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Using The Big6 at Panther Valley

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1 Using The Big6 at Panther Valley
Teaching students to solve problems is a difficult task. Throughout life, however, individuals need this skill--in fact, along with critical thinking it is one of the most desired abilities Michael Eisenberg and Teaching students to solve problems is a difficult task. Teaching students to solve problems is a difficult task. Michael Eisenberg and Robert Berkowitz devised The Big6problem solving model which has become the most widely known and used approach to teaching information literacy in the world. It has been implemented in thousands of schools – K through higher education.(Big6 website) Robert Berkowitz devised The Big6problem solving model which has become the most widely known and used approach to teaching information literacy in the world. It has been implemented in thousands of schools – K through higher education.(Big6 website) Utilizing Michael Eisenberg and Robert Berkowitz’s problem-solving model

2   Why the Big6? "Educators are challenged to change the way students learn to provide a workforce that meets the needs of the 21st century" (Martin 55-58). A primary step to this challenge is implementing a school-wide research model such as the Big6  that gives students the tools to become problem solvers, to create products that meet real needs, to demonstrate leadership in presenting ideas, and to connect learning to community goals.   A great deal of information is being created, published, processed and stored daily.  Information demands placed on students in grades K-12 are substantial in terms of finding, using and presenting material on a variety of subjects. Students feel overwhelmed with too much "stuff" and can never seem to find  what they want, when they want it, and in a form they want. it.    According to the authors of Partners in Learning, students grades K-12 need to learn not only to find material on a variety of subjects, evaluate it for effectiveness, analyze what they read/collect, and utilize it for the task or  assigned presentation.    Some people call the Big6 an information problem solving strategy, because with the Big6, students are able to handle any problem, assignment decision or task."  (Big6 website)                                                                    

3 These skills are transferable in every subject at every level and
Competence in information problem-solving will greatly enhance a student’s ability to learn content and fulfill the requirements of assignments. These skills are transferable in every subject at every level and in real life situations! "The information process is defined as a problem-solving process involving decision making as well as critical and creative thinking.  Learners are active and in control of the learning while engaged in developing a set of skills and strategies for planning, gathering, interacting with, organizing, creating, sharing, and evaluating information.  The partners collaborate to provide opportunities and support for resource based learning, which includes the development and practice of appropriate information skills and strategies."  (Partners in Learning 35)' The website link demonstrates how these skills can be transferrable to real life situations. 

4   What is the Big6? A FRAMEWORK for information literacy to guide students through a six-step approach to problem solving--especially the research process. In many decision making situations people will automatically go through these six stages. Therefore using them with students helps them to learn an effective way to deal with the research and decision making process. Joyce Valenza indicated that students use the Big6 Skills whenever they need information to solve a proglem, make a decision, or complete a task. (4-2B) Task definition is the questioning part of research.  During this phase students create a list of questions about their topic that they wish to answer.  These are open ended questions such as who, what, when, where, and how. The information seeking strategies area is the planning part of the research process. Students  learn to organize their work using notes--either on paper or stored on the computer, they will also learn techniques such as outlining. The location and access phase is the gathering of resources stage. Students learn how to take notes, and they also become responsible researchers  during the use of information step by keeping track of their sources using MLA or APA research style.  During the synthesis stage, students complete their final work either writing a research paper or perhaps creating a multi-media presentation. The evaluation stage offers students the opportunity to reflect on what they have learned, the research process itself, and how they might do things differently the next time.     "Students become experts in a process approach to problem solving."  (Riedling 35)                      "Students become experts in a process approach to problem solving"(Riedling, 35)  The six stages:     1. Task Definition 2. Information Seeking Strategies 3. Location and Access 4. Use of Information 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

5   Advantages to the Big6: The model is based on Bloom's levels of cognitive learning; knowledge, comprehension, supplication, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Carey) The model follows Piaget's stages of childhood development: pre-operational, concrete-operational, and formal-operational (Carey) The model supports a report on the American Library Association Website, research shows the Big6 "supports students in metacognitive and knowledge management tasks" (Wolf) The Big6 is educationally sound based upon proven theories and practices. The six-step approach allows the instructor to make a connection between the research process and using the internet and other tools for researching effectively. The Big6 allows students to conduct meaningful research in an inquiry- based learning atmosphere that provides students with the structure to  perform the "information process. According to Partners in Learning chapter on "The Information Process", This means that they are active and in control of their learning while engaged in developing a set of skills and strategies within resource based concepts.

6   Advantages to the Big6:  " Data collected from thousands of students showed that students who were taught informative nonfiction using the Big6 approach with a combination of analytical, creative, and practical activities, outperformed students who were taught two alternative approaches..."        Linda Jarvin, Ph.D., Associate Director,                            PACE Center, Yale University The Big6 has been one on the leading models for information problem solving.  Many of the other models are often just simplified versions of the Big6. Models such as Flipit take the same steps and just modify them down to 4 instead of 6.  But it is Berkowitz and Eisenberg who have truly come up with a model that follows the natural decision making steps that students need to learn and become proficient in order to become 21st century learners.

