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Ch. 9: Life at the Turn of the 20 th Century: 1870-1915.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 9: Life at the Turn of the 20 th Century: 1870-1915."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 9: Life at the Turn of the 20 th Century:

2 Section 1: The Expansion of Education With urban migration, schools became bigger and new needs needed to be addressed. With urban migration, schools became bigger and new needs needed to be addressed.

3 Public School Growth In 1870, just over half the nations white children attended free public schools, but few earned high school degrees. In 1870, just over half the nations white children attended free public schools, but few earned high school degrees. Only 2% of all 17-year-olds graduated from high school. Only 2% of all 17-year-olds graduated from high school. Most students only went for a few years, often seasonally. Most students only went for a few years, often seasonally.

4 Growth By 1900, 31 states had laws requiring students between ages 8 and 14 to attend school. By 1900, 31 states had laws requiring students between ages 8 and 14 to attend school. By 1910, 72 percent of children attended school and 8.6 percent graduated from high school. By 1910, 72 percent of children attended school and 8.6 percent graduated from high school.

5 School Days In the early 1900s, most of the nations children attended one-room schools, particularly in rural areas. In the early 1900s, most of the nations children attended one-room schools, particularly in rural areas. Schooling focused on reading, writing, and arithmetic. Schooling focused on reading, writing, and arithmetic. Discipline was often harsh. Discipline was often harsh. Classrooms varied in age, ability, and numbers. Classrooms varied in age, ability, and numbers.

6 Immigrants and Education Immigrants placed a high value on American public education. Immigrants placed a high value on American public education. In some cases, free, public education was not available in their home countries. In some cases, free, public education was not available in their home countries. Parents saw a good education as a necessary tool for their childrens development and success in a new country. Parents saw a good education as a necessary tool for their childrens development and success in a new country.

7 Immigrant Education Literacy, the ability to read and write, was the most important aspect of an immigrants education. Literacy, the ability to read and write, was the most important aspect of an immigrants education. Being able to communicate in English was vital for immigrants in order to survive and gain employment. Being able to communicate in English was vital for immigrants in order to survive and gain employment. Schools helped immigrants assimilate to American culture. Schools helped immigrants assimilate to American culture.

8 World Literacy Rates

9 Immigrant Assimilation Assimilation- the process of adopting a new culture. Assimilation- the process of adopting a new culture. Many immigrants tried hard to assimilate to American culture, food, sports, and traditions in order to fit in. Many immigrants tried hard to assimilate to American culture, food, sports, and traditions in order to fit in. Assimilation often causes tension between families and people groups, as some try to assimilate while others cling to their former culture. Assimilation often causes tension between families and people groups, as some try to assimilate while others cling to their former culture.

10 Higher Education Expands Between 1880 and 1900, over 150 new American colleges and universities opened. Between 1880 and 1900, over 150 new American colleges and universities opened. Despite new colleges, only a small, wealthy percentage of students attended colleges. Despite new colleges, only a small, wealthy percentage of students attended colleges.

11 Women and Higher Education In the late 1800s there was increased pressure on mens colleges to admit women. In the late 1800s there was increased pressure on mens colleges to admit women. Rather than admit women, some schools founded separate institutions for women. Rather than admit women, some schools founded separate institutions for women. Other schools became coeducational- admitted both men and women. Other schools became coeducational- admitted both men and women.

12 African Americans and Higher Education In 1890, only 160 African Americans attended white colleges. In 1890, only 160 African Americans attended white colleges. While some white schools began accepting blacks, the late 1800s also saw the founding of a number of black colleges. While some white schools began accepting blacks, the late 1800s also saw the founding of a number of black colleges. These schools include, Atlanta University, Fisk University, and Howard University. These schools include, Atlanta University, Fisk University, and Howard University.

