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The World at War 1914-1918.

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Presentation on theme: "The World at War 1914-1918."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World at War

2 Causes of the War

3 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
1. Militarism & Arms Race European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [GER, AUT/HUN, ITA, FRA, GBR, RUS] in millions of £s. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 94 130 154 268 289 398 Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73%

4 2. The Alliance System European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

5 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

6 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia Were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia Were in competition for colonies

7 4. Aggressive Nationalism
Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country

8 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

9 The “Spark”

10 The Assassination: Sarajevo
Assassin = Gavrilo Princip Serbian nationalist trying to gain allowances for fellow Serbs living under Austrian rule Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire June 28, 1914 assassination eventually led to WWI.

11 The Great War Begins June 28—Assassination at Sarajevo
July 28—Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia July 30—Russia began mobilization August 1—Germany declared war on Russia August 3—Germany declared war on France August 3—Great Britain declared war on Germany August 6—Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. August 12—Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary

12 Who’s To Blame?


14 Stalemate & Warfare Stalemate Modern Warfare September 1914
Neither side is able to gain an advantage. French & British stopped German advance on Paris Both holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage. Soldiers & officers unprepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WWI Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left trenches to attack the enemy Lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.

15 Trench Warfare

16 The Schlieffen Plan

17 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

18 French Renault Tank

19 British Tank at Ypres

20 U-Boats

21 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

22 “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

23 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

24 Looking for the “Red Baron?”

25 The Zeppelin

26 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

27 Poison Gas Machine Gun

28 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

29 A Multi-Front War

30 The Western Front

31 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

32 War Is HELL !!

33 America Joins the Allies

34 The Sinking of the Lusitania

35 The Zimmerman Telegram

36 The Yanks Are Coming!

37 Selective Service Act May of 1917
President Wilson and Congress pass into legislation a draft or conscription. 21 to 30 yrs. Later extended to 40 yrs. of age. Contradiction?

38 1917—Selective Service Act
24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI 3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat) Volunteers and draftees 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

39 Enlistment Posters

40 Americans in the Trenches

41 African Americans in WWI

42 Opportunities for African-Americans
“Great Migration” 70,000 African Americans more to northern cities Wanted to escape poverty, indebtedness, racism and violence War industries work Enlistment in segregated units

43 league cartoon1


45 Women and the War Effort

46 Financing the War

47 For Recruitment

48 Munitions Workers

49 Working in the Fields

50 Red Cross Nurses

51 Expansion of the Federal Government

52 Financing the War Sale of Liberty bonds $23 billon New taxes
Excess profits of corporations Graduated income tax Inheritance taxes Nearly $10 billion Series of “war boards”

53 War Industries Board Led by Bernard Baruch
To build weapons for the war US industry would change from a peacetime industry to a war time industry….. Set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry…. US Govt. controlled the economy

54 War Industries Board

55 Food Administration Led by Herbert Hoover
Effort to conserve food and boost agricultural output US feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… ”Bread basket of the World” Liberty and victory gardens Meatless and wheatless days

56 U. S. Food Administration

57 National War Garden Commission

58 U. S. School Garden Army

59 U. S. Shipping Board

60 U. S. Fuel Administration

61 National Labor Board Headed up by William Howard Taft
Resolve labor disputes—pressured industry to grant concessions to workers: 8 hour work day Minimal living standards Equal pay for women doing equal work Recognition of the right of unions to organize and bargain collectively Insisted workers abstain from all strikes Insisted employers could not engage in lockouts

62 Results of This New Organization of the Economy Is it a move towards socialism?
Unemployment virtually disappeared. Expansion of “big government.” Excessive govt. regulations in economy Some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions. Close cooperation between public and private sectors. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

63 Committee on Public Information
Headed by George Creel told Americans what the war was about and Publicize the American aims Created propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.

64 Committee on Public Information



67 Attacks on Civil Liberties
Bill of Rights

68 National Security vs Civil Liberties
Espionage Act—1917 forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

69 Espionage & Sedition Act—1918
Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language. Intended to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI. At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges.

70 Sedition Act – 1918 It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

71 Schenck v. United States
In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWI Charles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft. He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of 1917. Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated.

72 Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?
Issue Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?



75 Schenck v. United States, 1919
SC ruling: Disagreed with Schenk Majority opinion BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. "Words can be weapons . . .The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."

76 Schenck v. United States, 1919
Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendment The country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected. SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time. From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected.

