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Burkina Faso Water Implementation Project (Phase II)

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1 Burkina Faso Water Implementation Project (Phase II)
Engineers Without Borders University of Maryland Chapter Presentation to TAC

2 Community Need Background
Hand pumped groundwater wells are the primary source of clean drinking water for the people in the villages surrounding Dissin. Women and children travel as far as two kilometers to retrieve water for daily drinking and hygiene. Long lines form at the pump, taking up to an hour to retrieve water. Because of poor food stability in the dry season, children in the communities oftentimes do not get the vitamins and minerals critical to proper development and good health. The community has suggested that automating the pumping process and storing the water in a tank would allow for easier water access from faucets, resulting in: Less time waiting in line. Women and children having more time to work or go to school. Increased water access and ability to irrigate subsistence crops to benefit community well-being. Potential for commercial water uses.

3 Two-Phase Project Phase I: Solar powered lighting for community education centers Assessment: January 2007 Implementation: January 2008 Project Status: Complete Phase II: Solar powered automation of existing ground water pumps Assessment: July 2007 Implementation: June 2008 Project Status: Proposal to Implement

4 Phase II Objectives Primary objective: Secondary objective:
To increase access to water in communities surrounding Dissin Secondary objective: Enable the communities to develop irrigated family gardens surrounding the wells for Improved health Source of trade and income within the community during the dry season Improved hygiene

5 Existing Infrastructure
Several types of covered hand pumps; some common designs Pumps range from 2-25 years of age Each pump serves up to 600 people, with ~100 people using the pump daily Historically poor maintenance High traffic in the mornings between 8 -11am Wait time up to an hour Up to two kilometers walking distance to nearest pump Point source distribution Hand Crank “Volunta” wheel Foot pump

6 Site Selection I Two sites were identified to be retrofitted:
Mou Bormetew serves ~500 people 2000m2 available garden space with only 80m2 currently used Nakar serves ~600 people 3000m2 available garden space with only 80m2 currently used Alternate site: Koin Dakole serves ~240 people 1000m2 available garden space with only 100m2 currently used

7 Site Selection II Selection criteria
Each community made a commitment for maintenance. Established a project maintenance fund. Personnel are assigned to maintenance. Community members are willing to assist in project implementation. Gardening revenues will go to the families using the garden. Community members will continue to pay for their water use. Gardening already exists at the pump sites, and the community wants to expand their gardens, with the help of local NGOs. Long lines form during common pumping times. All pumps are “Volunta” Wheel style installed in 2004 Easiest to retrofit, with some retrofit designs already implemented locally. Most reliable pump style, with least maintenance. Recent installations.

8 Potential Community Impacts
Positive: Women and children have more time for school and work – productivity increases. Less energy required to retrieve water. Decreased incidence of famine. Increased household income during the dry season. Negative Changing community dynamic as women may spend less time at the pumps socializing. Gardening in the dry season may distract from other community activities, such as rebuilding homes and community service.

9 Motor attached to “Volunta” pump (Motor Sub-system)
Proposed Solution The proposed system consists of three sub-systems. The “Volunta” pump will be driven by an electric gearmotor, powered by three solar panels. Pumped water will be stored in a ferrocement tank, which will be accessible through 4 spigots at a collection site. Motor attached to “Volunta” pump (Motor Sub-system) Tank and Spigot design (Tank sub-system) Panels on top of Tank (Solar Sub-system)

10 Solar Sub-System Objectives:
Provide power to a ½ hp DC electric geared motor. Use “current-boosting” technology to allow motor to run longer. Protect the panels from back-emf from the motor. Ensure physical security of solar modules.

11 Solar Panels Physical Characteristics of a BP3160 Solar Panel:
Dimension: Length: 1593mm Width: 790 mm Depth: 50mm Weight: 15.0kg (33.1 lbs) Mounting: Frame: Anodized aluminum alloy type 6063T6 Universal frame Easy attachment with screws/mounting tools

12 Solar Panels-Physical Dimensions Diagram

13 Solar Panels – Electrical Characteristics
PMax = Maximum power point, the largest amount of power received by the panels Occurs at a current draw of 4.55 Amps and voltage of 35.1V Current Draw vs. Voltage (At full sunlight)