13 Perspectives of African American Education There were two different schools of thought regarding the best method for uplifting African Americans through education. There were two different schools of thought regarding the best method for uplifting African Americans through education. The two schools of thought came from two prolific, highly education African Americans: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois. The two schools of thought came from two prolific, highly education African Americans: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Du Bois.

14 Booker T. Washington Tuskegee Institute. Tuskegee Institute. African Americans should focus on becoming successful in practical, vocational trades. African Americans should focus on becoming successful in practical, vocational trades. Succeeding vocationally and economically would win white respect. Succeeding vocationally and economically would win white respect.

15 Cast down your bucket where you are To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition… I would say: Cast down your bucket where you are- cast it down… in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the professions… No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. -Booker T. Washington -Booker T. Washington

16 W.E.B. Du Bois Ph.D. from Harvard. Ph.D. from Harvard. Called for the talented tenth, brightest 10% of African Americans to pursue top tier careers (law, medicine, politics). Called for the talented tenth, brightest 10% of African Americans to pursue top tier careers (law, medicine, politics). Opposed to the vocational schooling that Washington proposed. Opposed to the vocational schooling that Washington proposed.

17 not to make men carpenters, but carpenters men. I insist that the true object of all true education is not to make men carpenters, it is to make carpenters men… The Talented Tenth of the Negro race must be made leaders of thought and missionaries of culture among their people. No other can do this work and Negro colleges must train men for it. – W.E.B. Du Bois – W.E.B. Du Bois

18 Niagara Movement In 1905, Du Bois helped found the Niagara Movement. In 1905, Du Bois helped found the Niagara Movement. Called for full civil liberties, an end to racial discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood. Called for full civil liberties, an end to racial discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood. Du Bois went on to work for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), becoming one of the most well-known black leaders of the century. Du Bois went on to work for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), becoming one of the most well-known black leaders of the century.

19 Section 2: New Entertainment The growth of urban areas and technological advances created new opportunities for entertainment at the turn of the century. The growth of urban areas and technological advances created new opportunities for entertainment at the turn of the century.

20 Vaudeville Vaudeville shows were a kind of inexpensive variety show. Vaudeville shows were a kind of inexpensive variety show. Acts consisted of Acts consisted of Comic sketches based on ethnic or racial humor Comic sketches based on ethnic or racial humor Song and dance routines Song and dance routines Magic acts Magic acts Ventriloquism, jugglers, and animals Ventriloquism, jugglers, and animals

21 Minstrel Shows Blackface Blackface These racist shows reinforced racial stereotypes, exaggerating imitations of African Americans in music, dance, and humor. These racist shows reinforced racial stereotypes, exaggerating imitations of African Americans in music, dance, and humor.

22 Movies By 1908, the nation had 8,000 nickelodeons, old stores or warehouses converted into movie theatres. By 1908, the nation had 8,000 nickelodeons, old stores or warehouses converted into movie theatres. Early movies were silent, often accompanied by a live piano player Early movies were silent, often accompanied by a live piano player Charlie Chaplin Charlie Chaplin

23 Charlie Chaplin

24 The Circus In 1872, the traveling circus was introduced. In 1872, the traveling circus was introduced. advance men came to town to promote the traveling circus. advance men came to town to promote the traveling circus. Circuses came, set up big tents, held a parade to kick off the event, then started the paid performances. Circuses came, set up big tents, held a parade to kick off the event, then started the paid performances.

25 Posters

26 Amusement Parks The technology of trolley lines gave berth to mechanical rides like the roller coaster. The technology of trolley lines gave berth to mechanical rides like the roller coaster. Amusement parks followed, providing music, games, vaudeville productions, bathing beaches, and exciting rides. Amusement parks followed, providing music, games, vaudeville productions, bathing beaches, and exciting rides.

27 Coney Island, NY Coney Island led the way with numerous amusement parks and festivities. Coney Island led the way with numerous amusement parks and festivities.

