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Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812

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Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812

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1 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812
America at 1800 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812

2 Jefferson's Presidency
Louisiana Purchase Burr conspiracy The Supreme Court under John Marshall Neutral rights, impressment, embargo

3 Pictures

4 Pictures


6 Test items Republican Vision/Jefferson/embargo/reduce the budget
Revolution of Jefferson/overturn Federal policies Jefferson/a great politician Ended internal taxes Government spending National debt Jefferson and the court Judiciary act of 1801 Mabry Vs. Madison Louisiana Purchase reasons Aaron Burr War of 1812 causes, War Hawks/Clay/Calhoun/ Tecumseh’s goals

7 Essay Question The War of 1812 was foisted upon an unwilling nation by a Congress controlled by a group of congressmen called the “War Hawks” whose main goal was the conquest of Canada. Assess the validity of this statement using the documents and your knowledge of US History

8 Sectionalism Developing
Northeast- Manufacturing=want to send goods West Western Farmers agriculture=want to send goods East Problem of Transportation= roads, canals, river transportation important building transportation networks. Problem: Spain controls mouth of Mississippi until the French reacquire Louisiana under Napoleon and US make the Louisiana Purchase-1803

9 American Growth New Century Census office 1801- 5.3 million people
33% growth rate each decade Rapid Economic growth Commercial and Geographic expansion Cities- 1820 New York + 100,000 Philadelphia + 100,000 75% Pop Rural 5% in cities 20% in towns People moving west in search of farm land Ohio, Mississippi Valley

10 Jefferson Presidency 1801-1809
Lawyer, diplomat, scientist, philosopher Interested in Agriculture Supported innovations and technology “Where a new invention is supported by well-known principles, and promises to be useful, it ought to be tried.”

11 How is Jefferson’s Election “Revolutionary”?
Peaceful transfer of power- was not common It was a watershed for the Republic in that the opposing political parties would cooperate with a change in leadership Some will say changes Jefferson advocates will be revolutionary. Jefferson as a common man- open to common people Wants to remove the Federalist program

12 Jefferson’s Social Vision
Wanted to see individuals own land Land was the key to democracy- didn’t believe that cities and industry were ideal Recognized manufacturing was necessary “The cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens”

13 Jefferson’s Plan Wanted to return governing power to the states
Economics- Thought Federalist enacted too many protective tariffs – that hurt farmer and favored merchants Hated the national debt- $112 million by 1801 Gallatin was his Secretary of Treasury- proposed cutting spending to balance the budget Federal jobs, military, navy budget cut End internal taxes/excise taxes

14 Jefferson vs. The Court A Federalist law is passed, Judiciary Act 1801
Created 16 new Federal judgeships Adams appointed a number of judges before he left office (Midnight Appointments) Jefferson pushes republican controlled congress to repeal the act and not seat Federalist judges However the Supreme Court is packed with Federalist and will rule against Republican issues

15 John Marshall Chief Justice 1801-1835
Appointed as Chief Justice during last days of Adams' term Most important Chief Justice in U.S. history; served for about 34 years Molded or developed the power of the Judiciary Key leader, “non-partisan” Federalist Strengthened the Federal Government- at expense of states Advanced the interests of the rich Supported the legality of contracts Supported the concept of Federal government supremacy over states Dartmouth Case- overrode a state court

16 Marbury vs Madison, 1803 "Midnight judge" William Marbury sued
(on the behalf of several other judges) for the delivery of his commission that was being held up by the new secretary of state Madison. Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments of Judiciary Act o 1801         Judicial Review (the concept that the Supreme Court can rule laws unconstitutional Marshall ruled that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, upon which Marbury had based his appeal, was unconstitutional by giving the Court the right to enforce appointments (only the executive branch had right to enforce the law) Ruling established a precedent Supreme Court power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutional

17 Louisiana Purchase 1801 France again controls the Louisiana Territory
Jefferson wants to expand US territory Sends James Monroe to France to Negotiate the purchase of New Orleans because French tried to close the port to Western farmers Monroe signed the deal with Napoleon 1803 The deal created a dilemma for Jefferson, he believed in strict interpretation of Constitution, which means the government only does what the Constitution says it should do. Contrast to Hamilton's Elastic Clause assertion


19 Burr Conspiracy Burr, a scoundrel, and traitor- Killed Hamilton in 1804 (Federalists essentially die with hammy) Jefferson broke with Burr early- Burr became involved with a group of Federalists to create a separate country 1st with New York and NJ then later involving Mexico. (to secede) Jefferson tries to have Burr prosecuted, Burr eventually escapes to Europe.

