Presentation on theme: "Quality of Care Through the Lens of Single Payer National Health Insurance – How Would It Look and Feel? (Gordon Schiff, MD) Ken Saffier, MD Chicago,"— Presentation transcript:
1Quality of Care Through the Lens of Single Payer National Health Insurance – How Would It Look and Feel?(Gordon Schiff, MD) Ken Saffier, MDChicago, Ill Martinez, CACCRMC/HC’s Noon ConferenceJuly 10, 2009Adapted from presentation at STFM Annual Spring ConferenceApril 28, 2007
2Outline of Session Introduction and learning objectives Quality of Care and Single Payer NHI -Prevention, Continuity, Pay for performance,Malpractice, Teamwork, Fairness,Processes improvementQuestions and discussion: How would NHI affect the quality of your work?Summary
3Learning ObjectivesBy the end of this session, participants will be able to:Describe at least 3 quality issues that single payer NHI would directly address that are neglected or inadequately regarded by current health care financing or organization.
4Learning Objectives - (cont’d.) List specific pros and cons of the impact of NHI as it relates to key quality issues (e.g., malpractice, equity, pay for performance).Describe how NHI might change the quality of care in your practices.
5Priorities for Health System Reform Future of Family Medicine - 2004 Everyone has a personal medical home.Advocating coverage for basic and extraordinary health care costs for all.Promote use and reporting of quality measures to improve performance and service.Future of Family Medicine, 2004
6Priorities for Health System Reform (cont’d) Advance research that supports clinical decision making.Develop reimbursement models that sustain family medicine and primary care.Assert family medicine leadership to help transform the US health care system.Future of Family Medicine, 2004
8Is US Health Really the Best in the World? In a comparison of 13 countries,* the US rankings were:13th (last) for low-birth-weight percentages13th for neonatal mortality and infant mortality overall11th for post neonatal mortality13th for years of potential life lost (excluding external causes)11th for life expectancy at 1 year for females, 12th for males10th for life expectancy at 15 years for females, 12th for males10th for life expectancy at 40 years for females, 9th for males7th for life expectancy at 65 years for females, 7th for males3rd for life expectancy at 80 years for females, 3rd for males10th for age-adjusted mortalitySource: Starfield B. Is US health really the best in the world? JAMA 2000; 284(4):*Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, United StatesStarfield 03/06IC 3382Source: Starfield, JAMA 2000; 284:483-5.
9What is Quality? Access Single Standard User-friendly Continuity Information SystemsNursingContinuous ImprovementCaring/CommitmentPatient centeredChoiceCommunicationTeamworkAccountabilityPrevention OrientedTime
10AgeWhat do we really need to know in order to deliver health care that is appropriate for a given person?
11The 45+ million uninsured tend to be near poor Categories of People in the U.S. Health Insurance SystemThe federal-state Medicaid program for certain of the poor, the blind and the disabledThe 45+ million uninsured tend to be near poorFor the rich, “Disneyland” the sky-is-the limit policies without rationing of any sort (Boutique medicine)The employed and their families who are typically covered through their jobs, although many small employers do not provide coverage.The YoungNear poor children may be temporarily covered by Medicaid and S-Chip, although 7-10 million are still uninsured.Working-age peopleQUIMBIESSLIMBIESOur current health insurance system is incredibly complex.Persons over age 65, who are covered by the federal Medicare program, but not for drugs or long-term care. Often the elderly have private supplemental MediGap insurancePeople age 65 and overThe poorThe near poorThe broad middle classThe richThe very poor elderly are also covered by MedicaidSource: Professor Uwe Reinhardt, Princeton
13IS THIS OBSCENE? Courtesy of MTV Many consider this public image of Janet Jackson’s breast to be obscene. Yet what is really obscene are the effects on the public of the insurance industry’s terms and their meaning: pre-existing conditions, medical loss ratio, “donut hole”.IS THIS OBSCENE?Courtesy of MTV
14…or Is this Obscene? “Preexisting Condition” “Medical Loss Ratio” Gold standard is 9 months“Medical Loss Ratio”Amount spent on care is bad“Donut Hole”“Medical Bankruptcy”“Post-claims underwriting” and “Rescissions”
17SCHIP – Renewing the Renewals? Initial eligibility determinationRedeterminationsDisenrollments - coverage cancelled when premiums are overdueFreeze out period for nonpayment of premiumsWhat happens when cost sharing too burdensome?
20We want a health care system that doesn’t DEPEND on who you are or a whole host of qualifiers or complex requirements to be met. It should be based on need and ways to best meet those needs.
