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America at 1800 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812.

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America at 1800 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812.

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1 America at 1800 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812

2 Jefferson's Presidency –Louisiana Purchase –Burr conspiracy –The Supreme Court under John Marshall –Neutral rights, impressment, embargo

3 Pictures

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6 Test items Republican Vision/Jefferson/embargo/reduce the budget Republican Vision/Jefferson/embargo/reduce the budget Revolution of Jefferson/overturn Federal policies Revolution of Jefferson/overturn Federal policies Jefferson/a great politician Jefferson/a great politician Ended internal taxes Ended internal taxes Government spending Government spending National debt National debt Jefferson and the court Jefferson and the court Judiciary act of 1801 Judiciary act of 1801 Mabry Vs. Madison Mabry Vs. Madison Louisiana Purchase reasons Louisiana Purchase reasons Aaron Burr Aaron Burr War of 1812 causes, War Hawks/Clay/Calhoun/ War of 1812 causes, War Hawks/Clay/Calhoun/ Tecumsehs goals Tecumsehs goals

7 Essay Question The War of 1812 was foisted upon an unwilling nation by a Congress controlled by a group of congressmen called the War Hawks whose main goal was the conquest of Canada. The War of 1812 was foisted upon an unwilling nation by a Congress controlled by a group of congressmen called the War Hawks whose main goal was the conquest of Canada. Assess the validity of this statement using the documents and your knowledge of US History Assess the validity of this statement using the documents and your knowledge of US History

8 Sectionalism Developing Northeast- Manufacturing=want to send goods West Northeast- Manufacturing=want to send goods West Western Farmers agriculture=want to send goods East Western Farmers agriculture=want to send goods East Problem of Transportation= roads, canals, river transportation important building transportation networks. Problem of Transportation= roads, canals, river transportation important building transportation networks. Problem: Spain controls mouth of Mississippi until the French reacquire Louisiana under Napoleon and US make the Louisiana Purchase Problem: Spain controls mouth of Mississippi until the French reacquire Louisiana under Napoleon and US make the Louisiana Purchase- 1803

9 American Growth New Century New Century Census office million people Census office million people 33% growth rate each decade 33% growth rate each decade Rapid Economic growth Rapid Economic growth Commercial and Geographic expansion Commercial and Geographic expansion Cities New York + 100,000 New York + 100,000 Philadelphia + 100,000 Philadelphia + 100,000 75% Pop Rural 75% Pop Rural 5% in cities 5% in cities 20% in towns 20% in towns People moving west in search of farm land People moving west in search of farm land Ohio, Mississippi Valley Ohio, Mississippi Valley

10 Jefferson Presidency Lawyer, diplomat, scientist, philosopher Lawyer, diplomat, scientist, philosopher Interested in Agriculture Interested in Agriculture Supported innovations and technology Supported innovations and technology Where a new invention is supported by well- known principles, and promises to be useful, it ought to be tried. Where a new invention is supported by well- known principles, and promises to be useful, it ought to be tried.

11 How is Jeffersons Election Revolutionary? Peaceful transfer of power- was not common Peaceful transfer of power- was not common It was a watershed for the Republic in that the opposing political parties would cooperate with a change in leadership It was a watershed for the Republic in that the opposing political parties would cooperate with a change in leadership Some will say changes Jefferson advocates will be revolutionary. Some will say changes Jefferson advocates will be revolutionary. Jefferson as a common man- open to common people Jefferson as a common man- open to common people Wants to remove the Federalist program Wants to remove the Federalist program

12 Jeffersons Social Vision Wanted to see individuals own land Wanted to see individuals own land Land was the key to democracy- Land was the key to democracy- didnt believe that cities and industry were ideal didnt believe that cities and industry were ideal Recognized manufacturing was necessary Recognized manufacturing was necessary The cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens The cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens

13 Jeffersons Plan Wanted to return governing power to the states Wanted to return governing power to the states Economics- Economics- Thought Federalist enacted too many protective tariffs – that hurt farmer and favored merchants Thought Federalist enacted too many protective tariffs – that hurt farmer and favored merchants Hated the national debt- $112 million by 1801 Hated the national debt- $112 million by 1801 Gallatin was his Secretary of Treasury- proposed cutting spending to balance the budget Gallatin was his Secretary of Treasury- proposed cutting spending to balance the budget Federal jobs, military, navy budget cut Federal jobs, military, navy budget cut End internal taxes/excise taxes End internal taxes/excise taxes

