# Temperature and thermal equilibrium

## Presentation on theme: "Temperature and thermal equilibrium"— Presentation transcript:

Temperature and thermal equilibrium
Hot Cold

Thermometer

Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin
Andres Celsius ( ). Celsius’ scale relates to the freezing temperature of water 0°C and the boiling temperature of water 100°C

TF=9/5 In mid. continental Russia schools
are closed when temperatures reaches -35ºC What is the temperature in Fahrenheit's?

Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules: T~KE

Lord Kelvin Kelvin’s scale related to the absolute zero – the point where nothing else can be colder. For the ideal gas, the volume would have reached 0 P (Pa) T (°C)

Conversion of T scales:

Thermal expansion

NORMAL SOLIDS

coefficient of linear expansion LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF A SOLID
The length of an object changes when its temperature changes: coefficient of linear expansion Common Unit for the Coefficient of Linear Expansion:

Example 3 The Buckling of a Sidewalk
A concrete sidewalk is constructed between two buildings on a day when the temperature is 25oC. As the temperature rises to 38oC, the slabs expand, but no space is provided for thermal expansion. Determine the distance y in part (b) of the drawing.

THE BIMETALLIC STRIP

Conceptual Example 5 The Expansion of Holes
The figure shows eight square tiles that are arranged to form a square pattern with a hold in the center. If the tiled are heated, what happens to the size of the hole?

Conceptual Example 7 Expanding Cylinders
Each cylinder is made from a different material. All three have the same temperature and they barely fit inside each other. As the cylinders are heated to the same, but higher, temperature, cylinder C falls off, while cylinder A becomes tightly wedged to cylinder B. Which cylinder is made from which material?

coefficient of volume expansion VOLUME THERMAL EXPANSION
The volume of an object changes when its temperature changes: coefficient of volume expansion Common Unit for the Coefficient of Volume Expansion:

A small plastic container, called the coolant reservoir, catches the radiator fluid that overflows when an automobile engine becomes hot. The radiator is made of copper and the coolant has an expansion coefficient of 4.0x10-4 (Co)-1. If the radiator is filled to its 15-quart capacity when the engine is cold (6oC), how much overflow will spill into the reservoir when the coolant reaches its operating temperature (92oC)?

Why do they tell you to leave a faucet slightly open in the winter up north? .

HEAT The process by which energy is exchanged between objects because of a difference in their temperatures. SI: [J] – joules James Joule

12.6 Heat and Internal Energy
DEFINITION OF HEAT Heat is energy that flows from a higher- temperature object to a lower-temperature object because of a difference in temperatures. SI Unit of Heat: joule (J)

Heat / Energy / Work units

3 types of energy transfer

Conduction the process whereby energy is transferred directly through a material without any bulk motion of its particles. Conduction is mostly common in solids. Depending on whether materials conduct heat easily, they are divided into conductors and insulators.

Conduction k – thermal conductivity

Convection process in which energy is transferred through a material with any bulk motion of its particles. Convection is common in fluids

Convection

Radiation the process in which energy is transferred by means of electromagnetic waves.