28 Sports Sports grew in popularity. Sports grew in popularity. Baseball was most popular. Baseball was most popular. Investors began building enclosed fields and charging people to watch games. Investors began building enclosed fields and charging people to watch games. Pro teams arose and the nations best players were paid to play the game. Pro teams arose and the nations best players were paid to play the game.

29 Newspapers Between 1870 and 1900, newspaper circulation went from 2.6 to 15.1 million copies a day. Between 1870 and 1900, newspaper circulation went from 2.6 to 15.1 million copies a day. To compete for readership, publishers encouraged reporters to cover scandals, murders, and vice. This sensational news coverage became known as yellow journalism. To compete for readership, publishers encouraged reporters to cover scandals, murders, and vice. This sensational news coverage became known as yellow journalism.

30 Popular Fiction Many rags to riches novels, such as those written by Horatio Alger, became popular. Many rags to riches novels, such as those written by Horatio Alger, became popular. dime books referred to inexpensive books with a wide readership. dime books referred to inexpensive books with a wide readership. Mark Twain was one of the most influential authors. Mark Twain was one of the most influential authors. Wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) Wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)

31 The Negro Spiritual Through concerts, African American religious folk music, or spirituals, were introduced to white audiences. Through concerts, African American religious folk music, or spirituals, were introduced to white audiences. While making the Negro spiritual more acceptable among whites, singers also transformed the music by adopting other, European musical characteristics. While making the Negro spiritual more acceptable among whites, singers also transformed the music by adopting other, European musical characteristics.

32 Ragtime and Jazz Originated among black musicians in the South and Midwest during 1880s. Originated among black musicians in the South and Midwest during 1880s. Jazz grew out of the vibrant musical culture of New Orleans. Jazz grew out of the vibrant musical culture of New Orleans. Jazz was influenced by African, Spanish, French, and Latin American musical traditions. Jazz was influenced by African, Spanish, French, and Latin American musical traditions. Scott Joplin: entertainer Scott Joplin: entertainer

33 Section 3: The World of Jim Crow Despite receiving their freedom after the Civil War, African Americans continued to experience discrimination, both informally and legally. Despite receiving their freedom after the Civil War, African Americans continued to experience discrimination, both informally and legally.

34 Voting Restrictions Fearing the power of the black and poor white vote, many southern states implemented tactics to deny voting rights to African Americans. Fearing the power of the black and poor white vote, many southern states implemented tactics to deny voting rights to African Americans. (p. 333) (p. 333) Voting requirements included Voting requirements included Poll tax (African Americans couldnt afford) Poll tax (African Americans couldnt afford) Must own property (most African Americans didnt) Must own property (most African Americans didnt) Literacy test (few African Americans were literate) Literacy test (few African Americans were literate) Grandfather clause- if you or your ancestor had already voted, you were exempt from the other requirements (helped whites avoid restrictions) Grandfather clause- if you or your ancestor had already voted, you were exempt from the other requirements (helped whites avoid restrictions)

35 Segregation Many states instituted a system of legal segregation, keeping different racial groups separate. Many states instituted a system of legal segregation, keeping different racial groups separate. Sometimes racial separation happens naturally as a result of custom, not legality, this is calledde facto segregation. Sometimes racial separation happens naturally as a result of custom, not legality, this is calledde facto segregation.

36 Jim Crow laws In the South, segregation was actually required by law. In the South, segregation was actually required by law. These segregation laws became known as Jim Crow laws, its name based on a popular minstrel show called Jump Jim Crow These segregation laws became known as Jim Crow laws, its name based on a popular minstrel show called Jump Jim Crow

37 Separation Segregation laws impacted every aspect of life. Segregation laws impacted every aspect of life. They required the separation of schools, parks, public buildings, hospitals, and transportation systems. They required the separation of schools, parks, public buildings, hospitals, and transportation systems.