14 Jefferson vs. The Court A Federalist law is passed, Judiciary Act 1801 A Federalist law is passed, Judiciary Act 1801 Created 16 new Federal judgeships Created 16 new Federal judgeships Adams appointed a number of judges before he left office (Midnight Appointments) Adams appointed a number of judges before he left office (Midnight Appointments) Jefferson pushes republican controlled congress to repeal the act and not seat Federalist judges Jefferson pushes republican controlled congress to repeal the act and not seat Federalist judges However the Supreme Court is packed with Federalist and will rule against Republican issues However the Supreme Court is packed with Federalist and will rule against Republican issues

15 John Marshall Chief Justice Appointed as Chief Justice during last days of Adams' term 2. Most important Chief Justice in U.S. history; served for about 34 years Molded or developed the power of the Judiciary Molded or developed the power of the Judiciary Key leader, non-partisan Federalist Key leader, non-partisan Federalist Strengthened the Federal Government- at expense of states Strengthened the Federal Government- at expense of states Advanced the interests of the rich Advanced the interests of the rich Supported the legality of contracts Supported the legality of contracts Supported the concept of Federal government supremacy over states Supported the concept of Federal government supremacy over states –Dartmouth Case- overrode a state court

16 Marbury vs Madison, 1803 "Midnight judge" William Marbury sued (on the behalf of several other judges) for the delivery of his commission that was being held up by the new secretary of state Madison. Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments of Judiciary Act o 1801 Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments of Judiciary Act o 1801 Judicial Review (the concept that the Supreme Court can rule laws unconstitutional (the concept that the Supreme Court can rule laws unconstitutional Marshall ruled that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, upon which Marbury had based his appeal, was unconstitutional by giving the Court the right to enforce appointments (only the executive branch had right to enforce the law) Ruling established a precedent Ruling established a precedent Supreme Court power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutional

17 Louisiana Purchase 1801 France again controls the Louisiana Territory 1801 France again controls the Louisiana Territory Jefferson wants to expand US territory Jefferson wants to expand US territory Sends James Monroe to France to Negotiate the purchase of New Orleans because French tried to close the port to Western farmers Sends James Monroe to France to Negotiate the purchase of New Orleans because French tried to close the port to Western farmers Monroe signed the deal with Napoleon 1803 Monroe signed the deal with Napoleon 1803 The deal created a dilemma for Jefferson, he believed in strict interpretation of Constitution, which means the government only does what the Constitution says it should do. The deal created a dilemma for Jefferson, he believed in strict interpretation of Constitution, which means the government only does what the Constitution says it should do. Contrast to Hamilton's Elastic Clause assertion Contrast to Hamilton's Elastic Clause assertion

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19 Burr Conspiracy Burr, a scoundrel, and traitor- Killed Hamilton in 1804 (Federalists essentially die with hammy) Burr, a scoundrel, and traitor- Killed Hamilton in 1804 (Federalists essentially die with hammy) Jefferson broke with Burr early- Jefferson broke with Burr early- Burr became involved with a group of Federalists to create a separate country 1 st with New York and NJ then later involving Mexico. (to secede) Burr became involved with a group of Federalists to create a separate country 1 st with New York and NJ then later involving Mexico. (to secede) Jefferson tries to have Burr prosecuted, Burr eventually escapes to Europe. Jefferson tries to have Burr prosecuted, Burr eventually escapes to Europe.

20 Winds of War Longtime problem of American merchant ships being seized and sailors forcibly impressed into service by British Navy, continues Longtime problem of American merchant ships being seized and sailors forcibly impressed into service by British Navy, continues ,000 sailors were removed from US ships by British ,000 sailors were removed from US ships by British Jefferson/Republicans respond with the Embargo Act of stopping all trade- Jefferson/Republicans respond with the Embargo Act of stopping all trade- Results in immediate disaster Results in immediate disaster American agriculture prices fall-over supply- American agriculture prices fall-over supply- Smuggling begins and Jefferson tries to suppress with Navy and Troops Smuggling begins and Jefferson tries to suppress with Navy and Troops

21 Jefferson to Madison Embargo didnt work Embargo didnt work Jefferson never ended the national debt Jefferson never ended the national debt Madison, Jeffersons Secretary of State, in , is elected and Jefferson, before leaving office, asks Congress to repeal the Embargo and replace it with Non-Intercourse Act Madison, Jeffersons Secretary of State, in , is elected and Jefferson, before leaving office, asks Congress to repeal the Embargo and replace it with Non-Intercourse Act

