Presentation on theme: "“Conservatism, Complacency, and Contentment” “Anxiety, Alienation, and"— Presentation transcript:
1“Conservatism, Complacency, and Contentment” “Anxiety, Alienation, and THE 1950s:Chapter 27“Conservatism, Complacency, and Contentment”OR“Anxiety, Alienation, andSocial Unrest” ??
2The Eisenhower Presidency Grandfatherly war heroLike after World War I, Americans seek a return to normal life
3$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment. Suburban LivingLevittown, L. I.: “The American Dream”1949 William Levitt produced houses per week.$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment.
4Suburban Living: The New “American Dream” 1 story high12’x19’ living room2 bedroomstiled bathroomgaragesmall backyardfront lawnBy 1960 1/3 of the U. S. population in the suburbs.
5Federal Housing Administration Low down payment – low interest loansBias toward suburban middle classFavored a policy segregating social and racial classes
6Suburban Living: The Typical TV Suburban Families The Donna Reed ShowLeave It to BeaverFather Knows BestThe Ozzie & Harriet Show
7Religious RevivalToday in the U. S., the Christian faith is back in the center of things Time magazine, 1954Church membership: 1940 64,000, 114,000,000Television Preachers:1. Catholic Bishop Fulton J. Sheen “Life is Worth Living”2. Methodist Minister Norman Vincent Peale The Power of Positive Thinking3. Reverend Billy Graham ecumenical message; warned against the evils of Communism.
8Religious Revival Hollywood: apex of the biblical epics. The Robe The Ten Commandments Ben HurIt’s un-American to be un-religious! The Christian Century, 1954
9Well-Defined Gender Roles The ideal modern woman married, cooked and cared for her family, and kept herself busy by joining the local PTA and leading a troop of Campfire Girls. She entertained guests in her family’s suburban house and worked out on the trampoline to keep her size 12 figure Life magazine, 1956Marilyn MonroeThe ideal 1950s man was the provider, protector, and the boss of the house Life magazine, 19551956 William H. Whyte, Jr. The Organization Mana middle-class, white suburban male is the ideal.
10Well-Defined Gender Roles Changing Sexual Behavior: Alfred Kinsey: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male Sexual Behavior in the Human FemalePremarital sex was common.Extramarital affairs were frequent among married couples.Kinsey’s results are an assault on the family as a basic unit of society, a negation of moral law, and a celebration of licentiousness Life magazine, early 1950s
11A Changing Workplace Corporate Consolidation: Automation: factory workers decreased by %, eliminating 1.5 million blue-collar jobs.By 1956 more white-collar than blue-collar jobs in the U. S.Computers Mark I (1944). First IBM mainframe computer (1951).Corporate Consolidation:By 1960 600 corporations (1/2% of all U. S. companies) accounted for % of total corporate income.WHY?? Cold War military buildup.
12A Changing WorkplaceNew Corporate Culture: “The Company Man”1956 Sloan Wilson’s The Man in the Gray Flannel SuitLabor unions – shift to service economy – not just for industry as government employees join
13The Expansion of Higher Education Colleges & UniversitiesFaculty research = government grantsBusinessmen join boards of trusteesLed to more businesslike practicesGI Bill and NDEA subsidized costs
14Progress Through Science First IBM Mainframe ComputerHydrogen Bomb TestDNA Structure DiscoveredSalk Vaccine Tested for PolioFirst Commercial U. S. Nuclear Power PlantNASA CreatedPress Conference of the First American Astronauts
15Health & MedicineNew developments – vaccines, antibiotics, well-child care (Dr. Benjamin Spock)Health care – many could not afford the latest treatments
161957 1 baby born every 7 seconds Baby BoomIt seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant British visitor to America, 19581957 1 baby born every 7 seconds
17Dr. Benjamin Spock and the Anderson Quintuplets Baby BoomDr. Benjamin Spock and the Anderson Quintuplets
18Conformity & Consumption 1950 Introduction of the Diner’s Card All babies were potential consumers who spearheaded a brand-new market for food, clothing, and shelter Life Magazine (May, 1958)
19The Culture of the CarCar registrations: 25,000, 60,000,0002-family cars doubles from1958 Pink Cadillac1959 Chevy Corvette1956 Interstate Highway Act largest public works project in American history!Cost $32 billion.41,000 miles of new highways built.
