Midterm 1010. The midterm is Oct 14th @ 7:00 pm. In Curtis Lecture Hall C
Reminder The Next Class – Quiz on Classes 1-4 Closed Book 40 minutes 10 Mutliple Choice 5 Short Answers Based Facts from Cases and Slides
Class 2 Review: Canada Expands: Agriculture and Manufacturing
The Role of Government in the Early Development of Canada Sir John A. MacDonald's national policy. Exercise of residual legislative powers to establish a strong central government to unite, expand, develop and settle a newly established nation. Regulate trade and commerce. Establish trading patterns.
The Staple Thesis of Harold Innis Asserted the origins and purposes of the federal government can be understood in terms of an economic territory dependent upon the export of certain staples. To make it commercially feasible, production entailed heavy public expenditures on railways and canals. The government filled an important vacuum by being the substitute for private enterprise in the building and developing Canada. Thomas Hockin later argued that the Canadian government was given an active role in national development and fostering and protecting of certain cultural and economic characteristics.
The Evolution of Protectionist Intervention in Canada
SIR JOHN A. MACDONALDS NATIONAL POLICY (1879) Designed to encourage east-west trade rather than north-south with the U.S. Development of harbours and fast steamship lines to England and Asia Encourage the grow the a wealthy business class in Canada Strong Immigration Policy to promote the population of Western Canada http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0 005632 http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0 005632http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/federal/npolicy.htm Macdonald believed the future of Confederation, he thought, hinged upon the development of the West. Without such development, the Americans would take over the West, encircle Canada and inevitably bring about its annexation. Hence, the dream of creating a sepearate, peaceful and orderly society on the northern half of the continent would die.
Before the National Policy The Canadian American Reciprocity Treaty, also known as the Elgin-Marcy Treaty, was a trade treaty between the colonies of British North America and the United States. It covered raw materials and was in effect from 1854 to 1866. It represented a move toward free trade, and was opposed by protectionist elements in the United States, who joined with Americans angry at apparent British support for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, ended it in 1866.ElginMarcyBritish North AmericaUnited StatesConfederate States of AmericaAmerican Civil War
What is Protectionism? Refers to government policies that shield domestic production and producers from foreign competition.
How does Protectionism Work Degrees of Intervention Persuasion (Minimum) Manipulation of the tax system The awarding of government contracts Granting subsidies and tax concession policies
Trade Restrictions as Protectionism To protect domestic Industries from foreign competition Tariff refers to a tax imposed by the importing country when a good crosses an International boundary
An Example of a Protective Tariff A Canadian Tariff of 15% is imposed on foreign automobiles. The automobile costs $5,000/ This means the tariff will be $750. When exported to Canada the Canadian price will be $5,750.
Economic Losses from Tariffs Often Exceed their Benefits A tariff is wasteful It leads to the substitution of higher cost domestic products and lower cost imports.
Trade Restrictions as Protectionism Non-tariff barrier refers to any action other than a tariff that restricts International trade 1.Quotas 2.Licensing 3.Regulations
7-23 Nontariff Barriers: Quantity Controls Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include: –quotas –voluntary export restraint (VERs) –buy local legislation –standards and labels –specific permission requirements –administrative delays –reciprocal requirements –restrictions on services
Political Realities Ensure Protectionist Policies Politicians are likely to ignore tariffs or pay lip service to free trade elsewhere. To support tariffs where the protectionist vote is concentrated Politicians who would gain by repealing tariffs may vote against it in trade off for other issues they are interested in.
