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The Cold War at Home and the 1950s

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1 The Cold War at Home and the 1950s
Unit 13 The Cold War at Home and the 1950s

2 1957  1 baby born every 7 seconds
1A. Baby Boom It seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant British visitor to America, 1958 1957  1 baby born every 7 seconds

3 Movement to the Suburbs $7,990 or $60/month with no down payment.
Levittown, L. I.: “The American Dream” $7,990 or $60/month with no down payment. 1949  William Levitt produced houses per week.

2B. Suburban Living SHIFTS IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, Central Cities % % % % Suburbs % % % % Rural Areas/ % % % % Small Towns U. S. Bureau of the Census.

5 The Ozzie & Harriet Show 1952-1966
Transmission of a Common American Culture The Typical TV Suburban Families Leave It to Beaver The Donna Reed Show Father Knows Best The Ozzie & Harriet Show

6 Television – The Western
Davy Crockett King of the Wild Frontier Sheriff Matt Dillon, Gunsmoke The Lone Ranger (and his faithful sidekick, Tonto): Who is that masked man?? Why so popular? Represented rugged individualism /law and order

7 Television Truth, Justice, and the American way!
1946  7,000 TV sets in the U. S  50,000,000 TV sets in the U. S. Television is a vast wasteland.  Newton Minnow, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, 1961 Mass Audience  TV celebrated traditional American values. Truth, Justice, and the American way!

8 1951  “race music”  “ROCK ‘N ROLL” Elvis Presley  “The King”
Teen Culture In the 1950s  the word “teenager” entered the American language. By 1956  13 mil. teens with $7 bil. to spend a year. 1951  “race music”  “ROCK ‘N ROLL” Elvis Presley  “The King”

9 Religious Revival Today in the U. S., the Christian faith is back in the center of things Time magazine, 1954 Church membership: 1940  64,000,  114,000,000 Television Preachers: 1. Catholic Bishop Fulton J. Sheen  “Life is Worth Living” 2. Methodist Minister Norman Vincent Peale  The Power of Positive Thinking 3. Reverend Billy Graham  ecumenical message; warned against the evils of Communism.

10 Religious Revival Hollywood: apex of the biblical epics.
The Robe The Ten Commandments Ben Hur It’s un-American to be un-religious! The Christian Century, 1954

11 Well-Defined Gender Roles
The ideal modern woman married, cooked and cared for her family, and kept herself busy by joining the local PTA and leading a troop of Campfire Girls. She entertained guests in her family’s suburban house and worked out on the trampoline to keep her size 12 figure Life magazine, 1956 Marilyn Monroe The ideal 1950s man was the provider, protector, and the boss of the house Life magazine, 1955 1956  William H. Whyte, Jr.  The Organization Man a middle-class, white suburban male is the ideal.

12 Progress Through Science
First IBM Mainframe Computer Hydrogen Bomb Test DNA Structure Discovered Salk Vaccine Tested for Polio First Commercial U. S. Nuclear Power Plant NASA Created Press Conference of the First American Astronauts

13 Progress Through Science 1957  Russians launch SPUTNIK I
1958  National Defense Education Act

14 Duck and Cover Drills Fear of Nuclear Attack



17 Nuclear Arms Race U.S. vs. Soviets

18 Prosperity the 1950s 50 million autos sold/ boom in industries related to the auto Interstate highway system is begun and frequent travel is common. 44, 000 miles Television enters a majority of homes. By million homes GI Bill allows millions of veterans to go to college. High birth rate results in the baby boom. Movement to the Sun Belt: South and West: offered jobs, warmer climates, and a lower cost of living.

19 Response Communist Subversion
Loyalty Review Board: federal employees investigated. Committee on Un-American Activities: investigation of American Communist Party. Smith Act of 1940 made the teaching or advocating of the forceful overthrow of the US government illegal. Dennis v the United States: Smith Act held as constitutional.