21What is Single Payer NHI? Socialized insurance – not socialized medicine(We have fire protection, police svcs.)Single public payerPrivate – public delivery systemRegional and statewide health councilsConsumer – professional boards for monitoring and oversight
22Single payer financing: simplified Individuals / BusinessesHealth Service Providers////NO Direct or Out-of-Pocket PaymentsTaxese.g. HR 676S 703Government [payer]Conceptually, single payer is much simpler than the multi-payer system of the U.S. Here, with single payer, individuals and businesses pay taxes to the government. The government reimburses health service providers who take care of people in the national health insurance program.|------Collection of funds || Reimbursement |
24Prevention Status Quo - 2007 Co-pays Deductibles Some not covered Single Payer NHINo feesAll services coveredFunds to cover currently uninsured and under-insuredWays single funding mechanism can facilitate organization and resource allocation to promote prevention and public health.
25What would change with NHI? Recent examples within one week from 1 Family MD:Uncovered services:“HealthNet charged me $56 for a PAP smear.”Nurse getting a TB clearance, 4/12/07Unnecessary hospitalization:“I stretched my medications as long as I could, ran out and after 5 days, was hospitalized for 3 days.”52 year old woman with Addison’s disease, 4/19/07Unnecessary re-hospitalization:“The Health Plan didn’t cover my meds that were working (for gastroparesis) and I had to be readmitted.”48 year old woman with DM, CRF, neuropathy, 4/18/07
27Funding Prevention Under NHI Fee for service reimbursement for individual offices and small practices.Global budgets for larger practices and institutions.Interdependence of research, consumer advisory, provider and health planning councils, financial management .
28Continuity of Care Associated with: More preventive care Decreased hospitalization rateIncreased patient satisfactionSaultz, J, Lochner, J. Ann Fam Med, 2005;3:Saultz, J, Albedawi, W. Ann Fam Med 2004: 2:What barriers to its optimization are better addressed under single payer framework?
29Percent of Patients Reporting Any Error by Number of Doctors Seen in Past Two Years CountryOne doctor4 or more doctorsAustralia1237Canada1540Germany1431New Zealand35UK28US2249Source: Schoen C, Osborn R, Huynh PT, Doty M, Zapert K, Peugh J, Davis K. Taking the pulse of health care systems: experiences of patients with health problems in six countries. Health Affairs 2005; W5: (also available atStarfield 01/06IC 3352Source: Schoen et al, Health Affairs 2005; W5:
30Continuity of Care Under single payer NHI: No need to switch provider(s) with employment change, divorce, new care plan…Continuity of payment for provider and system of care.
31Teamwork Status Quo – 2007 Non-office visits not reimbursed Non-physician visits often not reimbursedTelephone f/u not reimbursedSingle Payer NHIGlobal budgets can include currently excluded services.Evidence-based standards can provide basis for reimbursement for chronic disease management by non-MDs.
32Pay for PerformanceAre assumptions that providers are insufficiently motivated correct? Are current reimbursement mechanisms really insufficiently complex? Or, are there more fruitful avenues to pursue?
33P4P- Not the Answer I Doesn’t capture much of what we do Isn’t being/can’t be measuredThink about what you last did to really help ptAssigning patient to MDWho to reward or blameHow many doctors does it take to care for a patient (Pham, NEJM)Retrospective/arbitrary assignmentsChronic care: it’s the team, stupidUnproven, unimpressive resultsUncontrolled “social experiment” (Epstein, AM, Pay for Performance at the Tipping Point, NEJM :515-7)
34Pham, HH, et.al., Care patterns in Medicare and their implications for pay for performance, NEJM, :1130-9,
35Pham, HH, et.al., Care patterns in Medicare and their implications for pay for performance, NEJM, :
36Pham, HH, et.al., Care patterns in Medicare and their implications for pay for performance, NEJM, :
37Lindenauer, PK, et.al., Public reporting and pay for performance in hospital quality improvement. NEJM, (5):
38P4P- Not the Answer IIFails to address reasons guidelines not always followedLack of time, hassles, other practical logisticsWhat it really takes to do things rightPatient adherenceExceptional circumstances; applicabilityZero sum competitionEveryone can’t be in top 20%Rich get richerDiscriminates against poorer practices, patientsYet another reason why not to take on difficult and most needy patients.
39P4P- Not the Answer IIIBeing sold to employers as the answer to our ailing system, rising costsInitiatives mostly employer based/drivenWhat will happen when find out they’ve be connedFits with market/ideological biases but not factsHealth care does not work market for productsTo large extent, about documentationUK docs achieved 97% complianceBroke bankClinical documentation is a serious need, not a game>30% of doctors and nurses time spentNeed real and high level improvements and efficiencies
41P4P- Not the Answer IV Based on series of questionable assumptions Current reimbursement mechanisms not sufficiently complexCan accurately measure and compareDoctors only motivated to do good job for $$$Wouldn’t it be easier to do bad/rush job and see one more patient each day?!
42P4P- Not the Answer V Potential for unintended consequences Doctors rejecting sicker patientsSubtle antagonisms between patient and MDIncentive to cheat (just a little bit)Inducing doctors to shift resources from unmeasured to measured activities and patientsSignificant costs involved in measurementGrowing examples where costs outweigh bonusesBoth requires and perverts EMR
43MalpracticeHow would malpractice change under NHI? How is it handles in NHI models such as VA, Canada, and Scandinavia?
