Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27: America at Midcentury. American Communities 1. Rock N Roll and society a. Pros and cons b. Loved by teenagers c. Had consumer power d. Celebration."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 27: America at Midcentury
American Communities 1. Rock N Roll and society a. Pros and cons b. Loved by teenagers c. Had consumer power d. Celebration of being young e. Independent and rebellion f. Generational shift
27.1 : American Midcentury
A. Galbraiths Affluent Society 1. Economist who theorized that the economy was good due to personal consumption 2. Good life 3. Sense that prosperity would never end
B Election Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) AKA Ike Adlai Stevenson (D)
I like Ike! Sputnik U-2 plane incident NASA Stalin dies – Khrushchev in
B. Middle of the Road Eisenhower (Rep ) 1. Political Philosophy: a. run country like a business b. Cooperation, not regulation c. businessmen to cabinet d. No deficit spending e. felt govt resp. for social welfare of citizens Created Dept. of Health, Edu and Welfare
C. Subsidizing Prosperity 1. Federal Housing Admin. a. Loans backed by federal govt b. Long term effect? c. Downside? Racism/retain stability 2. Impact of the GI Bill a. Education b. Increased loans/home shortage
3. Levittown 30 a day/$8,000/ $58 mos.
4. Federal Highway Act 1956 a. Long term impact/trickle effect… b. Decreased mass transit
D. Suburban Life 1. Womens happiness based on taking care of home and family! 2. Not! 3. Betty Friedans The Feminine Mystique: women unhappy with domesticated roles 4. Suburbia focused on conformity, security, and status
5. Can you say Conformity?
E. Labor Unions 1. Eisenhower anti-union 2. AFL-CIO merged to keep gains made during WWII 3. Within service sector membership grew; decreased in the general workforce
F. Expansion of Higher Education 1. GI Bill and NDEA – subsidize edu for students; math, science 2. R & D for defense related project 3. Turn to businessmen to run schools; on board of trustees
G. Health and Medicine 1. NIH = better tech and tx 2. Jonas Salk = cure for polio; viral 3. Problem? a. Not all Americans had same access to health care; too expensive b. Can you say Obamaplan?
H. Families of the 1950s
27.2: Youth Culture
A. Youth Culture/Market 1. Easy target 2. Influence large family purchases 3. School a commonality 4. Influenced media and teen publications
B. Hail to the King 1. Rebellious 2. Reinvented popular music/RNR accepted 3. Revitalized popular culture/crossed cultures and styles
C. Almost Grown 1. Driving 2. Clothes and make-up 3. Periods earlier 4. Marrying earlier 5. Working 6. Going steady in H.S.
D. Deviance and Delinquency 1. RNR to blame 2. Increase crime 3. Exaggerated by media 4. Censor media 5. Senate subcommittee
27.3: Mass Culture and Discontent
A. Discontent & Television 1. Advertising: from radio to tv commercials 2. from live to taped; reruns $ 3. No real issues, PES, addressed 4. Beats/Beatniks a. dissenters from conformity, mass consumption, militarism, technology b. Jack Kerouac 5. TV and Politics
27.5: JFK and the New Frontier
A. Election of 1960 John F. Kennedy (D) v. Richard Nixon (R)
B. Television & Politics 1. Content superficial until 30 min. news (1963) 2. Exposed politicians 3. Helped political candidates with their image
C. The Best and the Brightest R. Kennedy R. McNamara Dean Rusk M. Bundy
D. New Frontier Agenda 1. Education 2. Medicare 3. Dept. of Urban Affairs 4. Increase minimum wage to $1.25/hr* 5. Increase social security benefits
E. How well did he do? 1. Successes a. Jobs = deficit spending b. Decreased business taxes c. Space program d. Developing housing e. Peace Corp/Alliance for Progress 2. Failures a. No tax cut for M.C. b. No health ins for elderly
F. Kennedy and Vietnam a. 1960: continues to support Diem, as did Eisenhower b. Diem corrupt but nationalist; cancels election of 1956 c. Repressed Buddhist practices = Ngo Diem Nationalist
Buddhist who sets himself aflame to protest Diems repression. Diem was a Catholic.
G. Cuban Crises & Fidel Castro 1. Cuban Dilemma a overthrew Batista b. Supported by Cubans; promised democracy c. What they got: dictatorship and communism d. Takes over American & British owned oil refineries, mines, sugar plantations e. US places embargo on Cuban sugar f. Soviets befriend him g. Cubans exiled to Miami
2. Bay of Pigs April 1961 a. US to train Cuban exiles: La Brigada b. Goal: to overthrow Castro c. Success or failure? Air support withdrawn! Plan failed miserably! a. Public relations success for Castro i. JFK considered incompetent ii. $53 million in food and medical supplies for release of soldiers
3. Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 a. nuclear missiles in Cuba b. Attack from Cuba = attack on Soviet Union c. US quarantines Cuba = SU ships do not pass d. Khrushchev & Kennedy make agreement? Castro & Khrushchev
4. Fallout of Agreement between Khrushchev & JFK a. Kennedy i. Used brinksmanship not negotiations ii. Missed opportunity to overthrow Castro iii. Amer. Cuban go Republican b. Khrushchev Lost face in SU & worldwide
5. DeTente: Trying to ease tensions a. Hotline- direct telephonic line between the White House and the Kremlin (1963) b. Limited Test Ban Treaty- stopped nuclear testing in the atmosphere (1963)
H. Kennedys Flexible response 1. Preparing for a variety of military responses rather than just focusing on nuclear weapons 2. Kennedy built up all branches of military 3. Special Forces AKA Green Berets
I. Cold War Continues 1. Berlin Crisis (West Berlin) a. West Berlin was thriving. Why? b. 20% of East Berliners migrating c. Khrushchev builds Berlin Wall