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Chemistry/Biology Warm-up Dr. Craig Kasper. Basic Elements* ElementSymbolCommon Forms CarbonCCO, CO 2, C n H n O n, COOH HydrogenHH 2, H 2 0, OxygenOO.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry/Biology Warm-up Dr. Craig Kasper. Basic Elements* ElementSymbolCommon Forms CarbonCCO, CO 2, C n H n O n, COOH HydrogenHH 2, H 2 0, OxygenOO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry/Biology Warm-up Dr. Craig Kasper

2 Basic Elements* ElementSymbolCommon Forms CarbonCCO, CO 2, C n H n O n, COOH HydrogenHH 2, H 2 0, OxygenOO 2 NitrogenNN 2, NO 2, N0 3, NH 3, NH 4 + PhosphorusPPO 3 -, PO 4 SulfurSS, HS - *Keeping a periodic table of the elements around isn’t a bad idea.

3 Everyday Nutrition Terms NutritionNutrition Feed Conversion Ratio/Feed Efficiency (FCR/FE)Feed Conversion Ratio/Feed Efficiency (FCR/FE) Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis Protein TurnoverProtein Turnover EnergyEnergy Nutrient vs. Non-nutrientNutrient vs. Non-nutrient Feed rate (fixed vs. satiation)Feed rate (fixed vs. satiation) Pelleted vs. Extruded DietsPelleted vs. Extruded Diets Heat (loss)Heat (loss) FecalFecal Composition of Gain (protein vs. fat)Composition of Gain (protein vs. fat) CalorieCalorie GrowthGrowth MaintenanceMaintenance Protein Lipid (fat) Carbohydrate Cholesterol Vitamin Mineral Amino acid Fatty acid Requirement Essential vs. non-essential Digestion Metabolism Feed formulation Feed ration

4 Everyday Biology Terms Poikilothermy (-ic)Poikilothermy (-ic) TemperatureTemperature DensityDensity AmmoniotelicAmmoniotelic TeleostTeleost

5 Think Like A FISH!! Several factors make fish nutrition more challenging (and exciting) than that of terrestrial nutrition.Several factors make fish nutrition more challenging (and exciting) than that of terrestrial nutrition. You must think like a fish, understand it’s evironment and understand basic nutrition before you will be able to maximize your fish growth or reproductive performance.You must think like a fish, understand it’s evironment and understand basic nutrition before you will be able to maximize your fish growth or reproductive performance.

6 Zoological Oddity: >40,000 species of fish exist (Compared to 167 species of chicken, or a dozen, or so cows and pigs, this means much more potential work).Oddity: >40,000 species of fish exist (Compared to 167 species of chicken, or a dozen, or so cows and pigs, this means much more potential work). Result: Large interspecific diversity.Result: Large interspecific diversity. Variability of requirements.

7 Biological Oddity: a. Larval StagesOddity: a. Larval Stages b. Continuous growth c. Potential absence of stomach Result: a. Unknown factorsResult: a. Unknown factors b. Age-specific nutrient needs c. Unique digestive processes

8 Ecological Oddity: Low average body temperature.Oddity: Low average body temperature. Result: Limited gut bacterial action?Result: Limited gut bacterial action? Difficulty maintaining membrane fluidity. Difficulty maintaining membrane fluidity. Unique requirement for certain fatty acids. Unique requirement for certain fatty acids.

9 Ecological Oddity: Highly dense environment AND low oxygenOddity: Highly dense environment AND low oxygen availability. availability. Result: -Need for considerable ventilation.Result: -Need for considerable ventilation. -Frequent use of anaerobiosis, hypertrophy of -Frequent use of anaerobiosis, hypertrophy of white muscle.* white muscle.* -Large amount of protein needed for synthesis of -Large amount of protein needed for synthesis of this material. this material. -Reduced importance of skeleton -Reduced importance of skeleton -Low requirements for Calcium and Phosphorus -Low requirements for Calcium and Phosphorus (*REM: glycolytic=low oxygen)

10 Ecological Oddity: Environment rich in certain elements!Oddity: Environment rich in certain elements! Result: Supply of some nutrients directly fromResult: Supply of some nutrients directly from environment. environment. Oddity: Unique aquatic food chains (carnivoresOddity: Unique aquatic food chains (carnivores dominate). dominate). Result: Different efficiencies of energy sourcesResult: Different efficiencies of energy sources (much protein catabolism and limted carb. use.) (much protein catabolism and limted carb. use.)