45MALPRACTICE FACTS19 states with CAPS experienced a 48% rise in premiums from 1991 to 200232 states without CAPS experienced a 36% rise in premium from 1991 to 2002Only 2 states with CAPS experiences flat or declines in premiums
46Malpractice and NHI - IEliminates large % of suits/settlements for “economic damages”No need to sue for future medical costsCost increases track directly with rising health care costs .Malpractice “overhead” >60%; ~ waste w/ private health insuranceEven more wasteful than private health insurance (which is >30% )Like health insurance, structured in way that wastes enormous resources fighting over who will pay the bill, as each party tries to shift/avoid costsMultiple “layers” of insurance and re-insurance add to complexity and costs, as each party diverts money for their overhead and profit
47Top 15 Medical Liability firms Angoff, Center for Justice Democracy 7/05
49Malpractice and NHI - II Same adversary: private insurance companies25% decrease in suits filed in IL; no decrease in ratesNeed to ally with patients for changeSafer care, reduced malpractice burden.Single payer offers better framework for engaging these problemCanadian malpractice costs- much less than U.S.Costs are borne by all of us; should be shared
50WassernBUsed with permission of Daniel Wassernan
51Fairness Universal quality: Is it the same as universal access? How can we best achieve it?
52Fairness (Health care is a basic human right.) Services delivered on the basis of objective criteria of patients’ needs rather than on provider or hospital.Objective and transparent assessment criteria applied to all patients.Central with regional management and coordination of resources and services.
53FairnessPatients, public, and professionals participate to review timely delivery of services, andHold the health system accountable for adequate allocation of resources for timely care.Everyone contributes – everyone benefits
54Processes Improvement Efficient use of our and patients’ timeImproved communicationDecreased waste and duplicationWhere can NHI leverage efficient use of our time and improved communication?
55“…the most deadly challenge ever faced by the medical profession.” -President of the AMA(in 1961, talking about Medicare)The last is a statement made by the President of the AMA concerning socialized financed health care. He called it “…the most deadly challenge ever faced by the medical profession.” What makes this hyperbole even more difficult to swallow is the fact that this was said in 1961… about Medicare. Are there any people today, politicians, elderly, doctors – anyone – who believes that Medicare is the most deadly challenge the medical profession has faced? Let’s not get caught on the wrong side of this issue again.
58Single Payer (Canada) vs. US System “Policy debates and decisions regarding the direction of health care in both Canada and the United States should consider the results of our systematic review: Canada’s single-payer system, which relies on not-for-profit delivery, achieves health outcomes that are at least equal to those in the United States at two-thirds the cost.”Guyatt, G, et. al., A systematic review of studies comparing health outcomes in Canada and the United States. Open Medicine, Vol 1, No 1 (2007)
60Please refer to the Quality of Care Table SummaryPlease refer to the Quality of Care Table(Handout)
61Is this Critical to Quality? How Quality AttributeWhyIs this Critical to Quality?HowSingle Payer is Uniquely Poised to AddressAccess Poorest quality care is care denied Low threshold encourages timely care and minimizes patient judgment/decision biases Everyone ensured access; only plan for true universal insurance and access. Able to control cost globally (w/ fences) so no reliance on access barriers to maintain affordability.User-friendly, Simple Improves satisfaction and respects time of patients and providers Enormous resources wasted/diverted w/ complexities, duplications, confusion. A “no depends” system--no complicated rules, no variations by age, geography, medical condition, marital status, etc. Avoids eligibility determinations, enrollment complexities.Single Standard Discrimination, inequality should not be structured into system design workings Advocacy of most advantaged works to benefit of all By definition single system with fair rules for all Generates database to identify disparities and track effectiveness of interventions
62Thanks to: Physicians for a National Health Program Gordon Schiff, MD Barbara Starfield, MDDaniel Wasserman, Boston Globe
63Selected ReferencesGuyatt, G, et. al., A systematic review of studies comparing health outcomes in Canada and the United States. Open Medicine, Vol 1, No 1 (2007)Romanow, RJ, Building on values, the future of health care in Canada
64Selected ReferencesProposal of the Physicians’ Working Group for Single-Payer National Health Insurance, JAMA 2003; 290:A National Health Program for the United States: A Physicians’ Proposal, NEJMed 1989;320:DO NOT RESUSCITATE, Why the health insurance industry is dying, and how we must replace it. John Geyman, 2008, Common Courage Press
65Selected ReferencesHimmelstein, D, Woolhandler, S, Hellander, I, Wolfe, S. Quality of care in investor-owned vs. not-for-profit HMOs. JAMA. 1999;281:Pryor, C, Cohen, A, Prottas, J. The illusion of coverage: how health insurance fails people when they get sick. 2007, The Access Project,
66Selected ReferencesSchiff, G, Young, Q. You can’t leap a chasm in two jumps: the Institute of Medicine Health Care Quality Report. Public Health Reports. 2001; 116:Physicians for a National Health Program