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Speed Development Steve Blocker. Introduction Why Important? What is speed? Limiting Factors How to improve –Technique –Training methods –Periodization.

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Presentation on theme: "Speed Development Steve Blocker. Introduction Why Important? What is speed? Limiting Factors How to improve –Technique –Training methods –Periodization."— Presentation transcript:

1 Speed Development Steve Blocker

2 Introduction Why Important? What is speed? Limiting Factors How to improve –Technique –Training methods –Periodization

3 Importance of Speed Improving all around performance Possible difference maker Taking performance to higher level

4 What is Speed?

5 Terminology Speed: ability to achieve high velocity or stride length x stride frequency Speed Endurance: Metabolic capacity to maintain performance (Conditioning) –Ability to repeatedly accelerate (6+s bouts)

6 Terminology Speed Strength: ability to apply force rapidly- Rate of Force Development (RFD) Special Endurance: sport-specific exercise-relief patterns Drive Phase: initial acceleration phase approximately 30-50m –May be shorter for non-track sprinters

7 Terminology cont’d Max Velocity Phase: occurs as the athlete achieves maximal velocity or “top end” speed Occurs at approximately 40-50m for elite sprinters –Occurs earlier in non-track athletes (25- 30m) Mero, Komi & Gregor, 1992

8 Factors That Affect Speed Technical vs. Physiological

9 Technique & Physiology Different phases of sprinting –acceleration & max velocity Strength –Maximal- relative/absolute –Reactive-stretch- shortening cycle (SSC) –Rate of Force Development (RFD)

10 Importance of Technique Maximize efficiency of movement Minimize flight time Minimize ground contact time Results in optimal stride length and stride frequency Faccioni

11 Acceleration-General Concepts Explode from start position Accelerating as rapidly as possible Stride length emphasized An emphasized horizontal displacement

12 Common Problems-Acceleration Phase Athlete stands up too early First stride is too long/short “Skating” action in initial steps

13 Acceleration Technique Acceleration Phase –Maximize arm/knee drive –Emphasize horizontal displacement –Tucked chin with eyes focused up –Forward lean –References

14 Acceleration Drills Push-Up Starts Resisted Sprints Hill Running Sprints to 10/20/30/40m from a 3-pt start

15 Maximal Velocity-General Concepts Occurs at approximately m in elite sprinters Attempt to maintain maximal velocity as long as possible Stride Frequency emphasized

16 Common Problems-Max Velocity Phase Over striding –Breaking forces Rotational movement –Arms cross mid-line of body Heel Strike Lordosis –Arched back

17 Max-Velocity Technique Emphasize “rotary” running action Keep relaxed Maximize stride frequency “Chin to Pocket” (Shoulder ROM)

18 Physiological Aspects STRENGTH –Maximal absolute/relative –Reactive strength- SSC –RFD

19 Physiological Aspects Accelerate quickly Reach a high velocity Greater level of force production (strength) Apply force as fast as possible (RFD)

20 Max Strength Get Strong!!! –Maximize force output –Elite sprinters can minimize ground time w/out reducing stride length- requires leg strength –Mero, Komi & Gregor 1992

21 Reactive Strength Plyometric Training –Improves reactive strength –Improves rate of force development Bounding/Box Jumping

22 Reactive Strength/Max Velocity

23 Workout Design Workout Design Train for speed/agility early in session/week Least amount of fatigue –Greater risk of injury –Poor kinematics/technique Plisk, 2000.

24 Periodization 4-8 week mesocycles –USAW Level I –Base, Volume, Unload, Peak 1-3 days/week Volume depends on: –Sport –Position –Time of training year

25 Training Session Begin with a dynamic warm-up Slow & general exercises Dynamic & specific –Opportunity to teach technique

26 Speed Training Methods Varied pace sprints ins & outs Bounding & plyometrics Fliers-sprints from on the fly Push up sprints-acceleration phase Sprints from 3-pt start position

27 Workout Plan Day1Day2Day3Day4Day5Day6Day7 Speed max- speed Anaerobic capacity Speed acceleration Anaerobic capacity (moderate) Or recovery Speed Active Recovery Off

28 Sample Workout Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Dynamic Warm up 3x40m alternate leg bounding 3x3x30m“fliers” 2min/4min rest Dynamic Warm up 6 hurdle jumps 4-5 sets of 10 tuck jumps+30m sprint+10 squat jumps+60 m fly. 4min rest Dynamic Warm up 1x3x10m push-up sprints 3x3x20m push up sprints Dynamic Warm up Hill Runs 3x5x60- 80m or tempo track workout Hill Runs 3x5x60- 80m or tempo track workout Emphasize running technique Dynamic Warm up 3x40m alternate leg bounds 1x3x10m push up sprints 1x3x20m push up sprints Hard Track Workout Short Hills 3x3x30- 50m 75% effort Emphasize technique OFF

29 Conclusions Keep it simple SpecificProgressiveScientific Do Research

30 References Plisk, Steven S. Speed, Agility, and Speed-Endurance Development. In Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. T.R. Baechle & R.W. Earle. National Strength and Conditioning Association Champagne, Ill Cissik, John M. Means and methods of speed training: part II. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal. 27(1) Chu, D. and Korchemny, R Sprinting stride actions: Analysis and evaluation. National Strength and Conditioning Journal

31 References cont’d Dinitiman, G.B. Effects of various training programs on running Speed. Res. Quart. 35. pp Komi, P.V Strength and Power Development in Sport. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Korneljuk, A.O Scientific basis of sprint speed Development. Track and Field Quart. Rev. Summer. Pp6-9. Mann, R The elite athlete project- sprints and hurdles. Track Tech. 84. Pp


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