38 South Africa South Africa is another example of racial segregation South Africa is another example of racial segregation Apartheid, the South African term/system for separation, was firmly in place until Apartheid, the South African term/system for separation, was firmly in place until Whites only accounted for around 10% of the population, yet still subjugated the entire black population. Whites only accounted for around 10% of the population, yet still subjugated the entire black population.

39 Plessy v. Ferguson In 1896, African American Homer Plessy says segregation laws violate his right to equal protection of the laws. In 1896, African American Homer Plessy says segregation laws violate his right to equal protection of the laws. Court rules that African Americans rights are not violated if kept separate, as long as their facilities are equal. Court rules that African Americans rights are not violated if kept separate, as long as their facilities are equal. Separate but equal becomes the argument of segregationists for the next 60 years. Separate but equal becomes the argument of segregationists for the next 60 years.

40 Lynching Lynching is the murder of an accused person by mob without lawful trial, often including bodily mutilation and hanging. Lynching is the murder of an accused person by mob without lawful trial, often including bodily mutilation and hanging. 1,200 African Americans were lynched during a 10 year period, ,200 African Americans were lynched during a 10 year period, Lynchings were rarely the result of a legitimate crime, but rather a way to inflict fear and a feeling of inferiority among blacks. Lynchings were rarely the result of a legitimate crime, but rather a way to inflict fear and a feeling of inferiority among blacks.

41 Race Relations in North Segregation in the North was not a legal matter, but de facto segregation. Segregation in the North was not a legal matter, but de facto segregation. African Americans that moved north to avoid segregation often found employment and opportunities scare there as well. African Americans that moved north to avoid segregation often found employment and opportunities scare there as well.

42 The NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded in The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was founded in Purpose was to abolish segregation and discrimination, and oppose racism. Purpose was to abolish segregation and discrimination, and oppose racism. NAACP remained a vital force for civil rights in coming decades. NAACP remained a vital force for civil rights in coming decades.

43 Achievements Despite discrimination, some African Americans overcame the obstacles of racism and achieved significant success. Despite discrimination, some African Americans overcame the obstacles of racism and achieved significant success. Booker T. Washington with powerful group including Harvard President (far left) and Andrew Carnegie

44 George Washington Carver Became known for his scientific and agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute. Became known for his scientific and agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute. Scientist, botanist, educator, inventor, musician, and artist. A true renaissance man. Scientist, botanist, educator, inventor, musician, and artist. A true renaissance man.

45 Madam C. J. Walker Successful businesswoman. Successful businesswoman. Started a chain of hair and beauty products as well as training schools. Started a chain of hair and beauty products as well as training schools. By 1916, her company had 20,000 employees. By 1916, her company had 20,000 employees.

46 Section 4: Changing Roles of Women With new jobs, new educational opportunities, and new roles in the home and marketplace, many women experienced significant changes at the turn of the century. With new jobs, new educational opportunities, and new roles in the home and marketplace, many women experienced significant changes at the turn of the century.

47 Womens Equality Traditionally, women worked at home or on the farm. Traditionally, women worked at home or on the farm. People had conflicting opinions about whether or not women should work outside of the house. People had conflicting opinions about whether or not women should work outside of the house.

48 Shifts At the turn of the century some young women were migrating to cities to work in factories. At the turn of the century some young women were migrating to cities to work in factories. Many immigrant women also found work in factories. Many immigrant women also found work in factories. Women from poor families were forced to work outside the home for income. Women from poor families were forced to work outside the home for income.

49

50 Women in the Home Most women, however, continued to work primarily in the home. Most women, however, continued to work primarily in the home. Without many of the modern appliances and conveniences of today, housework itself was much more demanding. Without many of the modern appliances and conveniences of today, housework itself was much more demanding. Some estimate that simply cleaning the house took hours a week. Some estimate that simply cleaning the house took hours a week. Women often made their own bread, butchered and preserved their own meat, and made their families own clothing. Women often made their own bread, butchered and preserved their own meat, and made their families own clothing.

