shays Rebellion (8/1786)

5 8.2: The New Constitution

6 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787)

7 1. Va Plan: a. Bicameral legislature b. Rep. based on pop. Who doesnt like this plan? c. Senators elected by house d. House elected by popular vote

8 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787) 2. NJ Plan: All states represented equally Who doesnt like this plan?

9 A. The Constitutional Convention (1787) 3. Great Compromise a. Equal rep. in Senate; elected by House b. House rep. based on population; elected by the people c. Regional interest: north – commerce and trade regulation south – slavery; 3/5 rule for representation d. Electoral College: delegates vote based on the number of representatives in Congress

10 Father of the Constitution James Madison

11 B. Ratifying the New Constitution 1. Federalists a. Support the constitution b. Strong federal govt. c. Merchants, manufactures, large land owners d. Republic ideals can work in a big country, contrary to philosopher Montesquieu - Many interest groups = no one interest group in holding power

12 B. Ratifying the New Constitution 2. Anti-federalists a. Favored strong local/state govt; small fed. Govt. b. Think TJ and farmers c. Explicit interpretation of constitution d. Wanted Bill of Rights: i. James Madison ii. What did it stand for? TJ J. Madison

13 C. Ratifying the New Constitution

14 8.3: The First Administration

15 A. GW ( ) 1. man of the people? 2. Cabinet members?

16 B. Federal Judiciary 1. Judiciary Act – 1789 a. establishes the Supreme Court and lower federal courts b. Higher courts function as appellate courts c. Increases from 6 to 9 judges in 1869

17 C. Hamiltons Controversial Fiscal Program 1. Tariffs of 1789: Focus - raise revenue for the govt, not protect Amer. Merchants 2. Hamiltons Plan a. Assumption – i. feds repay states debt w/bonds ii. Est. credit for fed. Govt abroad b. Bank of the United States Managed by Treasury Dept. c. TJ argues unconstitutional expansion of power 3. Complete Success foreign investments and domestic capital increases


19 HBO Hamilton v. TJ clip

20 4. Hamilton vs. TJ re: the Constitution Federalist Implied powers Anti-federalist Explicit powers


22 D. Foreign Policy (1793) 1. French Rev. and war Between France and GB 2. What should the US do? 3. Feds: GB; trade 4. Anti-feds: Fr; less dependent on GB 5. Neutrality = Sell, sell, sell! &

23 E. U.S. and Natives 1. Intercourse Act a. Regulated trade w/natives b. Lands negotiated solely through treaties 2. NW Ordinance 1787 Est. rules of govt/statehood 3. Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) a. NW territory; NA lose = b. Treaty of Greenville – NA lose NW lands to the US

24 F. Domestic Crisis (1794) 1. Whiskey Rebellion a. Excise tax? b. tax collectors harrassed/killed c. GW sends troops out to Pa; puts rebels down 2. Moral of story? a. dont mess w/Fed govt => Tested powers of new fed govt and Feds win

25 H. Jays and Pinckneys Treaties 1. Jays Treaty a. GB to leave by 1796 b. Trade equally w/US 2. Problem w/Treaty a. No compensation for lose of slaves b. Favored alliance w/GB over French who were allies c. House tries blocking treaty; wants to see correspondence re: treaty; GW says No! d. Precedent of executive privilege set by GW

26 H. Jays and Pinckneys Treaties 3. Pinckneys Treaty a. Southern parallel b. Ms. River open for US trade 4. Collectively, LTC of treaties? Sovereignty West of Appalachian Mts. And ports from Atlantic to Miss. Valley open.

27 I. GW Farewell Address doc


29 8.4: Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans

30 A. The Rise of Political Parties Election of 1796 Federalists President Republicans V.P.

31 B. Adams X, Y, Z Affair 1. Relations between US and France worsen thanks to US support of Jays Treaty; French confiscate US vessels and cargo. 2. US Delegates turned away; French wanted bribes/loans 3. Adams releases messages with names of French officials as X, Y, and Z. 4. Adams stands his ground; builds a navy for defense 5. Quasi-war between the two 6. Adams approval rating soars

32 C. Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) 1. Limits free speech and liberties of foreigners 2. Naturalization Act increases residence requirements from 5 to 14 years 3. Sedition Act: fines/imprisonment for anyone convicted of speaking against govt 4. To be used against Republicans 5. Disagreement = treason

33 C. Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) 6. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions a. states have fundamental rights that the federal govt cannot abridge (diminish) b. States can nullify federal laws that they judge to be unconstitutional* c. Constitutional compact between fed and state govt

34 D. Election of 1800 Tied! 1. Jefferson & Burr th Amendment 3. First party change: Federalist to Republican TJ AB

35 E. Democratic Political Culture 1. Growth of political participation 2. Universal suffrage increasing?


37 Alexander Hamilton

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