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Chapter 27: America at Midcentury. American Communities 1. Rock N Roll and society a. Pros and cons b. Loved by teenagers c. Had consumer power d. Celebration.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27: America at Midcentury. American Communities 1. Rock N Roll and society a. Pros and cons b. Loved by teenagers c. Had consumer power d. Celebration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 27: America at Midcentury

2 American Communities 1. Rock N Roll and society a. Pros and cons b. Loved by teenagers c. Had consumer power d. Celebration of being young e. Independent and rebellion f. Generational shift

3 27.1 : American Society @ Midcentury

4 A. Galbraiths Affluent Society 1. Economist who theorized that the economy was good due to personal consumption 2. Good life 3. Sense that prosperity would never end

5 B. 1952 Election Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) AKA Ike Adlai Stevenson (D)

6 I like Ike! Sputnik U-2 plane incident NASA Stalin dies – Khrushchev in

7 B. Middle of the Road Eisenhower (Rep.1952-1960) 1. Political Philosophy: a. run country like a business b. Cooperation, not regulation c. businessmen to cabinet d. No deficit spending e. felt govt resp. for social welfare of citizens Created Dept. of Health, Edu and Welfare

8 C. Subsidizing Prosperity 1. Federal Housing Admin. a. Loans backed by federal govt b. Long term effect? c. Downside? Racism/retain stability 2. Impact of the GI Bill a. Education b. Increased loans/home shortage

9 3. Levittown 30 a day/$8,000/ $58 mos.

10 Prewar kitchen

11 Postwar kitchen

12 Postwar

13 4. Federal Highway Act 1956 a. Long term impact/trickle effect… b. Decreased mass transit

14 D. Suburban Life 1. Womens happiness based on taking care of home and family! 2. Not! 3. Betty Friedans The Feminine Mystique: women unhappy with domesticated roles 4. Suburbia focused on conformity, security, and status

15 5. Can you say Conformity?

16 E. Labor Unions 1. Eisenhower anti-union 2. AFL-CIO merged to keep gains made during WWII 3. Within service sector membership grew; decreased in the general workforce

17 F. Expansion of Higher Education 1. GI Bill and NDEA – subsidize edu for students; math, science 2. R & D for defense related project 3. Turn to businessmen to run schools; on board of trustees

18 G. Health and Medicine 1. NIH = better tech and tx 2. Jonas Salk = cure for polio; viral 3. Problem? a. Not all Americans had same access to health care; too expensive b. Can you say Obamaplan?

19 H. Families of the 1950s

20 2008

21 27.2: Youth Culture

22 A. Youth Culture/Market 1. Easy target 2. Influence large family purchases 3. School a commonality 4. Influenced media and teen publications

23 B. Hail to the King 1. Rebellious 2. Reinvented popular music/RNR accepted 3. Revitalized popular culture/crossed cultures and styles

24 C. Almost Grown 1. Driving 2. Clothes and make-up 3. Periods earlier 4. Marrying earlier 5. Working 6. Going steady in H.S.

25 D. Deviance and Delinquency 1. RNR to blame 2. Increase crime 3. Exaggerated by media 4. Censor media 5. Senate subcommittee

26 27.3: Mass Culture and Discontent

27 A. Discontent & Television 1. Advertising: from radio to tv commercials 2. from live to taped; reruns $ 3. No real issues, PES, addressed 4. Beats/Beatniks a. dissenters from conformity, mass consumption, militarism, technology b. Jack Kerouac 5. TV and Politics

28 27.5: JFK and the New Frontier

29 A. Election of 1960 John F. Kennedy (D) v. Richard Nixon (R)


31 B. Television & Politics 1. Content superficial until 30 min. news (1963) 2. Exposed politicians 3. Helped political candidates with their image

32 C. The Best and the Brightest R. Kennedy R. McNamara Dean Rusk M. Bundy

33 D. New Frontier Agenda 1. Education 2. Medicare 3. Dept. of Urban Affairs 4. Increase minimum wage to $1.25/hr* 5. Increase social security benefits

34 E. How well did he do? 1. Successes a. Jobs = deficit spending b. Decreased business taxes c. Space program d. Developing housing e. Peace Corp/Alliance for Progress 2. Failures a. No tax cut for M.C. b. No health ins for elderly

35 F. Kennedy and Vietnam a. 1960: continues to support Diem, as did Eisenhower b. Diem corrupt but nationalist; cancels election of 1956 c. Repressed Buddhist practices = Ngo Diem Nationalist

36 Buddhist who sets himself aflame to protest Diems repression. Diem was a Catholic.

37 G. Cuban Crises & Fidel Castro 1. Cuban Dilemma a. 1959- overthrew Batista b. Supported by Cubans; promised democracy c. What they got: dictatorship and communism d. Takes over American & British owned oil refineries, mines, sugar plantations e. US places embargo on Cuban sugar f. Soviets befriend him g. Cubans exiled to Miami

38 2. Bay of Pigs April 1961 a. US to train Cuban exiles: La Brigada b. Goal: to overthrow Castro c. Success or failure? Air support withdrawn! Plan failed miserably! a. Public relations success for Castro i. JFK considered incompetent ii. $53 million in food and medical supplies for release of soldiers

39 3. Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 a. nuclear missiles in Cuba b. Attack from Cuba = attack on Soviet Union c. US quarantines Cuba = SU ships do not pass d. Khrushchev & Kennedy make agreement? Castro & Khrushchev





44 4. Fallout of Agreement between Khrushchev & JFK a. Kennedy i. Used brinksmanship not negotiations ii. Missed opportunity to overthrow Castro iii. Amer. Cuban go Republican b. Khrushchev Lost face in SU & worldwide

45 5. DeTente: Trying to ease tensions a. Hotline- direct telephonic line between the White House and the Kremlin (1963) b. Limited Test Ban Treaty- stopped nuclear testing in the atmosphere (1963)

46 H. Kennedys Flexible response 1. Preparing for a variety of military responses rather than just focusing on nuclear weapons 2. Kennedy built up all branches of military 3. Special Forces AKA Green Berets

47 I. Cold War Continues 1. Berlin Crisis (West Berlin) a. West Berlin was thriving. Why? b. 20% of East Berliners migrating c. Khrushchev builds Berlin Wall


49 Building of the Death Strip

50 Death Strip

51 Wall Falls November 1989


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