20 The House Committee on Un-American Activities
McCarran Internal Security Act Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Case The Alger Hiss Case


22 McCarthyism Compared to Salem Witch Trials
Wisconsin Republican Joseph R.McCarthy

23 McCarthy’s reckless claims:
Senator Joseph McCarthy (1950) list of 205 State Department employees that were members of the Communist party.

24 · McCarthy’s claim was never proven, but he helped to increase a fear of communism in America known as the “Red Scare”. · After thousands of Americans had their lives ruined after being accused of being communists, McCarthy’s popularity lessened as the nation learned that he had no proof behind his accusations.

25 McCarthyism According to the cartoon, what does McCarthy really have, instead of proof? What is the message of the cartoon?

26 Spy Cases Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Communist Party immigrants
Accused of passing atomic secrets to Soviets. Convicted of treason and executed in 1953

27 Domestic Issues under Eisenhower
Soil Bank Plan: paid farmers to take land out of production AFL-CIO Earl Warren 14th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

28 The Warren Court Judicial Activities
Judicial Activitism: this meant that decisions of the Court not only provided interpretations of the Constitution, but initiated broad changes in American life.

29 The Supreme Court of the 1950’s and 1960’s
Watkins v. US Brown v. Board of Education Mapp v. Ohio Baker v. Carr Gideon v. Wainwright Heart of Atlanta Motel v. US Miranda v. Arizona

30 The Warren Court Judicial Activities
Brown vs Board of Ed of Topeka (1954): racial segregation of schools violated the 14th amendment. Baker v Carr (1962): one person, one vote rule ordered states to setup congressional districts on an equal basis. Engal v. Vital (1962): state laws requiring prayers in school violated the first amendment. Gideon v Wainwright (1963): state laws denying felony suspects legal counsel violated the 6th amendment. Miranda v. Arizona (1966): authorities must inform accused persons of their “due process” rights under the 5th and 6th amendments.

31 Objective: To examine the importance of the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS.

32 Major Victory Challenging the law: · African Americans continued their struggle for equality, which became known as the civil rights movement. · In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional. A Sign at the Greyhound Bus Station, Rome, Georgia September (Esther Bubley, photographer)

33 "The Rex theater for Negro People." Leland, Mississippi, November Marion Post Wolcott, photographer.

34 " People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal
" People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal." Memphis, Tennessee. September Esther Bubley, photographer.

35 · With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v
· With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court, challenging the constitutionality of Plessy v. Ferguson.

36 · In the case, Oliver Brown challenged that his daughter, Linda, should be allowed to attend an all-white school near her home instead of the distant all-black school she had been assigned to. Oliver Brown was a welder for the Santa Fe Railroad and a part-time assistant pastor at St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church. Linda Brown was in the third grade when her father began his class action lawsuit.

37 · Brown’s lawyer, Thurgood Marshall, argued that “separate” could never be “equal” and that segregated schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee to provide “equal protection” to all citizens.

38 * In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Brown family, and schools nationwide were ordered to be desegregated. George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit, following Supreme Court decision ending segregation.

39 Integrated schools: · In Little Rock, Arkansas, Gov. Orval Faubus opposed integration.

40 · In 1957, he called out the National Guard in order to prevent African Americans from attending an all-white high school. · Gov. Faubus was violating federal law.

41 · Therefore, Pres. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock where, under their protection, the African American students were able to enter Central High School. African American students arriving at Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, in U.S. Army car, 1957.

