Presentation on theme: "The Cold War at Home and the 1950s"— Presentation transcript:
1The Cold War at Home and the 1950s Unit 13The Cold War at Home and the 1950s
21957 1 baby born every 7 seconds 1A. Baby BoomIt seems to me that every other young housewife I see is pregnant British visitor to America, 19581957 1 baby born every 7 seconds
3Movement to the Suburbs $7,990 or $60/month with no down payment. Levittown, L. I.:“The American Dream”$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment.1949 William Levitt produced houses per week.
4SHIFTS IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, 1940-1970 2B. Suburban LivingSHIFTS IN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION,Central Cities % % % %Suburbs % % % %Rural Areas/ % % % %Small TownsU. S. Bureau of the Census.
5The Ozzie & Harriet Show 1952-1966 Transmission of a Common American Culture The Typical TV Suburban FamiliesLeave It to BeaverThe Donna Reed ShowFather Knows BestThe Ozzie & Harriet Show
6Television – The Western Davy Crockett King of the Wild FrontierSheriff Matt Dillon, GunsmokeThe Lone Ranger (and his faithful sidekick, Tonto): Who is that masked man??Why so popular? Represented rugged individualism /law and order
7Television Truth, Justice, and the American way! 1946 7,000 TV sets in the U. S 50,000,000 TV sets in the U. S.Television is a vast wasteland. Newton Minnow, Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, 1961Mass Audience TV celebrated traditional American values.Truth, Justice, and the American way!
81951 “race music” “ROCK ‘N ROLL” Elvis Presley “The King” Teen CultureIn the 1950s the word “teenager” entered the American language. By 1956 13 mil. teens with $7 bil. to spend a year.1951 “race music” “ROCK ‘N ROLL”Elvis Presley “The King”
9Religious RevivalToday in the U. S., the Christian faith is back in the center of things Time magazine, 1954Church membership: 1940 64,000, 114,000,000Television Preachers:1. Catholic Bishop Fulton J. Sheen “Life is Worth Living”2. Methodist Minister Norman Vincent Peale The Power of Positive Thinking3. Reverend Billy Graham ecumenical message; warned against the evils of Communism.
10Religious Revival Hollywood: apex of the biblical epics. The Robe The Ten Commandments Ben HurIt’s un-American to be un-religious! The Christian Century, 1954
11Well-Defined Gender Roles The ideal modern woman married, cooked and cared for her family, and kept herself busy by joining the local PTA and leading a troop of Campfire Girls. She entertained guests in her family’s suburban house and worked out on the trampoline to keep her size 12 figure Life magazine, 1956Marilyn MonroeThe ideal 1950s man was the provider, protector, and the boss of the house Life magazine, 19551956 William H. Whyte, Jr. The Organization Mana middle-class, white suburban male is the ideal.
12Progress Through Science First IBM Mainframe ComputerHydrogen Bomb TestDNA Structure DiscoveredSalk Vaccine Tested for PolioFirst Commercial U. S. Nuclear Power PlantNASA CreatedPress Conference of the First American Astronauts
13Progress Through Science 1957 Russians launch SPUTNIK I 1958 National Defense Education Act
18Prosperity the 1950s50 million autos sold/ boom in industries related to the autoInterstate highway system is begun and frequent travel is common. 44, 000 milesTelevision enters a majority of homes. By million homesGI Bill allows millions of veterans to go to college.High birth rate results in the baby boom.Movement to the Sun Belt: South and West: offered jobs, warmer climates, and a lower cost of living.
19Response Communist Subversion Loyalty Review Board: federal employees investigated.Committee on Un-American Activities: investigation of American Communist Party.Smith Act of 1940 made the teaching or advocating of the forceful overthrow of the US government illegal.Dennis v the United States: Smith Act held as constitutional.
20The House Committee on Un-American Activities McCarran Internal Security ActEthel and Julius Rosenberg CaseThe Alger Hiss Case
22McCarthyism Compared to Salem Witch Trials Wisconsin Republican Joseph R.McCarthy
23McCarthy’s reckless claims: Senator Joseph McCarthy (1950)list of 205 State Department employees that were members of the Communist party.
24· McCarthy’s claim was never proven, but he helped to increase a fear of communism in America known as the “Red Scare”.· After thousands of Americans had their lives ruined after being accused of being communists, McCarthy’s popularity lessened as the nation learned that he had no proof behind his accusations.
25McCarthyismAccording to the cartoon, what does McCarthy really have, instead of proof?What is the message of the cartoon?
26Spy Cases Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Communist Party immigrants Accused of passing atomic secrets to Soviets.Convicted of treason and executed in 1953
27Domestic Issues under Eisenhower Soil Bank Plan: paid farmers to take land out of productionAFL-CIOEarl Warren 14th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
28The Warren Court Judicial Activities Judicial Activitism: this meant that decisions of the Court not only provided interpretations of the Constitution, but initiated broad changes in American life.
29The Supreme Court of the 1950’s and 1960’s Watkins v. USBrown v. Board of EducationMapp v. OhioBaker v. CarrGideon v. WainwrightHeart of Atlanta Motel v. USMiranda v. Arizona
30The Warren Court Judicial Activities Brown vs Board of Ed of Topeka (1954): racial segregation of schools violated the 14th amendment.Baker v Carr (1962): one person, one vote rule ordered states to setup congressional districts on an equal basis.Engal v. Vital (1962): state laws requiring prayers in school violated the first amendment.Gideon v Wainwright (1963): state laws denying felony suspects legal counsel violated the 6th amendment.Miranda v. Arizona (1966): authorities must inform accused persons of their “due process” rights under the 5th and 6th amendments.
31Objective: To examine the importance of the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS.
