Presentation on theme: "The World at War 1914-1918 Causes of the War 1. Militarism & Arms Race European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the."— Presentation transcript:
The World at War
Causes of the War
1. Militarism & Arms Race European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [GER, AUT/HUN, ITA, FRA, GBR, RUS] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
2. The Alliance System balance of power European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia – Were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia – Were in competition for colonies
4. Aggressive Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotism Similar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The Powder Keg of Europe Austrian- Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian- Hungarian Empire. Led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
The Assassination: Sarajevo Assassin = Gavrilo Princip Serbian nationalist trying to gain allowances for fellow Serbs living under Austrian rule Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire June 28, 1914 assassination eventually led to WWI.
1.June 28Assassination at Sarajevo 2.July 28Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia 3.July 30Russia began mobilization 4.August 1Germany declared war on Russia 5.August 3Germany declared war on France 6.August 3Great Britain declared war on Germany 7.August 6Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. 8.August 12Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary The Great War Begins
Whos To Blame?
StalemateModern Warfare September 1914 Neither side is able to gain an advantage. French & British stopped German advance on Paris no mans land. – Both holed up in trenches separated by an empty no mans land. – Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Soldiers & officers unprepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WWI – Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas – killed thousands of soldiers who left trenches to attack the enemy Lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur – The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells. Stalemate & Warfare
The Schlieffen Plan
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane Squadron Over the Brenta Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the Red Baron?
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
The Western Front: A War of Attrition
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
Trench Warfare No Mans Land
War Is HELL !!
America Joins the Allies
The Sinking of the Lusitania
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming! The Yanks Are Coming!
May of 1917 President Wilson and Congress pass into legislation a draft or conscription. 21 to 30 yrs. Later extended to 40 yrs. of age. Contradiction? Contradiction? Selective Service Act
1917Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of ,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of ,810,296 drafted and served in WWI 2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat) 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat) Volunteers and draftees Volunteers and draftees 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units. served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
Americans in the Trenches
African Americans in WWI
Opportunities for African-Americans Great Migration – – 70,000 African Americans more to northern cities – Wanted to escape poverty, indebtedness, racism and violence War industries work Enlistment in segregated units
Women and the War Effort
Financing the War
Working in the Fields
Red Cross Nurses
Expansion of the Federal Government
Sale of Liberty bonds – $23 billon New taxes – Excess profits of corporations – Graduated income tax – Inheritance taxes – Nearly $10 billion Series of war boards Financing the War
War Industries Board Led by Bernard Baruch To build weapons for the war US industry would change from a peacetime industry to a war time industry….. Set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry…. US Govt. controlled the economy
War Industries Board
Food Administration Led by Herbert Hoover Effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output US feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… Bread basket of the World – Liberty and victory gardens – Meatless and wheatless days
U. S. Food Administration
National War Garden Commission
U. S. School Garden Army
U. S. Shipping Board
U. S. Fuel Administration
National Labor Board Headed up by William Howard Taft Resolve labor disputespressured industry to grant concessions to workers: – 8 hour work day – Minimal living standards – Equal pay for women doing equal work – Recognition of the right of unions to organize and bargain collectively Insisted workers abstain from all strikes Insisted employers could not engage in lockouts
Results of This New Organization of the Economy Results of This New Organization of the Economy Is it a move towards socialism? 1.Unemployment virtually disappeared. 2.Expansion of big government. 3.Excessive govt. regulations in economy 4.Some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions. 5.Close cooperation between public and private sectors. 6.Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
Committee on Public Information Headed by George Creel Headed by George Creel told Americans what the war was about and told Americans what the war was about and Publicize the American aims Publicize the American aims Created propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort. Created propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.
Committee on Public Information
Attacks on Civil Liberties Bill of Rights
National Security vs Civil Liberties Espionage Act1917 forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison. fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
Espionage & Sedition Act1918 Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language. Intended to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI. At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges.
Sedition Act – 1918 It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
Schenck v. United States Espionage and Sedition Act of He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated. In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWI Charles Schenk Charles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft.
Issue free speech Can free speech be censored or restricted during war time?
Schenck v. United States, 1919 SC ruling: SC ruling: Disagreed with Schenk Majority opinion BUT BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. "Words can be weapons...The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent." "Words can be weapons...The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."
Schenck v. United States, 1919 "clear and present danger" From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected. normal circumstances, Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendment The country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected. SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time.
Ending the War & Making Peace
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetery, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Wilsons Foreign Policy Wilson was obsessed with establishing a new world order. He believed the US should promote democracy around the world in order to insure peace. Believed that all nations could work together to end war AND, a countrys foreign policy decisions should be based on honesty and unselfishness… Events around the world, however, kept him from ever realizing his dream.