Canada Pioneers Canadian Content Provisions Easier for companies to import when they produce in Canada a certain proportion of the content of goods they sell. Became ingrained in Canadian broadcast and magazine production. Major mandate of Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC)
Cultural Protectionism The CRTC's Over-the-top 'Fact Finding Mission': Key Submissions Submitted by Adam Webb on Wed, 07/13/2011 - 02:04 Front Page Media News Post For the second time in two years the CRTC has requested submissions from concerned parties on the increasing prevalence of over-the-top (OTT) services. requested submissions Like so many of the Commissions actions, the decision to prematurely reopen discussion is derived from a mix of obsessive cultural concern, private sector lobbying and a dependence on external research.obsessive cultural concernprivate sector lobbyinga dependence on external research
Arguments for Protection Infant Industries. National Defense. Anti-Dumping – Fair Trade. Those intended to influence the distribution of income. Increased Employment – Protects jobs
Conclusion: Officially Countries Deny Protectionism and Favor Free Trade When economies are booming and jobs seem secure, most people tend to support free trade. When recessions occur, many countries become more protectionist because of national interest and pressure from organized labor and other interest groups.
Roles of Agriculture and Manufacturing Industries in Canada Historically Canada industry and agriculture were impacted by Mercantilism theory Mercantilism is an economic theory that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that a nation's prosperity depends on its success in accumulating wealth by exporting more than it imports. European nations attempted to put it into effect through commercial policies designed to produce a favourable balance of trade, through acquisition and development of colonies as exclusive markets and sources of raw materials.
Canadas First Great Manufacturer: The Story of Massey-Harris
Group 1 Assignment Question One of the reasons for protectionist policies is to help infant industries to grow. One of the theoretical flaws of protectionism is that it makes firms less able to compete global. Using the case of Massey/Massey-Harris argue these two opposing views as to which of these two views applies to Massey/Massey Harris and support your answer with examples from the case. As part of your explanation describe the protectionist/Free Trade policies used by the government that how they affected his farm machinery business. Was protectionism overall good or bad for Massy-Harris? Why?
Group 1 Assignment General Comments Need to focus on what the question says. – Farm Implement Business not Farming business Very thin on the policies being used. There are the facts you are expect to understand for the mid-term and the exam. Need to explain your argument better. Not just list the policies and what they did and therefore say it was good. You need to sum up the impact there policies had and how Massey developed.
Settlers to Canada brought with them the ideologies of Old Europe Conservatism Aristocracy The Church The status quo Liberalism The rising commercial class. Change agents Traders
What is an Ideology? It refers to a set of shared values, beliefs and ideas, and perceptions through which persons interpret events of the past, present and future. It also refers to an explicit doctrinal structure providing a particular diagnosis of the ills of society. It will include an accompanying action program for implementing the prescribed solution.
The Dominant Ideologies of Canada Political Conservatism Liberalism Social Democracy Economic Capitalism within the context of a mixed economy.
What is a Mixed Economy? Government regulated Competition Government protect indigenous industries. (In Canada, timber, fish, mining, manufacturing.) Government protects and develops social programs.
Is Canadas Economy Changing? In the 1960s and 1970s Keynesian economics with increasing government intervention in the economy was popular. Governments owned and operated airlines (Air Canada), oil companies (Petro-Canada), and steel companies (Sydney Steel). Government was interventionist in its approach to the economy.
John Maynard Keynes His ideas emerged out of the disaster of the great depression. Government is obliged to bring full employment. His contributions were well read in the US and Britain in the 1930s and contributed to Roosevelt's New Deal. Keynes was a major contributor to the concept of the mixed economy. What is a mixed economy?
John Maynard Keynes "There is no subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency. The process engages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it in a manner which not one man in a million is able to diagnose." John Maynard Keynes - The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919)
John Kenneth Galbraith In The Affluent Society Galbraith argued that the expanding United States economy needed more public services such as highways and educational institutions. The economy, according to Galbraith, had finally reached a point at which less time and energy had to be spent on consumer goods. Corporations often sought power through market share over the profit imperative.
Ludwig Von Mises All people, however fanatical they may be in their zeal to disparage and to fight capitalism, implicitly pay homage to it by passionately clamoring for the products it turns out.
Ludwig Von Mises "Government is the only agency that can take a valuable commodity like paper, slap some ink on it, and make it totally worthless"
Frederick A. Hayek Felt that any government intervention in the marketplace was the first step towards totalitarianism. Limits on the the free market will ultimately results in limits on individual freedom. Defended individual liberty and the free-market in an academic environment where collectivism had been more fashionable Wrote The Road to Serfdom in the waning years of World War II.
