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Energy Resources: Renewable and Nonrenewable. Renewable vs. Non-renewable Non-renewable resource –Exists in finite supply –Is used faster than it can.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Resources: Renewable and Nonrenewable. Renewable vs. Non-renewable Non-renewable resource –Exists in finite supply –Is used faster than it can."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Resources: Renewable and Nonrenewable

2 Renewable vs. Non-renewable Non-renewable resource –Exists in finite supply –Is used faster than it can replenish –Ex: oil, coal, nuclear fuels Renewable or perpetual –Replenishes very rapidly –Inexhaustible supply –Ex: solar, wind, hydropower

3 3 Non-Renewable Energy Sources Conventional –Petroleum –Natural Gas –Coal –Nuclear Unconventional (examples) –Oil Shale –Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment

4 4 Renewable Energy Sources Solar photovoltaic Passive solar air and water heating Wind Hydropower Biomass Ocean energy Geothermal Waste to Energy

5 Evaluating Energy Resources US Energy Resources : Renewable energy: 8% US Energy Resources : Renewable energy: 8% Non-renewable energy: 92% Considerations for Resources Future availability Considerations for Resources Future availability Net energy yield Cost Environmental effects

6 Petroleum (Oil): 39% of US Energy Fig p. 356 US uses 26% of oil extracted worldwide; we have 2.9% of worlds oil reserves Depletion of our reserves means more oil imported World oil reserves 80% depleted in years Oil is a finite resource!

7 Oil: 39% of US Energy Fig p. 356 Pros of Oil: High net energy Easily transported Strong infrastructure Cons of Oil: Requires subsidies Air pollution Global warming Limited supplies

8 8 Peak Production of Petroleum in US

9 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Is this the answer? Would meet US needs for 7-24 months 1 mpg increase for new cars = ANWR

10 Natural Gas: 23% of US Energy Mostly methane + other gases LNG-versatile and high net energy Cleaner burning than oil or coal But, US has only 3% of world supply

11 Fig p. 364 Coal: 23% of US Energy

12 Produces 62% of worlds electricity and 52% of US electricity Most abundant fossil fuel and could easily last at least 200 years US has 25% of worlds reserves, Russia = 16%, China = 12% High net energy yield, but…

13 Coal: 23% of US Energy Accounts for 36% CO 2 released Severely degrades land causing land, air and water pollution Severe human health threat Air pollution and acid rain

14 Mining Waste Impacts on Surface and Groundwater Miller, 13 th edition, Fig p. 344

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16 Nuclear: 8% of US Energy Significant fuel supply Low CO 2 output Moderate land disruption and pollution but… Expensive-- subsidies needed Catastrophic accidents possible No solution to nuclear waste disposal Subject to terrorist attack

17 n U Kr Ba n n n Kr U U Ba Kr Ba Kr Ba n n n n n n n n U U U U n

18 Nuclear: 8% of US Energy Miller, 13 th edition Fig p. 367

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20 Nuclear Fusion

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23 Fusion-Disadvantages Need around 100 millon degrees for duterium and tritium to fuse With our current technology, we use more energy than we can produce.

24 Oil Shale Fine grained rock containing a solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen Extracted from rock by crushing and heating. Global supplies are potentially 200 times larger than conventional oil.

25 Oil Shale-Disadvantages: Lower net energy yield Requires large amounts of water Contaminates water supplies with toxic metals Too expensive

26 Tar Sands Mixture of clay, sand, water, and bitumen (gooey black high-sulfur oil) Removed by surface mining using pressurized steam Worlds largest supply in northern Alberta, Canada

27 Tar Sands-Disadvantages Low net energy yield Requires large quanties of water Creates huge waste dispposal ponds

28 Natural Gas Hydrates Methane Hydrates found in a solid form under great pressure in deep ocean sediments Cannot be retreived efficiently with current technology

29 Renewable Energy sources

30 Solar Energy Solar energy consists of harnessing radiant energy from the sun. Active solar heats water or air inside a home- requires electricity to circulate Passive solar-the structure is built to maximize solar capture Photovoltaic cells generate electricity

31 Solar Energy Pros Limitless supply Little environmental impact Good for remote locations Limitless supply Little environmental impact Good for remote locations Cons Inefficient where sunlight is limited Maintenance costs high Systems must be periodically replaced Current efficiency only 10%-25% Inefficient where sunlight is limited Maintenance costs high Systems must be periodically replaced Current efficiency only 10%-25%

32 Wind Energy Wind turns giant turbine blades that produce electricity

33 Wind Energy Pros Can be built quickly Maintenance is low Moderate to high energy yeild No air pollution Land underneath can be used for agriculture Can be built quickly Maintenance is low Moderate to high energy yeild No air pollution Land underneath can be used for agriculture Cons Steady wind is required Needs backup systems Visual and noise pollution May interfere with flight patterns of birds Steady wind is required Needs backup systems Visual and noise pollution May interfere with flight patterns of birds

34 Hydropower: 10 % of US Energy Dams built to trap water, which in turn is then released and channeled through turbines to generate electricity

35 Hydropower Pros Control flooding Low operating cost No pollution Long life span Moderate to high energy yield Areas for water recreation Control flooding Low operating cost No pollution Long life span Moderate to high energy yield Areas for water recreation Cons Displace many people Destroy wildlife habitats Sedimentation requires dredging Expensive to build Destroys wild rivers Displace many people Destroy wildlife habitats Sedimentation requires dredging Expensive to build Destroys wild rivers

36 Biomass Any carbon-based, biologically derived fuel source. Plants suitabelefor biofuel include switch grass, corn, and sugarcane Supplies about 15% of worlds energy

37 Biomass Pros Renewable energy source Can be sustainable Does not distupt atmospheric CO 2 Renewable energy source Can be sustainable Does not distupt atmospheric CO 2 Cons Requires adequate water and fertilizer Could cause massive deforestation Expensive to transport Not efficient Requires adequate water and fertilizer Could cause massive deforestation Expensive to transport Not efficient

38 Geothermal < 1% US Energy Heat from underground rock or magma used to produce steam that drive turbines.

39 Geothermal Pros Moderate energy yield Limitless and reliable source if managed properly Little air pollution Competitive cost Moderate energy yield Limitless and reliable source if managed properly Little air pollution Competitive cost Cons Reservoir sites are scarce Can be depleted if not managed properly Noise, odor, land subsidence Can degrade ecosystem Reservoir sites are scarce Can be depleted if not managed properly Noise, odor, land subsidence Can degrade ecosystem

40 Solutions: Energy Efficiency! 43% of energy in the US is wasted unnecessarily Incandescent bulb=5% efficient Fluorescent bulb=20% efficient Auto fleet standards = CAFE Standards (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) –12.9 mpg in 1974 –27.9 mpg today –40 mpg CAFE standard would cut gas use by 50%

41 Efficiencies

42 Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency Insulation Eliminate air leaks Air to air heat exchangers Efficient appliances Efficient electric motors High-efficiency lighting Increasing fuel economy

43 Toward a Sustainable Energy Future Increase fuel efficiency standards for vehicle, appliances, buildings Tax and other financial incentives for energy efficiency Subsidize renewable energy use, research and development By 2050: –renewable energy=50% –cut coal use by 50% –phase out nuclear altogether


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