11 Ecological Oddity: Abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids.Oddity: Abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Result: Loss of bioconversion ability.Result: Loss of bioconversion ability.

12 Fish Nutrition History Dr. Craig Kasper FAS 2240C

13 What is fish nutrition? “Nutrition is the process by which an “Nutrition is the process by which an organism ingests, assimilates and utilizes organism ingests, assimilates and utilizes various nutrients and converts them into various nutrients and converts them into body tissues and/or activities.” body tissues and/or activities.” –Robinson et al –Robinson et al. 2001

14 What is Nutrition? Nutrition: the provision of all indispensable nutrients in adequate amounts to insure proper growth and maintenance of body functionsNutrition: the provision of all indispensable nutrients in adequate amounts to insure proper growth and maintenance of body functions involves various chemical reactions and physiological transformations which convert foods into body tissues and activitiesinvolves various chemical reactions and physiological transformations which convert foods into body tissues and activities involves ingestion, digestion and absorption of various nutrientsinvolves ingestion, digestion and absorption of various nutrients transport into cellstransport into cells removal of unusable elements and waste products of metabolismremoval of unusable elements and waste products of metabolism

15 History of Nutrition I Lavoisier is generally credited as being the “father” of nutritionLavoisier is generally credited as being the “father” of nutrition until the first quarter of 19th Century, we thought the nutritive value of food resided only in one componentuntil the first quarter of 19th Century, we thought the nutritive value of food resided only in one component near the end of the 19th Century research started to focus primarily on the need for protein, lipids and carbohydratesnear the end of the 19th Century research started to focus primarily on the need for protein, lipids and carbohydrates minerals were considered important, but their essentiality was unknownminerals were considered important, but their essentiality was unknown

16 History of Nutrition II Great expansion in 20th Century nutrition with the discovery of vitamins, role of amino acids, more mineralsGreat expansion in 20th Century nutrition with the discovery of vitamins, role of amino acids, more minerals Your body needs >40 nutrients for normal growth and maintenance (fish may be even more.)Your body needs >40 nutrients for normal growth and maintenance (fish may be even more.) Why all the attention??? Human health/problems.Why all the attention??? Human health/problems. Basic studies of the functioning of the animal organism supplemented researchBasic studies of the functioning of the animal organism supplemented research

17 History of Nutrition III Example of historical nutritional research:Example of historical nutritional research: heifers fed wheat-based diets produced calves at lower rates than those fed corn dietsheifers fed wheat-based diets produced calves at lower rates than those fed corn diets assumption: something toxic in wheatassumption: something toxic in wheat analysis: nothing toxic in tissuesanalysis: nothing toxic in tissues reality: vitamin deficiencyreality: vitamin deficiency scientific methods for formulating feeds were inadequatescientific methods for formulating feeds were inadequate research diets eventually simplified/purifiedresearch diets eventually simplified/purified

18 History of Nutrition IV First vitamin discovered in 1913First vitamin discovered in 1913 pioneer nutritional work achieved primarily through the use of animal subjectspioneer nutritional work achieved primarily through the use of animal subjects same today, but with restrictionssame today, but with restrictions rats  vitamins, amino acids, mineralsrats  vitamins, amino acids, minerals dogs  insulin, nicotinic aciddogs  insulin, nicotinic acid guinea pigs  prevention of scurvyguinea pigs  prevention of scurvy chicks  thiamin and other vitaminschicks  thiamin and other vitamins bacteria  growth factors, nutrient function in metabolismbacteria  growth factors, nutrient function in metabolism final answers must be derived from species studiedfinal answers must be derived from species studied

19 Nutrition Today Animal nutrition today is multidisciplinary: metabolism: physiologists, biochemistsmetabolism: physiologists, biochemists vitamins: organic chemistsvitamins: organic chemists isotopes/chromatography: physicistsisotopes/chromatography: physicists protein structure: molecular biochemistsprotein structure: molecular biochemists breed variation: geneticistsbreed variation: geneticists vitamins/amino acids: microbiologistsvitamins/amino acids: microbiologists additives/improved digestibility: food technologistsadditives/improved digestibility: food technologists

