31910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 1. Militarism & Arms RaceEuropean nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the worldTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [GER, AUT/HUN, ITA, FRA, GBR, RUS] in millions of £s.18701880189019001910191494130154268289398Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%
42. The Alliance SystemEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of powerTriple Entente:Triple Alliance:
63. Economic & Imperial Rivalries France, Great Britain, Germany and RussiaWere establishing colonies in Africa and AsiaWere in competition for colonies
74. Aggressive Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and cultureSimilar to patriotismEthnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country
8Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups.Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.Led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
10The Assassination: Sarajevo Assassin = Gavrilo PrincipSerbian nationalisttrying to gain allowances for fellow Serbs living under Austrian ruleArchduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian EmpireJune 28, 1914 assassination eventually led to WWI.
11The Great War Begins June 28—Assassination at Sarajevo July 28—Austria-Hungary declared war on SerbiaJuly 30—Russia began mobilizationAugust 1—Germany declared war on RussiaAugust 3—Germany declared war on FranceAugust 3—Great Britain declared war on GermanyAugust 6—Russia and Austria/Hungary at war.August 12—Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary
14Stalemate & Warfare Stalemate Modern Warfare September 1914 Neither side is able to gain an advantage.French & British stopped German advance on ParisBoth holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.”Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties.Continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.Soldiers & officers unprepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WWIMachine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gaskilled thousands of soldiers who left trenches to attack the enemyLines between soldiers and civilians began to blurThe armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
37Selective Service Act May of 1917 President Wilson and Congress pass into legislation a draft or conscription.21 to 30 yrs.Later extended to 40 yrs. of age.Contradiction?
381917—Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.2,810,296 drafted and served in WWI3.7 million men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat)Volunteers and draftees400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units.15,000 Native-Americansserved as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
42Opportunities for African-Americans “Great Migration”70,000 African Americans more to northern citiesWanted to escape poverty, indebtedness, racism and violenceWar industries workEnlistment in segregated units
52Financing the War Sale of Liberty bonds $23 billon New taxes Excess profits of corporationsGraduated income taxInheritance taxesNearly $10 billionSeries of “war boards”
53War Industries Board Led by Bernard Baruch To build weapons for the warUS industry would change from a peacetime industry to a war time industry…..Set prices and determined what goods should be produced by private industry….US Govt. controlled the economy
55Food Administration Led by Herbert Hoover Effort to conserve food and boost agricultural outputUS feeds the world from the farms and ranches in the Great Plains… ”Bread basket of the World”Liberty and victory gardensMeatless and wheatless days
61National Labor Board Headed up by William Howard Taft Resolve labor disputes—pressured industry to grant concessions to workers:8 hour work dayMinimal living standardsEqual pay for women doing equal workRecognition of the right of unions to organize and bargain collectivelyInsisted workers abstain from all strikesInsisted employers could not engage in lockouts
62Results of This New Organization of the Economy Is it a move towards socialism? Unemployment virtually disappeared.Expansion of “big government.”Excessive govt. regulations in economySome gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions.Close cooperation between public and private sectors.Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
63Committee on Public Information Headed by George Creeltold Americans what the war was about andPublicize the American aimsCreated propaganda posters to get Americans to support the war effort.
68National Security vs Civil Liberties Espionage Act—1917forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military.ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail.fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
69Espionage & Sedition Act—1918 Provided for up to $10,000 in fines and 20 years in prison for interfering with the war effort or using disloyal language.Intended to promote patriotism, nationalism and protect the National Security of the US during WWI.At least 1,597 persons were arrested, and 41 received prison sentences; newspapers criticizing the government lost mailing privileges.
70Sedition Act – 1918It was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt.,the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
71Schenck v. United States In 1917 the United States was at War with Germany. WWICharles Schenk, a member of the Socialist Party, handed out leaflets condemning the war and urging young men to resist the military draft.He was arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act of 1917.Schenk took his case to the United States Supreme Court arguing that his constitutional right to freedom of speech had been violated.
72Can “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time? IssueCan “free speech” be censored or restricted during war time?
75Schenck v. United States, 1919 SC ruling: Disagreed with SchenkMajority opinionBUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken.The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic."Words can be weapons . . .The question in every case is whether the words used in such circumstances are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has the right to prevent."
76Schenck v. United States, 1919 Under normal circumstances, his actions would have been protected by 1st amendmentThe country was at war, Schenk's freedom of speech was not protected.SC ruling meant there were limits to freedom of speech in war time.From the ruling, the Court established the "clear and present danger" principle to decide whether or not certain kinds of speech are protected.