7  Standards Based…     Standards for the 21st-Century Learner, identify skills, resources and tools that are addressed in the model 1.1.3  Develop and refine a range of questions to frame the search                 for new understanding. 1.1.4  Find, evaluate, and select appropriate sources to answer                 questions. 1.1.5  Evaluate information found in selected sources.  1.1.6  Read, view, and listen for information presented in (e.g.,                 textual, visual, media, digital) in order to make inferences                 and gather meaning. 1.1.7  Make sense of information gathered 1.1.8 Demonstrate mastery of technology tools for                accessing information and pursuing inquiry.                                                       The American  Association of  School Librarians, realizing that students today must know how to use technology while participating in "evidence-based learning," developed The Standards for the 21st Century Learner, "a guidebook for school library programs interested in promoting "flexible learning environments with the goal of producing successful learners skilled in multiple literacies." The BIG6 incorporates the AASL standards of questioning, locating and evaluating sources, reading and understanding information, developing technology skills.

8 More standards to help your students..
2.1.1  Continue an inquiry-based research process by applying            critical-thinking skills (analysis, synthesis, evaluation, organization)           to information and knowledge in order to construct new understandings,            draw conclusions, and create new knowledge. 2.1.2  Organize knowledge so that it is useful. 2.1.3  Use Strategies to draw conclusions from information and apply knowledge to            curricular areas, real-world situations, and further investigations. 2.1.4  Use technology and other information tools to analyze and organize                Information. 2.1.5  Collaborate with others to exchange ideas, develop new understandings,           make decisions, and solve problems. 2.1.6  Use the writing process, media and visual literacy, and technology skills to           create products that express new understandings. 2.4.2  Reflect on systematic process, and assess for completeness of investigation. 2.4.4  Develop directions for future investigations.      As students use the Big6 Information problem solving model, they will continue to incorporate the AASL standards into their learning.  As research projects and products are created students will have the opportunity to come up with new ideas, share what they have learned, and give credit where credit is due by acknowledging sources. They will also understand the research process and have direction for further investigations in their lifetime.

9 Implementation
This website was created to help students become comfortable with the process. This website was created by big6 to help facilitate in helping understand and implement Big6  C:\Documents and Settings\Teacher\My Documents\Big6 Resources.mht This website was created to help teachers become comfortable with the process AND provide great resources The Big6 Skills are best learned when integrated with classroom curriculum and activities . This model is one that can be adapted and used for all of the grade levels. For example Berkowitz and Eisenberg have addressed the needs of primary learners by creating the Super3.  It is a smaller more simple version of the Big6 which includes only "Plan, Do, and Review".  The learning of this pattern helps students move on to the next phase which includes the Big6. Teachers can help students become more comfortable with the Big6 process by taking them to this website. It provides three different levels depending on the age of the students.  It has a section for the primary grades that uses the Super3 and then for the middle and upper grades takes students through the Big6.  It is very user friendly and appealing for students. The sites also contain a link for the instructors to use.  It gives resources and ideas for how to implement the site for introducing the Big6 into the curriculum. Further information can be found online via the internet.  The creators of Big6 sometimes hold webinars that are listed on the website. The website also has power points that explain the concept as well as lesson plans and resources.

10 Implementation Supplies can also be purchased to reinforce the Big6
 such as bookmarks &  posters The school can choose to purchase a few items to help re enforce the process. For example the library can supply bookmarks with the appropriate steps for  each age level.  These can be obtained from vendors such as Linworth Publishing Inc  or UpStart for a modest cost.

11 Works Cited Barnes, Jeanne. Online Resources to Support BIG6™ INFORMATION SKILLS . Web. 12 Dec. 2010 C:\Documents and Settings\Teacher\My Documents\Big6 Resources.mht Carey, James O.  "Michael Eisenberg and Robert Berkowitz's  Big6". School Library Media Activities Monthly. Sept.      2002: Print. Dorian, Ray and Judy Davies. Partners in Learning: Students,  Teachers and the School Library. Libraries Unlimited,      Inc: Englewood, Colo., Print. Eisenberg, Michael and Robert Berkowitz. Big6 Online.  31 Aug   Web. 9 Sept Martin, Ann M. "School Libraries Renewed." District Administration Oct. 2008: Print. Riedling, Ann Marlow. Information Literacy: What Does It Look Like in the School Library Media Center?.      Westport: Libraries Unlimited, Print. Wolf, Sara, Thomas Brush, and John Saye. "The Big Six Information Skills As A  Metacognitive Scafford: A Case Study." American Library Association  Vol. 6. SLMR online Web. 9 Aug Valenza, Joyce Kasman. Power Tools Recharged. Chicago: American Library Association, 2004. . .

12 Images Clipart was obtained from Open Clipart Library
  Posters and Bookmarks are from

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