14 Points end all war. President Wilsons 14 Points were his ideas to end all war. These are a summary of his ideas for world peace. Are they realistic or based on idealism? Wilsons Fourteen Points Open diplomacy or no secret treaties. Freedom of the seas. Free trade. Countries reduce colonies and weapons International control of colonies… Democracy Formation of new countries with self- government as a goal.(Democracy) league of nations Collective Security A league of nations to guarantee peace among nations. (Collective Security)
Treaty of Versailles When President Wilson went to Paris, France, he was welcomed like he was a God. Countries were convinced that his 14 points could end all war But, the hatred of the Allied nations led to the Treaty of Versailles to be a Treaty of Revenge against Germany.
David Lloyd George Vitorio Orlando George Clemeneau Woodrow Wilson Great Britain Italy France U.S. Treaty of Versailles Wilson Forced to Compromise Although Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages. Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 Points so he could negotiate for the League of Nations. Wilson warned Allies not to be to harsh on Germany because it could lead to future problems.
Treaty of Versailles I.Open diplomacy or no secret treaties. II.Freedom of the seas. III.Removal of tariff and other economic barriers or free trade. IV.Reduction of land and weapons V.International control of colonies, with self- government as the goal. VI.Self-determination of ethnic groups to decide in which country they wish to live. general association of nations VII.A general association of nations to guarantee peace and the independence of all nations. I.Not included II.Not included III.Not included IV.Germany disarmed and forced to pay reparations of $53 billion V.Germany looses colonies were given to Allied victors. VI.New countries form democracies based on ethnic groups VII.League of Nations VII.League of Nations Organization of larger nations to maintain world peace
New Countries Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Yugoslavia Poland Lithuania Finland Latvia Estonia Turkey Iraq
The Showdown President of Princeton Democrat Believed in the League of Nations as the only way to end all war Would only accept his ideas and not Congresss Graduate of Harvard Republican Believed League of Nations would take away Congresss power to declare war Made additions to the League of Nations, Wilson would not accept them
League of Nations Article 10 The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression, the Council shall advise upon the means by which The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression, the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled. Problems Senator Lodge Had With LoN Problems Senator Lodge Had With LoN – Power of Congress to declare war – Get US involved in a war with no self-interest – How would it effect the Monroe Doctrine Policy? – Will the LON guarantee a just and lasting peace? – Goes against our policy of no foreign alliances
Without the assistance of the of the United States the League of Nations was doomed to failure. League of Nations
Post War Adjustments
Postwar Adjustments Return to a peacetime industry and economy War boosted American economy and industry. United States became a world power, largest creditor and wealthy nation. Soldiers were heros but found that jobs were scarce. African American soldiers, despite their service returned to find continued discrimination. The Lost Generation of men who were killed in WWI. US returned to neutrality and isolation. Did not accept the responsibility of a world power that President Wilson believed the US should take on.
Economic Problems High inflation High inflation Abandon wartime prices Abandon wartime prices = 15%+ price increase = 15%+ price increase Economic Bubble Bursts Economic Bubble Bursts = gross national product declined 10% = gross national product declined 10% 100,000 business go bankrupt 100,000 business go bankrupt 453,000 farmers lost their land 453,000 farmers lost their land 5 million Americans lose jobs 5 million Americans lose jobs Organized labor Organized labor Want to keep wartime advances Want to keep wartime advances Inflation hurt wage gains Inflation hurt wage gains Worried about job security Worried about job security 1919 = more than 3, 600 strikes 1919 = more than 3, 600 strikes
Race Relations WWI Black soldiers WWI Black soldiers –Inspirational to thousands of African-Americans –No impact on white attitudes toward blacks New Black Attitudes New Black Attitudes –Heighten bitterness –Increased determination for their rights –Soldiers expected social reward for service Great Migration Great Migration –Move to northern cities to work industrial jobs Seen as escape from racial prejudice and economic opportunity Seen as escape from racial prejudice and economic opportunity –Race Riots : St. Louis, Chicago
Black Nationalism Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey Encouraged African-Americans to take pride in achievements Encouraged African-Americans to take pride in achievements Develop awareness of heritage Develop awareness of heritage United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) –Chain of black-owned grocery stores –Encouraged black-owned business Urge supporters to return to Africa to create their own society Urge supporters to return to Africa to create their own society
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer n Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. n 6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. n No due process was followed n Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. scared out of their wits". n "Reds (Communists). n "Reds as they were called, "Anarchists or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators (Communists).
n The trial lasted Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. anti-foreignism n In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. n Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed. Italian immigrants murdering n Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass.
The 1920 Election
Wilsons idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European… Wilsons idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…