Frederick A. Hayek Felt that any government intervention in the marketplace was the first step towards totalitarianism. Limits on the the free market will ultimately results in limits on individual freedom. Defended individual liberty and the free-market in an academic environment where collectivism had been more fashionable
Milton Freidman Founded the so called Chicago School of Economics. A great follower and student of F. Hayek. Argued for the elimination of social security and other elements of the welfare state. Friedman argued that the concentration of political power inherent in socialist countries was detrimental both to economic prosperity and individual liberty. Proponent of negative tax schemes.
Milton Freidman Underlying most arguments against the free market is a lack of belief in freedom itself. Milton Freidman
The Neo-Conservative Movement Led by leaders like Thatcher in Britain they believed in minimal but strong centralized government Free but regulated markets. They were but tough on crime and were Free Traders.
Is Canadas Economy Changing? In the 1980s and 1990s Neo-Conservative ideas began to emerge in Canada and governments felt they no longer needed to protect domestic industries. NAFTA, Canada-US Free Trade, Privatization, and the dismantling of the social welfare state became normalized. J.M. Keynes Out (well, not really)
Major Influences in the Redefining of the Marketplace Liberal economic theorists believed that the pursuit of profit will serve the best interests of society That the market will self regulate. Government should not intervene in the marketplace. The invisible hand of the marketplace.
Reinventing Business and Government Relations A new role for government was envisioned and defined: Elimination of the burden of overlapping federal and provincial jurisdictions. The downsizing governments role through deregulation
Reinventing Business and Government Relations A new role for government was envisioned and defined: More lenient enforcement of regulations. Offering economic incentives to companies to meet the challenges of the global marketplace.
Why Should Governments Own Business? 1.Perhaps a monopoly exists in that sector. Regulators have shifted to a more flexible incentive based regulatory approach.
Crown Corporations A crown corporation is any enterprise that is substantially owned by the government. It is an institution brought into existence by government to serve a public function. It may function in many ways like a private company.
Why do Governments Create Crown Corporations Where the industry itself may lend itself to a natural monopoly (power, water) Where the industry might experience wide price fluctuations and incomes (natural resource sectors) Cultural issues
Why do Governments Create Crown Corporations As nation building tool in the promotion of transportation, communication and resource development. As a defense against expansionism As a means to promote regional development. To go where the private sector refuses to go (EDC Canada)
Crown Corporation Under Attack Crown Corporations were attacked by their critics as being: 1.Costly 2.Bloated 3.Unresponsive 4.Unaccountable 5.That they compete unfairly against the marketplace. 6.They have outlived their useful lives.
Critics of Nationalization Claimed that government measures distorted market values and resulted in inappropriate compensation. There was, however, great concerns about the extent to which crown corporations might be acquired by foreign interests.
Case: The Creation of the CNR Railroad maps Immigration to Canada Settlement of the West 62
Factors the Lead to the Development Expansion of Agriculture in the PrairiesExpansion of Agriculture in the Prairies Immigration to CanadaImmigration to Canada 63
I think that we can claim that it is Canada that shall fill the 20th century 64 Laurier in 1903
What was Wilfred Laurier trying to accomplish by building two Railroads? Continue Sir John A MacDonalds nation- building Boundaries Provinces Agriculture and infrastructure French-English connections
What did Robert Borden inherit when he was elected PM? The Railway Mess –Three intercontinental railways –Fewer than 7.5 million people –Financially weak –Unable to meet debt obligations –Banks at risk
1917 Royal Commission 3 people, two recommendations Smith, the American, recommends –Canadian Northern take over Grand Trunk Pacific in the West, –Grand Trunk take over Canadian Northern in the East, –Government take over the routes in the middle (uneconomic ones).. 71
Royal commission The Majority Report –All lines be nationalized.
