3 A Competency is an underlying characteristic of a person which enables him /her to deliver superior performance in a given job, role or a situation.
4 Competencies are seen mainly as inputs. They consist of clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skills that affect an individual’s ability to perform.
5 Hayes (1979) –Competencies are generic knowledge motive, trait, social role or a skill of a person linked to superior performance on the job.
6 Albanese (1989) –Competencies are personal characteristics that contribute to effective managerial performance.
7 UNIDO (2002)-A Competency is a set of skills, related knowledge and attributes that allow an individual to successfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job.
8 What is Common in the definitions? Competenciesunderlying characteristic of a person’s inputs.clusters of knowledge, attitudes and skillsgeneric knowledge motive, trait, social role or a skillpersonal characteristicsset of skills, related knowledge and attributesJobsuperior performance in a given job, role or a situationindividual’s ability to perform.linked to superior performance on the job.contribute to effective managerial performancesuccessfully perform a task or an activity within a specific function or job
9 COMPETENCY KNOWLEDGE Attribute Set of SKILLS Relates to information Cognitive DomainAttributeRelates to qualitative aspectspersonal Characteristics or traitsSet of SKILLSRelates to the ability to do,Physical domainCOMPETENCYOutstanding Performance of tasks or activities
10 Behaviour IndicatorsA Competency is described in terms of key behaviours that enables recognition of that competency at the work place.These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on-the-job much more consistently than average or poor performers. These characteristics generally follow the rule in that they include the key behaviors that primarily drive excellent performance.
12 Analytical ThinkingThe ability to break problems into component parts and consider or organize parts in a systematic way; the process of looking for underlying causes or thinking through the consequence of different courses of action.
13 Key Behaviour Indicators Independently researches for information and solutions to issuesAbility to know what needs to be done or find out (research) and take steps to get it doneAsk questions when not sure of what the problem is or to gain more information.Able to identify the underlying or main problem.Shows willingness to experiment with new things.Develops a list of decision making guidelines to help arrive at logical solutions.
15 Competency ModelA competency model is a valid, observable, and measurable list of the knowledge, skills, and attributes demonstrated through behavior that results in outstanding performance in a particular work context.Typically A competency model includesCompetency titlesDefinitions of those titlesKey Behaviour indicators
16 Competency - Broad Categories Generic CompetenciesCompetencies which are considered essential for all employees regardless of their function or level. - Communication, initiative, listening etc.Managerial CompetenciesCompetencies which are considered essential for employees with managerial or supervisory responsibility in any functional area including directors and senior posts.
17 Competency - Broad Categories Technical / FunctionalSpecific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in the organisation within a defined technical or functional area of work.e.g.: Finance, environmental management,etc
18 Competency modeling begins the process of building tools to link employee performance to the mission and goals of the organisation .
20 Traditional Job Analysis Vs Competency Approach Job Analysis leads tolong lists of tasks and the skills / knowledge required to perform each of those tasksData generation from subject matter experts; job incumbentsEffective PerformanceCompetency model leads toA Distilled set of underlying personal characteristicsData generation from outstanding performers in addition to subject matter experts and other job incumbentsOutstanding Performance
21 Distinguish Superior From Merely Satisfactory Performance The approach allows executives and angers to make a distinction between a person's ability to do specific tasks at the minimum acceptable level and the ability to do the whole job in an outstanding fashion
22 Behaviour Indicators Based upon what outstanding individuals actually do The competency definitions are based upon outstanding current performance in the organization.These competencies do not reflect someone's management theory or an academic idea of what it takes to do the job well, but rather are based on what works within the organization and most directly contributes to top performance.
23 The Competencies are Behaviour Specific It is one thing, for example, to ask whether an employee "takes initiative," a very general concept, open to interpretation, but it is quite another to ask, "Was it typical of this manager to carry out tasks without your having to request that they be done?," a question which has only two answers, "Yes" and "No".
24 Holistic Application Competencies Help companies ‘raise the bar’ of performance expectations.Help teams and individuals align their behaviours with key organisational strategy.Each employee understand how to achieve expectations.
25 Alignment of HR systems Recruitment and selectionPerformance ManagementCompetency ModelTraining & DevelopmentCompensation
26 Competency based recruitment Competency based interviews reduce the risk of making a costly hiring mistake and increase the likelihood of identifying and selecting the right person for the right job
27 Competency based Performance Appraisal Competencies EnableEstablishment of clear high performance standards.Collection and proper analysis of factual data against the set standards.Conduct of objective feedback meetings.Direction with regard to specific areas of improvement.