42 Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division escorting the Little Rock Nine to school

43 Kennedy New Frontier Lower tariffs Increased minimum wage
Increased social security benefits Expansion of space program Aid to depressed cities Aid to the handicapped Special Olympics 1962: University of Mississippi: James Meredith: federal troops

44 November 22, 1963 •President Kennedy traveled to Dallas, Texas to campaign for re-election. •A parade had been scheduled. •As the motorcade passed by the Texas School Book Depository, a shot rang out. •Kennedy was pronounced dead at 1:00 pm. •Lee Harvey Oswald, the known assassin, was captured. •Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner, stepped through the crowd and shot Oswald, killing him. President Lyndon

45 “We have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward toward the Great Society.” - Lyndon B. Johnson

46 Lyndon Johnson Great Society
24th Amendment: banned poll taxes in federal elections. Civil Rights Acts (1964/1968) outlawed discrimination in employment and public accommodations connected with interstate commerce banned discrimination in housing and real estate. Medicare (1965) heath care to the elderly Medicaid (1966) extended health care to low income families, blind and the disabled. Voting Rights Act (1965) registered African Americans to vote and banned literacy tests for voting in counties where more than half the population couldn’t vote. VISTA: domestic peace corps used volunteers to run programs to help teach job skills. Department of Housing and Urban development (1965) Department of transportation (1966)

47 Major Events of the Civil Rights Movement
Little Rock Crisis Montgomery Bus Boycott Watts Riots March on Washington, D.C.

48 Civil Rights Milestones
1947: Jackie Robinson becomes first African American to play in the major leagues. 1948: Truman ends segregation in the military. 1954: Brown v the Board of Ed Montgomery Bus Boycott protests segregation on city buses. 1957: Eisenhower uses National Guard to enforce desegregation of schools in Little Rock Arkansas.

49 Desegregation Freedom Rides: crossing state lines on interstate buses, white and black riders highlighted segregation. Robert Kennedy US Attorney General persuaded the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to desegregate the buses. University of Mississippi: James Meredith

50 Desegregation Martin Luther King:
Montgomery bus boycott 1955 (Rosa Parks) Civil Disobedience 1963 Birmingham Alabama: peaceful march: police attacked marchers with dogs, water from fire hoses, and electric cattle prods. King and other protesters were arrested. March on Washington ,000 marchers: “I Have A Dream Speech”

51 Key Civil Rights Legislation
Civil Rights Act of 1957 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Fair Housing Act of 1968 24th Amendment to the US Constitution

52 Desegregation Medgar Evers was an NAACP leader who organized economic boycotts, marches and picket lines. 1963 he is assassinated by Byron De LA Beckwith. Two all white juries fail to reach a verdict. 1994 he is finally convicted and sentenced to life in prison.

53 Rights of Disabled Citizens
Dorthea Dix argued that the mentally ill should be put into humane 1865 President Lincoln established Gallaudet College for hearing impaired students Early 20th century: normalization help disabled enter mainstream society. The Vocational Rehabilitation Act 1920 first major federal program to assist disabled veterans

54 Activism 1962 - 1990 1962: President’s Council on Mental Retardation
Development of Special Olympics Litigation Court Cases 1971 PARC v the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Equal protection under the law. Special Ed Programs 1972 Mills v the Board of Education of the District of Columbia Children between 7 and 16 must be included in regular classes unless the school district provides a special program.

55 Legislation Education of the handicapped Act (1966)
Vocationally Rehabilitation Act 1973 Amendment to the 1920 Act prohibited discrimination against the physically disabled in any federal and state programs supported by federal funds. Provided for ramp access to public building, specially equipped buses for passengers in wheel chairs, suitable bathroom facilities and sign language interpretations of public television programs.

56 Americans With Disabilities Act
1990 Protects 43 million mentally and physically disabled children

57 Black Civil Rights Groups
Black Panthers NAACP Urban League: fought against discrimination in housing and employment/ increasing job opportunities for African Americans Southern Christian Leadership Conference: led by Martin Luther King: coordinated efforts to end segregation in the south Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded by James Farmer advocated passive resistance

58 1960s Music

59 Woodstock 1969 Woodstock, New York – August 1969
•400,000 people gathered to listen to rock music. •Rock and Roll, drugs, sex, and nudity were common at the festival.

60 Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Thank You Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

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