Too Much Capacity Three railroads to serve a population of 8 million people
In the meantime. World War One (The Great War) began August of 1914 and ended Nov 11, 1918.
Results of the election Borden is elected by a landslide. His CNR plan is accepted. Troops and goods moved freely. 81 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe dia/commons/3/3a/Canada_1917_F ederal_Election.svg
Problems with CN Part 1 Abnormally high operating costs. In seven of the ten years between 1985 and 1995, the CNR's revenue from freight operations failed to cover its operating costs. To compensate for the shortfall, the railway raised the fees it charges other carriers to use its lines, driving down traffic and increasing shipping costs. But its owner, the federal government, acted as a patron and covered most of the difference. Because it could rely on this support, the CNR was able to avoid taking the steps necessary to become profitable.
Problems with CN Part 2 Excess trackage. After railroads were deregulated in the U.S. in 1982, they shed 25% of their unprofitable lines. Between 1985 and 1995, the CNR trimmed only 15%. That left one-third of its track carrying only 1% of its freight volume. Less than half of its runs made money. It had failed to close more because of government regulations and its mandate as a service-oriented Crown corporation. Hearings to authorize more closings became political minefields, and the railway was forced to keep many open because of pressure from elected officials and voters.
Problems with CN Part 3 Labour problems. For decades, the CNR employed many more people than necessary to run its operations. To remain competitive after American deregulation, it was forced to rationalize its workforce. It cut about a third of its workforce between 1992 and 1995 - about 11,000 jobs - but remained overstaffed. Labour costs, which represented 43% of the CNR's revenue in 1992, had fallen to 38% by 1994, but above the U.S. average of 36%. Arcane rules set up in past negotiations with labour unions made it more difficult and expensive for the CNR to cut staff.
Privatization of CN In 1993, the National Transportation Act Review Commission recommended that the CNR be privatized. Transport Minister Doug Young took up that cause two years later. In his 1995 spring budget, he announced the government's intention to sell the railway, saying, "If the government doesn't need to run something, it shouldn't... and in the future, it won't.
Deregulation of railroads in the United States caused a massive restructuring of the industry, and the CNR's ability to keep pace with rapidly shifting circumstances was compromised by its Crown corporation status. The changes that the CNR needed to implement to become a strong competitor like dropping unprofitable track or reducing its bloated workforce, could not be made without running a political gauntlet. Privatization of CN
In September 1995, all shares in the CNR were sold to the public and it became a private company. The conversion was the largest initial public offering of shares in Canadian history. The deal had some conditions: Privatization of CN
The Rationale for Privatization Improving Efficiency Reducing the public sectors borrowing requirements. Reducing Government involvement in enterprise decision making. Easing Public Sector pay determination Gaining political advantage Improve Service
The Rationale for Privatization Easing problems of public sector pay determination. Widening share of ownership.
1. Improving Efficiency It can sharpen corporate incentives to cut costs and set prices in line with costs. The achievement of efficient standards depends largely of the framework of competition that the new private company will operate within.
2. Reducing the Public Sectors Borrowing Requirements The capital and financial requirements the crown corporations will not longer be the responsibility of governments It may result in a lowering of deficits.
3. Reducing Government Involvement in Enterprise Decision Making. A major weakness in crown corporations is that they are vulnerable to short term political thinking. Privatization provided a credible way of giving industry management independence to develop business strategies free of interference.
4. Easing Problems of Public Sector Pay Determination Nationalization can increase the power of unions if public sector managers and their supervisors have weak incentives to reduce labor costs. Management may be underpaid compared to the private sector.
5. Gaining Political Advantage Government saddled with deficits and besieged to sell public enterprises have opted for the political advantage of privatization. What would you rather own, hospitals or liquor stores?
6. Improve Service Create competition and market forces that would increase innovation and service.
Arguments Supporting Continuing Government Enterprises Great skepticism in the free market Underlying questions about the role of crown in nation building. Concerns about big companies becoming even bigger.