20 Issue: Overexpansion Everyone now-a-days appears to be an expert in nutritionEveryone now-a-days appears to be an expert in nutrition infomercials, algae, diet fadsinfomercials, algae, diet fads claims of superiority without scientific evidence (science vs. pseudoscience)claims of superiority without scientific evidence (science vs. pseudoscience) example: massive doses of vitamins are useless, often toxicexample: massive doses of vitamins are useless, often toxic nutrition industry might need to become more conservativenutrition industry might need to become more conservative it’s no wonder why the average consumer is puzzled!!it’s no wonder why the average consumer is puzzled!!

21 Nutrient Essentiality essential nutrient: one that must be provided in the diet in order to insure adequate growth and maintenance, indispensableessential nutrient: one that must be provided in the diet in order to insure adequate growth and maintenance, indispensable Nutrient categories: macro and microNutrient categories: macro and micro macronutrients: protein, lipid, carbohydrate, etc.macronutrients: protein, lipid, carbohydrate, etc. micronutrients: trace metals, vitaminsmicronutrients: trace metals, vitamins important: molecular weight is not the basis, requirement level isimportant: molecular weight is not the basis, requirement level is proteins: g/kg vitamins: µg/kgproteins: g/kg vitamins: µg/kg large requirement doesn’t imply greater importance (example: Se in sheep 0.1 mg/day)large requirement doesn’t imply greater importance (example: Se in sheep 0.1 mg/day)

22 Basic Nutritional Concepts Animal nutrition is tied back to food crops and ultimately to the nutritive value of soilAnimal nutrition is tied back to food crops and ultimately to the nutritive value of soil strong interrelationship between human and animal nutritionstrong interrelationship between human and animal nutrition foods/feeds of both contain similar nutrientsfoods/feeds of both contain similar nutrients metabolic processes are basically similarmetabolic processes are basically similar nutritional niche of animals: animals concentrate nutrients of food crops into more nutritious and palatable forms for humansnutritional niche of animals: animals concentrate nutrients of food crops into more nutritious and palatable forms for humans point: animals take sources unsuitable for humans and improve their quality for us!point: animals take sources unsuitable for humans and improve their quality for us!

23 Animals as Primary Consumers Animals produce meat, milk, etc. on land that is often unsuitable for production of food cropsAnimals produce meat, milk, etc. on land that is often unsuitable for production of food crops problem: overall land availability vs. protein demandproblem: overall land availability vs. protein demand fisheries flat, agriculture barely keeping upfisheries flat, agriculture barely keeping up nutrition has greatly improved production capacity, however it is not going to be enoughnutrition has greatly improved production capacity, however it is not going to be enough

24 What Does it All Mean? If agriculture is barely keeping up with world food demand and…If agriculture is barely keeping up with world food demand and… Fisheries are being improperly managed to the point of steady state…Fisheries are being improperly managed to the point of steady state… Either we must quickly apply Iowa corn field technology to all aerable land on Earth, or food must be found from other sources! (Roaches??)Either we must quickly apply Iowa corn field technology to all aerable land on Earth, or food must be found from other sources! (Roaches??) One possible option is aquaculture.One possible option is aquaculture.

25 Current Challenges/Problems For aquaculture to contribute more to the world’s food supply, production must be intensifiedFor aquaculture to contribute more to the world’s food supply, production must be intensified higher yields must be achieved in pondshigher yields must be achieved in ponds better and more predictable natural sources of nutrition (natural productivity) must be available (too unpredictable)better and more predictable natural sources of nutrition (natural productivity) must be available (too unpredictable) more crude feed materials used as supplements or…more crude feed materials used as supplements or… compounded feeds must provide all nutrientscompounded feeds must provide all nutrients retention vs. digestibility: Which is best metric?retention vs. digestibility: Which is best metric?

26 Next Time… Quiz 1: TerminologyQuiz 1: Terminology Topic 2: Fish Behavior, Feed Intake, Environmental Factors (Why are aquatics different than terrestrials?)Topic 2: Fish Behavior, Feed Intake, Environmental Factors (Why are aquatics different than terrestrials?)


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