20 Winds of War Longtime problem of American merchant ships being seized and sailors forcibly impressed into service by British Navy, continues ,000 sailors were removed from US ships by British Jefferson/Republicans respond with the Embargo Act of stopping all trade- Results in immediate disaster American agriculture prices fall-over supply- Smuggling begins and Jefferson tries to suppress with Navy and Troops

21 Jefferson to Madison Embargo didn’t work
Jefferson never ended the national debt Madison, Jefferson’s Secretary of State, in , is elected and Jefferson, before leaving office, asks Congress to repeal the Embargo and replace it with Non-Intercourse Act

22 Madison 1809-1816 Republican, Jefferson’s Secretary of State
Picked up where Jefferson left off Trying to deal with European conflicts British interference with trade continued-seizures and impressments Western incitement of Indians

23 Madison Non-Intercourse Act in an effort to repair damage by the embargo Congress passes law to prohibit trade with Britain and France, but allow trade with other countries Americans want Neutral Trading Rights

24 War of 1812 Causes Invasion of Canada Hartford Convention
Conduct of the war Treaty of Ghent New Orleans

25 War of 1812 Causes War Hawks- American legislators advocated war with Britain to regain American trade and secure Western lands/ and even invade Canada Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky Congressman John C. Calhoun of South Carolina Blamed Great Britain for inciting the Indians in Ohio


27 Ohio Indian Trouble White settlement of Ohio increases 1800=5600
1810= 24, 500 1820=147,000 Indian Tribes pushed West are angry about treaties and White settlement

28 Frontier Two Tribal leaders, The “Prophet” and Tecumseh
Shawnee twin brothers- wanted their people to resist the white invasion and live separately They try to form an Indian confederation William Henry Harrison and the US Army kill “Prophet” at the Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 Americans believe the British are helping the Indians from forts in the Ohio valley

29 Madison Wins Election 1812 June 1812 War is Declared
Federalist against the war but out voted by Western and Southern Republicans Americans Invade of Canada Through Detroit Great Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry- defeats a British fleet Lake Erie But few lasting effects

30 Military Issues British Invade through the Chessapeake and burn Washington D.C. Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, Star Spangled Banner Hero Andrew Jackson- defeats Creek indians in the Mississippi area and then goes on to defend Jan New Orleans from invasion- great victory will bring him national prominence

31 Hartford Convention 1814 (Connecticut)
Federalist opposition delegates from New England meet to discuss complaints regarding the War and the Republican leadership Some argue for secession After the War Federalist are marginalized even more than before.

32 Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent, (Belgium) signed December 1814-
British evacuate the Ohio Valley, no major consequences Indians lose, usually move West , lose large areas of land- in Northwest Rush-Bagot Agreement- de-militarized the Great Lakes

33 The Madisonian Platform
After the War there is a huge feeling of Nationalism- The idea of loyalty or devotion to a nation, or Pride in one’s country, usually excessive Madison unveils a program to develop the country through the leadership of the Federal Government: Military, banking, protective tariffs, internal improvements (roads, canals), and a national university

34 Madison’s Platform Military
Banking- Chartering the Second Bank of the United States -first bank, time ran out and paper money issued caused inflation Bank is created 1816- became economically strong McCullah vs. Maryland- Marshall-ruled that the Bank was legal and states could not tax it. Protective Tariff- During Embargo, manufacturing in Northeast develops, Brits produce more goods, cheaper, and faster Textile industrialists, (Lowell) support tariff Even Calhoun of South Carolina, supported the tariff, because of nationalistic or patriotic reasons.

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