83Wilson’s Foreign Policy Wilson was obsessed with establishing a new world order.He believed the US should promote democracy around the world in order to insure peace.Believed that all nations could work together to end warAND, a country’s foreign policy decisions should be based on honesty and unselfishness…Events around the world, however, kept him from ever realizing his dream.
84Wilson’s Fourteen Points President Wilson’s 14 Points were his ideas to “end all war”. These are a summary of his ideas for world peace.Are they realistic or based on idealism?Open diplomacy or no secret treaties.Freedom of the seas.Free trade.Countries reduce colonies and weaponsInternational control of colonies…Formation of new countries with self-government as a goal.(Democracy)A “league of nations” to guarantee peace among nations. (Collective Security)
85Treaty of Versailles.When President Wilson went to Paris, France, he was welcomed like he was a God.Countries were convinced that his 14 points could “end all war”But, the hatred of the Allied nations led to the Treaty of Versailles to be a “Treaty of Revenge” against Germany
86Wilson Forced to Compromise Treaty of VersaillesBIG FOURDavid Lloyd George Vitorio Orlando George Clemeneau Woodrow Wilson Great Britain Italy France U.S.Wilson Forced to CompromiseAlthough Wilson claimed that he was not interested in the spoils, or rewards, of war, his Allied colleagues were interested in making the Central Powers pay for war damages.Wilson was forced to compromise on his 14 Points so he could negotiate for the League of Nations.Wilson warned Allies not to be to harsh on Germany because it could lead to future problems.
87Treaty of Versailles Not included Germany disarmed and forced to pay reparations of $53 billionGermany looses colonies were given to Allied victors.New countries form democracies based on ethnic groupsLeague of Nations Organization of larger nations to maintain world peaceOpen diplomacy or no secret treaties.Freedom of the seas.Removal of tariff and other economic barriers or free trade.Reduction of land and weaponsInternational control of colonies, with self-government as the goal.Self-determination of ethnic groups to decide in which country they wish to live.A “general association of nations” to guarantee peace and the independence of all nations.
88New Countries Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Yugoslavia Poland LithuaniaFinlandLatviaEstoniaTurkeyIraq
89The Showdown Graduate of Harvard President of Princeton Republican WILSON VS LODGEGraduate of HarvardRepublicanBelieved League of Nations would take away Congress’s power to declare warMade additions to the League of Nations, Wilson would not accept themPresident of PrincetonDemocratBelieved in the League of Nations as the only way to end all warWould only accept his ideas and not Congress’s
90League of Nations Article 10 The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression, the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.Problems Senator Lodge Had With LoNPower of Congress to declare warGet US involved in a war with no self-interestHow would it effect the Monroe Doctrine Policy?Will the LON guarantee a just and lasting peace?Goes against our policy of no “foreign alliances”
95Postwar Adjustments Return to a peacetime industry and economy War boosted American economy and industry.United States became a world power, largest creditor and wealthy nation.Soldiers were hero’s but found that jobs were scarce.African American soldiers, despite their service returned to find continued discrimination.The Lost Generation of men who were killed in WWI.US returned to neutrality and isolation.Did not accept the responsibility of a world power that President Wilson believed the US should take on.
96Economic Problems High inflation Economic Bubble Bursts Abandon wartime prices= 15%+ price increaseEconomic Bubble Bursts= gross national product declined 10%100,000 business go bankrupt453,000 farmers lost their land5 million Americans lose jobsOrganized laborWant to keep wartime advancesInflation hurt wage gainsWorried about job security1919 = more than 3, 600 strikes
97Race Relations WWI Black soldiers New Black Attitudes Great Migration Inspirational to thousands of African-AmericansNo impact on white attitudes toward blacksNew Black AttitudesHeighten bitternessIncreased determination for their rightsSoldiers expected social reward for serviceGreat MigrationMove to northern cities to work industrial jobsSeen as escape from racial prejudice and economic opportunityRace Riots : St. Louis, Chicago
98Black Nationalism Marcus Garvey Encouraged African-Americans to take pride in achievementsDevelop awareness of heritageUnited Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)Chain of black-owned grocery storesEncouraged black-owned businessUrge supporters to return to Africa to create their own society
99Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Red ScareRed Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits"."Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists).Attorney General Mitchell PalmerAnti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution.6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S.No due process was followed
100Sacco and VanzettiNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass.The trial lasted Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well.Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.
102US turned inward and feared anything that was European… The 1920 ElectionWilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding…US turned inward and feared anything that was European…