51 From Producer to Consumer As ready-made goods became more available, women began to spend more time purchasing necessities instead of producing them. As ready-made goods became more available, women began to spend more time purchasing necessities instead of producing them. New methods of consumption, such as stores, catalogs, and advertising were targeted toward women. New methods of consumption, such as stores, catalogs, and advertising were targeted toward women.

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53 Department Stores Growing populations, new manufacturing, and improved transportation led to the development of department stores. Growing populations, new manufacturing, and improved transportation led to the development of department stores. Large retail stores carrying a wide variety of goods. Large retail stores carrying a wide variety of goods. Attractive due to their variety. Attractive due to their variety. Marshall Field in Chicago and Macys in NYC Marshall Field in Chicago and Macys in NYC

54 Macys: Past & Present

55 Chain Stores Chain stores, such as F. W. Woolworth, are born in this era. Chain stores, such as F. W. Woolworth, are born in this era. Due to their size, chain stores could purchase goods from suppliers in large quantities for cheaper prices. Due to their size, chain stores could purchase goods from suppliers in large quantities for cheaper prices.

56 Chain Stores today Nearly all major retail/food businesses are chains. Nearly all major retail/food businesses are chains.

57 Brand Names Both department and chain stores began to popularize and advertise the concept of brand names. Both department and chain stores began to popularize and advertise the concept of brand names.

58 Brand names today

59 Rural Free Delivery The United States Post Office began offering rural free deliver (RFD) in The United States Post Office began offering rural free deliver (RFD) in By 1905, the Post Office was delivering mail on 32,000 RFD routes. By 1905, the Post Office was delivering mail on 32,000 RFD routes. Bad for local stores, but gave rise to mail-order consumption Bad for local stores, but gave rise to mail-order consumption

60 Mail-order catalogs Rural free deliver (RFD) gave birth to the mail-order catalog industry. Rural free deliver (RFD) gave birth to the mail-order catalog industry. Allowed rural families to order products by mail order. Allowed rural families to order products by mail order.

61 Sears, Roebuck, and Co. The Sears catalog was the biggest, most dominant mail-order catalog. The Sears catalog was the biggest, most dominant mail-order catalog. Very popular among rural farmers early on. Very popular among rural farmers early on. Known as the consumers bible Known as the consumers bible Sold everything: bicycles, automobiles, groceries, appliances, sewing machines, sporting goods, farming equipment, etc. Sold everything: bicycles, automobiles, groceries, appliances, sewing machines, sporting goods, farming equipment, etc.

62 Shopping online

63 Women in Workplace Many believed careers and married life did not mix, many working women were single. Many believed careers and married life did not mix, many working women were single. Employer rarely gave these single women supervisory jobs or advanced training, assuming they would leave when they got married. Employer rarely gave these single women supervisory jobs or advanced training, assuming they would leave when they got married. Educated women often became nurses and teachers. Educated women often became nurses and teachers.

64 Volunteering Many women from the North and South volunteered during the Civil War. Many women from the North and South volunteered during the Civil War. After the war many continued volunteering. After the war many continued volunteering. Womens clubs were formed, such as the New England Womens Club and the Chicago Womens Club Womens clubs were formed, such as the New England Womens Club and the Chicago Womens Club These clubs acted as social, educational, and political networks for women. These clubs acted as social, educational, and political networks for women. New England Womens Club

65 New women Aside from economic and political changes, the lifestyles of many women began to shift. Aside from economic and political changes, the lifestyles of many women began to shift. As more women entered the workforce or college, they gained a new form of independence. As more women entered the workforce or college, they gained a new form of independence. Wore shorter hair, less conservative clothing, even pushed to legalize the spread of information about birth control. Wore shorter hair, less conservative clothing, even pushed to legalize the spread of information about birth control. These new women were shocking and threatening to more traditional Americans. These new women were shocking and threatening to more traditional Americans.


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