28 Competency based Training Competency based appraisal process leading to effective identification of training needs.Opportunity to identify/ develop specific training programmes - Focused training investment.Focused Training enabling improvement in specific technical and managerial competencies
29 Competency based Development CompetenciesContribute to the understanding of what development really mean, giving the individual the tools to take responsibility for their own development.Give the line managers a tool to empower them to develop people
30 Competency based PayProvide an incentive for employees to grow and enhance their capabilities.
32 Steps in Model Building Background information about the organisationDecide on the Occupation / Job Position(s) that require competency Model(s)Discuss the application of the competency modelSelect a data collection method and plan the approachOrganize Data collectedIdentify main themes or patternsBuild the model - Defining specific behaviour IndicatorsReview the model
33 Data Collection Methods Resource / Expert PanelsStructured process to get the participants (Job holders, managers HR / training staff) to think systematically about the job, skills and personal characteristics needed for success.Critical Event InterviewsStructured interviews with superior performers which involves in-depth probing of a large number of events and experiences.
34 Data Collection Methods Generic competency DictionariesConceptual frameworks of commonly encountered competencies and behaviour indicators.Serve as a starting point to the model building team.Can be used in resource panel by asking the participants to select a set of generic competencies related to the job and rate the importance
36 A Detailed Approach Info about the company. Decision on the job position(s) .Discussion on the CM application.Basic data collection on the job responsibilities(using customized menu)Focus groupReview job descriptionunderstand performance criteriaDiscuss specific behavioursList top ten competencies
37 A Detailed ApproachCritical incident technique - interviewing top performersincidents that lead to effective performanceincidents that lead to in effective performanceDiscuss specific behavioursList behavioursList competencies
38 A Detailed Approach Content Analysis Group behaviours Match behaviours to competencies using competency dictionary as a guidelineEvolve new set of competencies if anyMatch behaviour indicators identified through CIT to the top 10 competencies identified by the focus groupReview the model and make corrections
39 COMPETENCY MAPPING MODEL ORGANISATION DIRECTIONVISIONMISSIONSHORT TERM & LONG TERM GOALSTRATEGIESVALUESTRANSLATING THEM INTO ACTIONS FOR ACTUALISATIONTHROUGHORGANISATION STRUCTUREROLES, POSITIONS, JOBSCORE COMPETENCY OF THE ORGANISATIONROLE COMPETENCY
40 COMPETENCY MAPPING PROCESS 1.0 DESIGNING THE QUESTIONNAIREWhile designing the questionnaire following factors are to be taken into consideration:1.1 Part - IPurpose of the job.Critical Success FactorsKey Result AreasKey Activities
41 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS CSF - 1CSF - 2CSF - 3CSF - 4CSF - 5KEY RESULT AREASKRA- 1KRA - 2KRA - 3KRA - 4KRA - 5KEY ACTIVITIESKA - 1KA - 2KA - 3JOBCRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORSEach Critical Success Factor (CSF) is the end result of multiple Key Result Areas.Each Key Result Area (KRA) is the end result of multiple Key Activities.
42 DESIGNING THE QUESTIONNAIRE CONTINUED Relationship.Organization Structure.Empowerment of the position.Challenges in the job.Changes expected in the technology, product,process etc in the next 2-3 years.Budget and Controls.Investment Plan.
43 DESIGNING THE QUESTIONNAIRE 1.2 PART - II1.2.1 Academics, KnowledgeSkills SetsExperience1.2.2 Competencies
44 2.0 DATA COLLECTION 2.1 Clarity of Organisation Direction 2.2 Clarity of Organisation Structure.2.3 Interview Job Holder.2.4 Interview Job Holder's Reporting Officer.2.5 Discuss with the Focus Group if the job areof the same family.
45 3.0 C0MPETENCY DRAFTING 3.1 Rank Order of the list of competencies . - Guided / Unguided.3.2 Comparing good performer and average performerwith select list of competencies.3.3 Use research data and assign competenciesto positions.
47 5.0 FINALISING CORE COMPETENCIES FOR Front Line ManagementMiddle ManagementSenior Management / Top Management
48 6.0 PURPOSE OF COMPETENCY MAPPING "Effectiveness of an organisation is the summation of therequired competencies in the organisation".Gap AnalysisRole ClaritySelection, Potential Identification, Growth Plans.Succession Planning.RestructuringInventory of competencies for future planning.