32Major VictoryChallenging the law:· African Americans continued their struggle for equality, which became known as the civil rights movement.· In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that “separate but equal” facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional.A Sign at the Greyhound Bus Station, Rome, Georgia September (Esther Bubley, photographer)
33"The Rex theater for Negro People." Leland, Mississippi, November Marion Post Wolcott, photographer.
34" People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal " People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal." Memphis, Tennessee. September Esther Bubley, photographer.
35· With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v · With help from the NAACP, the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka reached the Supreme Court, challenging the constitutionality of Plessy v. Ferguson.
36· In the case, Oliver Brown challenged that his daughter, Linda, should be allowed to attend an all-white school near her home instead of the distant all-black school she had been assigned to.Oliver Brown was a welder for the Santa Fe Railroad and a part-time assistant pastor at St. John African Methodist Episcopal Church.Linda Brown was in the third grade when her father began his class action lawsuit.
37· Brown’s lawyer, Thurgood Marshall, argued that “separate” could never be “equal” and that segregated schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee to provide “equal protection” to all citizens.
38* In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Brown family, and schools nationwide were ordered to be desegregated.George E.C. Hayes, Thurgood Marshall, and James M. Nabrit, following Supreme Court decision ending segregation.
39Integrated schools:· In Little Rock, Arkansas, Gov. Orval Faubus opposed integration.
40· In 1957, he called out the National Guard in order to prevent African Americans from attending an all-white high school.· Gov. Faubus was violating federal law.
41· Therefore, Pres. Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock where, under their protection, the African American students were able to enter Central High School.African American students arriving at Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, in U.S. Army car, 1957.
42Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division escorting the Little Rock Nine to school
43Kennedy New Frontier Lower tariffs Increased minimum wage Increased social security benefitsExpansion of space programAid to depressed citiesAid to the handicappedSpecial Olympics1962: University of Mississippi: James Meredith: federal troops
44November 22, 1963•President Kennedy traveled to Dallas, Texas tocampaign for re-election.•A parade had been scheduled.•As the motorcade passed by the Texas School BookDepository, a shot rang out.•Kennedy was pronounced dead at 1:00 pm.•Lee Harvey Oswald, the known assassin, was captured.•Jack Ruby, a nightclub owner, stepped through thecrowd and shot Oswald, killing him.President Lyndon
45“We have the opportunity to move not only toward the rich society and the powerful society, but upward toward the Great Society.”- Lyndon B. Johnson
46Lyndon Johnson Great Society 24th Amendment: banned poll taxes in federal elections.Civil Rights Acts (1964/1968) outlawed discrimination in employment and public accommodations connected with interstate commerce banned discrimination in housing and real estate.Medicare (1965) heath care to the elderlyMedicaid (1966) extended health care to low income families, blind and the disabled.Voting Rights Act (1965) registered African Americans to vote and banned literacy tests for voting in counties where more than half the population couldn’t vote.VISTA: domestic peace corps used volunteers to run programs to help teach job skills.Department of Housing and Urban development (1965)Department of transportation (1966)
47Major Events of the Civil Rights Movement Little Rock CrisisMontgomery Bus BoycottWatts RiotsMarch on Washington, D.C.
48Civil Rights Milestones 1947: Jackie Robinson becomes first African American to play in the major leagues.1948: Truman ends segregation in the military.1954: Brown v the Board of EdMontgomery Bus Boycott protests segregation on city buses.1957: Eisenhower uses National Guard to enforce desegregation of schools in Little Rock Arkansas.
49DesegregationFreedom Rides: crossing state lines on interstate buses, white and black riders highlighted segregation.Robert Kennedy US Attorney General persuaded the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to desegregate the buses.University of Mississippi: James Meredith
50Desegregation Martin Luther King: Montgomery bus boycott 1955 (Rosa Parks)Civil Disobedience1963 Birmingham Alabama: peaceful march: police attacked marchers with dogs, water from fire hoses, and electric cattle prods. King and other protesters were arrested.March on Washington ,000 marchers: “I Have A Dream Speech”
51Key Civil Rights Legislation Civil Rights Act of 1957Civil Rights Act of 1964Voting Rights Act of 1965Fair Housing Act of 196824th Amendment to the US Constitution
52DesegregationMedgar Evers was an NAACP leader who organized economic boycotts, marches and picket lines.1963 he is assassinated by Byron De LA Beckwith.Two all white juries fail to reach a verdict.1994 he is finally convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
53Rights of Disabled Citizens Dorthea Dix argued that the mentally ill should be put into humane1865 President Lincoln established Gallaudet College for hearing impaired studentsEarly 20th century: normalization help disabled enter mainstream society.The Vocational Rehabilitation Act 1920 first major federal program to assist disabled veterans
54Activism 1962 - 1990 1962: President’s Council on Mental Retardation Development of Special OlympicsLitigation Court Cases1971 PARC v the Commonwealth of PennsylvaniaEqual protection under the law. Special Ed Programs1972 Mills v the Board of Education of the District of ColumbiaChildren between 7 and 16 must be included in regular classes unless the school district provides a special program.
55Legislation Education of the handicapped Act (1966) Vocationally Rehabilitation Act 1973 Amendment to the 1920 Act prohibited discrimination against the physically disabled in any federal and state programs supported by federal funds.Provided for ramp access to public building, specially equipped buses for passengers in wheel chairs, suitable bathroom facilities and sign language interpretations of public television programs.
56Americans With Disabilities Act 1990Protects 43 million mentally and physically disabled children
57Black Civil Rights Groups Black PanthersNAACPUrban League: fought against discrimination in housing and employment/ increasing job opportunities for African AmericansSouthern Christian Leadership Conference: led by Martin Luther King: coordinated efforts to end segregation in the southCongress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded by James Farmer advocated passive resistance