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Warm-Up What are the 4 classes of macromolecules?

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-Up What are the 4 classes of macromolecules?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-Up What are the 4 classes of macromolecules?
Give an example of each type of macromolecule.

2 Ch. 5 Warm-Up Activity In your family groups, complete #1-5 on Activity 4/5.1: “How can you identify organic macromolecules?”

3 Warm-Up What are the 4 levels of protein structure? What bonds are formed in each level? Which protein was involved in the curds & whey lab yesterday? Explain what happened to the milk to form the curds and whey.

4 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

5 You Must Know The role of dehydration synthesis in the formation of organic compounds and hydrolysis in the digestion of organic compounds. How to recognize the 4 biologically important organic compounds (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) by their structural formulas. The cellular functions of all four organic compounds. The 4 structural levels of proteins How proteins reach their final shape (conformation) and the denaturing impact that heat and pH can have on protein structure

6 ie. amino acid  peptide  polypeptide  protein
Monomers Polymers Macromolecules Small organic Used for building blocks of polymers Connects with condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) Long molecules of monomers With many identical or similar blocks linked by covalent bonds Giant molecules 2 or more polymers bonded together ie. amino acid  peptide  polypeptide  protein larger smaller

7 Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction)
Hydrolysis Make polymers Breakdown polymers Monomers  Polymers Polymers  Monomers A + B  AB AB  A + B + H2O + + H2O +


9 I. Proteins “Proteios” = first or primary 50% dry weight of cells
Contains: C, H, O, N, S Myoglobin protein

10 Protein Functions (+ examples)
Enzymes (lactase) Defense (antibodies) Storage (milk protein = casein) Transport (hemoglobin) Hormones (insulin) Receptors Movement (motor proteins) Structure (keratin)

11 Overview of protein functions

12 Overview of protein functions

13 Four Levels of Protein Structure
Primary Amino acid (AA) sequence 20 different AA’s peptide bonds link AA’s

14 Amino Acid “amino” : -NH2 “acid” : -COOH R group = side chains
Properties: hydrophobic hydrophilic ionic (acids & bases) “amino” : -NH2 “acid” : -COOH



17 Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
Secondary Gains 3-D shape (folds, coils) by H-bonding Alpha (α) helix, Beta (β) pleated sheet

18 Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
Tertiary Bonding between side chains (R groups) of amino acids H bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges, van der Waals interactions

19 Four Levels of Protein Structure (continued)
Quaternary 2+ polypeptides bond together

20 amino acids  polypeptides  protein
Bonding (ionic & H) can create asymmetrical attractions

21 Chaperonins assist in proper folding of proteins

22 Protein structure and function are sensitive to chemical and physical conditions
Unfolds or denatures if pH and temperature are not optimal

23 change in structure = change in function

24 Illustrative Examples:
Variations within proteins provide a wider range of functions: Different types of hemoglobin MHC proteins

25 Function: store hereditary info
II. Nucleic Acids Function: store hereditary info DNA RNA Double-stranded helix N-bases: A, G, C, Thymine Stores hereditary info Longer/larger Sugar: deoxyribose Single-stranded N-bases: A, G, C, Uracil Carry info from DNA to ribosomes tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, RNAi Sugar: ribose

26 Nucleotides: monomer of DNA/RNA
Nucleotide = Sugar + Phosphate + Nitrogen Base

27 Nucleotide phosphate A – T Nitrogen G – C base 5-C sugar Purines
Pyrimidines Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine (DNA) Uracil (RNA) Double ring Single ring 5-C sugar


29 Information flow in a cell: DNA  RNA  protein

30 Differ in position & orientation of glycosidic linkage
III. Carbohydrates Fuel and building material Include simple sugars (fructose) and polymers (starch) Ratio of 1 carbon: 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen or CH2O monosaccharide  disaccharide  polysaccharide Monosaccharides = monomers (eg. glucose, ribose) Polysaccharides: Storage (plants-starch, animals-glycogen) Structure (plant-cellulose, arthropod-chitin) Differ in position & orientation of glycosidic linkage

31 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides

32 Linear and ring forms of glucose

33 Carbohydrate synthesis

34 Cellulose vs. Starch Two Forms of Glucose:  glucose &  glucose

35 Cellulose vs. Starch Starch =  glucose monomers
Cellulose =  glucose monomers

36 Storage polysaccharides of plants (starch) and animals (glycogen)

37 Structural polysaccharides: cellulose & chitin (exoskeleton)

38 II. Lipids Fats (triglyceride): store energy
Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated Steroids: cholesterol and hormones Phospholipids: lipid bilayer of cell membrane hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail


40 Have some C=C, result in kinks
Saturated Unsaturated Polyunsaturated “saturated” with H Have some C=C, result in kinks In animals In plants Solid at room temp. Liquid at room temp. Eg. butter, lard Eg. corn oil, olive oil

41 Cholesterol, a steroid

42 The structure of a phospholipid

43 Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions make a phospholipid bilayer

44 Illustrative Example Different types of phospholipids


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