77 Ending the War & Making Peace

78 The Armistice is Signed!
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!

79 9,000,000 Dead

80 The Somme American Cemetery, France
116,516 Americans Died

81 World War I Casualties

82 troop buildup

83 Wilson’s Foreign Policy
Wilson was obsessed with establishing a new world order. He believed the US should promote democracy around the world in order to insure peace. Believed that all nations could work together to end war AND, a country’s foreign policy decisions should be based on honesty and unselfishness… Events around the world, however, kept him from ever realizing his dream.

84 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
President Wilson’s 14 Points were his ideas to “end all war”. These are a summary of his ideas for world peace. Are they realistic or based on idealism? Open diplomacy or no secret treaties. Freedom of the seas. Free trade. Countries reduce colonies and weapons International control of colonies… Formation of new countries with self-government as a goal.(Democracy) A “league of nations” to guarantee peace among nations. (Collective Security)

85 Treaty of Versailles . When President Wilson went to Paris, France, he was welcomed like he was a God. Countries were convinced that his 14 points could “end all war” But, the hatred of the Allied nations led to the Treaty of Versailles to be a “Treaty of Revenge” against Germany

86 Wilson Forced to Compromise
Treaty of Versailles BIG FOUR David Lloyd George Vitorio Orlando George Clemeneau Woodrow Wilson Great Britain Italy France U.S. Wilson Forced to Compromise Although Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages. Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 Points so he could negotiate for the League of Nations. Wilson warned Allies not to be to harsh on Germany because it could lead to future problems.

87 Treaty of Versailles Not included
Germany disarmed and forced to pay reparations of $53 billion Germany looses colonies were given to Allied victors. New countries form democracies based on ethnic groups League of Nations Organization of larger nations to maintain world peace Open diplomacy or no secret treaties. Freedom of the seas. Removal of tariff and other economic barriers or free trade. Reduction of land and weapons International control of colonies, with self-government as the goal. Self-determination of ethnic groups to decide in which country they wish to live. A “general association of nations” to guarantee peace and the independence of all nations.

88 New Countries Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Yugoslavia Poland
Lithuania Finland Latvia Estonia Turkey Iraq

89 The Showdown Graduate of Harvard President of Princeton Republican
WILSON VS LODGE Graduate of Harvard Republican Believed League of Nations would take away Congress’s power to declare war Made additions to the League of Nations, Wilson would not accept them President of Princeton Democrat Believed in the League of Nations as the only way to end all war Would only accept his ideas and not Congress’s

90 League of Nations Article 10
The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression, the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled. Problems Senator Lodge Had With LoN Power of Congress to declare war Get US involved in a war with no self-interest How would it effect the Monroe Doctrine Policy? Will the LON guarantee a just and lasting peace? Goes against our policy of no “foreign alliances”


92 League of Nations Without the assistance of the of the United States the League of Nations was doomed to failure.


94 Post War Adjustments

95 Postwar Adjustments Return to a peacetime industry and economy
War boosted American economy and industry. United States became a world power, largest creditor and wealthy nation. Soldiers were hero’s but found that jobs were scarce. African American soldiers, despite their service returned to find continued discrimination. The Lost Generation of men who were killed in WWI. US returned to neutrality and isolation. Did not accept the responsibility of a world power that President Wilson believed the US should take on.

96 Economic Problems High inflation Economic Bubble Bursts
Abandon wartime prices = 15%+ price increase Economic Bubble Bursts = gross national product declined 10% 100,000 business go bankrupt 453,000 farmers lost their land 5 million Americans lose jobs Organized labor Want to keep wartime advances Inflation hurt wage gains Worried about job security 1919 = more than 3, 600 strikes

97 Race Relations WWI Black soldiers New Black Attitudes Great Migration
Inspirational to thousands of African-Americans No impact on white attitudes toward blacks New Black Attitudes Heighten bitterness Increased determination for their rights Soldiers expected social reward for service Great Migration Move to northern cities to work industrial jobs Seen as escape from racial prejudice and economic opportunity Race Riots : St. Louis, Chicago

98 Black Nationalism Marcus Garvey
Encouraged African-Americans to take pride in achievements Develop awareness of heritage United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Chain of black-owned grocery stores Encouraged black-owned business Urge supporters to return to Africa to create their own society

99 Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
Red Scare Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". "Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists). Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. 6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. No due process was followed

100 Sacco and Vanzetti Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.

101 The 1920 Election

102 US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
The 1920 Election Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…

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