22 Madison Republican, Jeffersons Secretary of State Republican, Jeffersons Secretary of State Picked up where Jefferson left off Picked up where Jefferson left off Trying to deal with European conflicts Trying to deal with European conflicts –British interference with trade continued- seizures and impressments –Western incitement of Indians

23 Madison Non-Intercourse Act in an effort to repair damage by the embargo Non-Intercourse Act in an effort to repair damage by the embargo Congress passes law to prohibit trade with Britain and France, but allow trade with other countries Congress passes law to prohibit trade with Britain and France, but allow trade with other countries Americans want Neutral Trading Rights Americans want Neutral Trading Rights

24 War of 1812 –Causes –Invasion of Canada –Hartford Convention –Conduct of the war –Treaty of Ghent –New Orleans

25 War of 1812 Causes War Hawks- American legislators advocated war with Britain to regain American trade and secure Western lands/ and even invade Canada War Hawks- American legislators advocated war with Britain to regain American trade and secure Western lands/ and even invade Canada Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky Congressman John C. Calhoun of South Carolina Congressman John C. Calhoun of South Carolina Blamed Great Britain for inciting the Indians in Ohio Blamed Great Britain for inciting the Indians in Ohio

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27 Ohio Indian Trouble White settlement of Ohio increases White settlement of Ohio increases 1800= = = 24, = 24, =147, =147,000 Indian Tribes pushed West are angry about treaties and White settlement Indian Tribes pushed West are angry about treaties and White settlement

28 Frontier Two Tribal leaders, The Prophet and Tecumseh Two Tribal leaders, The Prophet and Tecumseh Shawnee twin brothers- wanted their people to resist the white invasion and live separately Shawnee twin brothers- wanted their people to resist the white invasion and live separately They try to form an Indian confederation They try to form an Indian confederation William Henry Harrison and the US Army kill Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 William Henry Harrison and the US Army kill Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 Americans believe the British are helping the Indians from forts in the Ohio valley Americans believe the British are helping the Indians from forts in the Ohio valley

29 Madison Wins Election 1812 June 1812 War is Declared June 1812 War is Declared Federalist against the war but out voted by Western and Southern Republicans Federalist against the war but out voted by Western and Southern Republicans Americans Invade of Canada Americans Invade of Canada –Through Detroit –Great Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry- defeats a British fleet Lake Erie –But few lasting effects

30 Military Issues British Invade through the Chessapeake and burn Washington D.C. British Invade through the Chessapeake and burn Washington D.C. –Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, Star Spangled Banner –Hero Andrew Jackson- defeats Creek indians in the Mississippi area and then goes on to defend Jan New Orleans from invasion- great victory will bring him national prominence

31 Hartford Convention 1814 (Connecticut) Federalist opposition delegates from New England meet to discuss complaints regarding the War and the Republican leadership Federalist opposition delegates from New England meet to discuss complaints regarding the War and the Republican leadership Some argue for secession Some argue for secession After the War Federalist are marginalized even more than before. After the War Federalist are marginalized even more than before.

32 Treaty of Ghent –Treaty of Ghent, (Belgium) signed December –British evacuate the Ohio Valley, no major consequences –Indians lose, usually move West, lose large areas of land- in Northwest –Rush-Bagot Agreement- de-militarized the Great Lakes

33 The Madisonian Platform After the War there is a huge feeling of Nationalism- After the War there is a huge feeling of Nationalism- –The idea of loyalty or devotion to a nation, or –Pride in ones country, usually excessive Madison unveils a program to develop the country through the leadership of the Federal Government: Madison unveils a program to develop the country through the leadership of the Federal Government: Military, banking, protective tariffs, internal improvements (roads, canals), and a national university Military, banking, protective tariffs, internal improvements (roads, canals), and a national university

34 Madisons Platform Military Military Banking- Chartering the Second Bank of the United States -first bank, time ran out and paper money issued caused inflation Bank is created Banking- Chartering the Second Bank of the United States -first bank, time ran out and paper money issued caused inflation Bank is created –became economically strong –McCullah vs. Maryland- Marshall-ruled that the Bank was legal and states could not tax it. Protective Tariff- During Embargo, manufacturing in Northeast develops, Brits produce more goods, cheaper, and faster Protective Tariff- During Embargo, manufacturing in Northeast develops, Brits produce more goods, cheaper, and faster Textile industrialists, (Lowell) support tariff Textile industrialists, (Lowell) support tariff Even Calhoun of South Carolina, supported the tariff, because of nationalistic or patriotic reasons. Even Calhoun of South Carolina, supported the tariff, because of nationalistic or patriotic reasons.


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