20The Culture of the CarAmerica became a more homogeneous nation because of the automobile.Federal Highway Act leads to decline in mass transitFirst McDonald’s (1955)Drive-In MoviesHoward Johnson’s
21The Culture of the CarThe U. S. population was on the move in the 1950s.NE & Mid-W S & SW (“Sunbelt” states)1955 Disneyland opened in Southern California (40% of the guests came from outside California, most by car.)Frontier LandMain StreetTomorrow Land
221951 “race music” “ROCK ‘N ROLL” Elvis Presley “The King” Teen CultureIn the 1950s the word “teenager” entered the American language.By 1956 13 million teens with $7 billion to spend a year.1951 “race music” “ROCK ‘N ROLL”Elvis Presley “The King”
23Teen Culture Teenagers try to act like adults Social climate of junior high schoolsAvailability of carsGetting married at younger agesMenstruation starts occurring at an earlier ageMass media & teen publications developBecome a unique consumer marketInfluenced family purchasing decisionsHad common experience fostered by public schools
24Behavioral Rules of the 1950s: Teen CultureBehavioral Rules of the 1950s:Obey Authority.Control Your Emotions.Don’t Make Waves Fit in with the Group.Don’t Even Think About Sex!!!
25Teen Culture “Juvenile Delinquency” ??? 1951 J. D. Salinger’s A Catcher in the RyeMarlon Brando in The Wild One (1953)James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause (1955)
26Deviance & Delinquency Crime statistics backed up rise – especially in suburbsEfforts were made to censor and regulate mediaU.S. Senate was even concerned about itWidespread media coverage made it seem like a crisis
27Television Truth, Justice, and the American way! 1946 7,000 TV sets in the U. S 50,000,000 TV sets in the U. S.Television is a vast wasteland. Newton Minnow, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, 1961Mass Audience TV celebrated traditional American values.Truth, Justice, and the American way!
28Television – The Western Davy Crockett King of the Wild FrontierSheriff Matt Dillon, GunsmokeThe Lone Ranger (and his faithful sidekick, Tonto): Who is that masked man??
29Television - Family Shows Glossy view of mostly middle-class suburban life.But...I Love LucyThe HoneymoonersSocial Winners?... AND… Losers?
30The Beats The “Beat” Generation: Objections: Conformity Technology Jack Kerouac On The RoadAllen Ginsberg poem, “Howl”Neal CassadyWilliam S. BurroughsObjections:ConformityTechnologyMaterialismMilitarism“Beatnik”“Clean” Teen
31Robin Hood, banned from many schools because of its “communist” ideas
32Truman vs. Eisenhower “Containment” [George Kennan] “Brinksmanship” [John Foster Dulles]Marshall PlanTruman DoctrineBerlin AirliftNATONSC #68Korean WarMutual security agreements.Massive retaliation.M. A. D.“Domino Theory”CIA & covert operationsEisenhower Doctrine“$ Diplomacy” – Part II
34John Foster Dulles – Very righteous, missionary-like approach to job
35"If a Nation would dare to attack us, or perchance one of our allies, with a force of X, it would become incumbent upon us to respond with a force of 2X. Needless to say, we would retaliate at a time of our choosing, in a place of our choosing, and in a method of our choosing. This is what we would like to call 'Massive Retaliation'."John Foster Dulles
36The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister Promised free elections.This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
37Sputnik I (1957) Creation of NASA NDEA – funding for education in math & scienceAccelerated arms raceDemand for national program to build fallout sheltersThe Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!
38Progress Through Science UFO Sightings skyrocketed in the 1950s.War of the WorldsHollywood used aliens as a metaphor for whom ??
39The 50s Come to a Close 1959 Nixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate” Cold War -----> Tensions<----- Technology & Affluence