14 Characterizing Captured Solar Energy Model
Peak Sun-Hour data and Panel Rating: Peak Sun-hours/Day = 5.0 Hours BP3160 Rated at 152 Watts Panels in system = 3 Power available in peak sun = 456 Watts Power needed = Hp = 187 Watts (derived from 22ft-lb required torque at 60 rpm) Max draw from the motor = ½ Hp = 373 Watts Limitations Based on ideal rating data May be overestimation

15 Solar Insolation Model Average Solar Insolation in Northern Africa
Burkina Faso (Average solar insolation = 5.5 kWh/m2/day )

16 Solar Insolation Model
Daily average solar insolation (kWh/m2/day) represented in Figure 1.1. Solar insolation throughout the day changes as a sine curve (approximation). Values are set for sunrise, sunset, and solar noon in Figure 1.2. These data are for January 1st, the day with the lowest solar insolation in Burkina Faso. More power will be received than is needed for three hours each day, at which point the motor will run at full speed. An adequate amount of power will drive the motor at reduced speed for approximately four hours each day. Limitations of this model: The calculations are an underestimation (worst expected conditions). Assumptions: Use 15% panel efficiency (data from BP solar). Panel Area = 1.23 m2 Power needed = 187 Watts Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2

17 System Losses Only significant in extreme cases Not significant
Peak temperature Burkina Faso: 90° F = 32.2° C Power loss at -0.5% / °C (worst case) = -16.1% Would occur during peak time of the day when solar insolation is highest. Panels will be raised to allow air-flow beneath them (recommended by manufacturer). Power losses through wiring Wire Gauge = 12 AWG Total wiring span = 50 ft (maximum) Maximum power loss through system = 4.5 Watts 1.8% of desired power (not a significant amount) Only significant in extreme cases Not significant

18 Solar Pump Controller The system will use a solar pump controller to:
Provide the required current boost to overcome static forces required to start the motor. Provide enough current to the motor in the morning to begin operation in low-sunlight conditions (“Current-boosting technology” using a toroid transformer). This can extend pumping time by up to two hours daily. Regulate voltage at 90V Solar water pumping system is functional without controller. System designed with bypass switch in case of controller failure.

19 Solar Pump Controller Daily cycle:
7 am on worst day (from previous slide) : Motor needs 6 amps (approximation) to overcome static forces, 3 amps to continue moving Solar array can only provide 110 Watts at this time in day Panels can only provide 5 amps maximum on their own Controller transforms power generated by panels to provide higher current at the expense of voltage Current boost enables motor to overcome static resistance of system P = 110 watts (Maximum power 7am) Current Needed = 6 amps (approximation of required amperage) P = IV 110 = 6*V V = 18.3 volts Voltage is pulled down to 18.3 volts to provide the current needed to start the motor. *Motor has now started moving, very slowly, now only requires 3 amps to continue turning* Power provided = P = 110 watts Current needed = I = 3 amps P=IV 110 = 3*V V = 36.6 volts *Motor is now running at 36.6 volts and 3 amps, at a faster speed* Without the pump controller the motor would not be able to overcome the static forces until much later in the day Current boost not necessary in dynamic steady state

20 Solar Panel Mounting System
Theft Proof Mounting System Accessible for service Inaccessible to thieves Main Idea Bolt runs through 4 corners of solar panel through to the inside of tank Nut inside of tank tightens panel down to tank Disassembly from inside of tank only (Alarm equipped padlock on the tank manhole) Accessory components Aluminum pipe sections act as risers to hold panels above tank Air flow under panels increases efficiency (per manufacturer recommendations) PVC conduit runs through tank Bolt runs through conduit Aluminum riser pipe full of cement outside PVC conduit Extra support against sawing Steel angle channels enclose aluminum pipe and conduit assembly Extremely difficult to saw Hides securing assembly from view completely

21 Mounting Continued Special considerations
Long bolt through panel and tank is a threaded rod. Could not place bolt in panel because of dimensions. Threaded rod with a nut on each end acts like a bolt. Special security nut connecting panel to tank breaks away to smooth head. After tightening, nut breaks away, turning into a bolt head. Outer panels actually have five feet, not four. Tank dimensions force rearranging outside corner leg supports to be on the tank. These legs are not critical in terms of security, though they provide additional reinforcement.

22 Overview of mounting system
Mounting System CAD Overview of mounting system

23 Mounting System CAD Breakaway nut Aluminum pipe/riser PVC conduit
Threaded rod Close-up of protective housing and bolt assembly

24 Mounting System CAD Steel angle channels Solar panel frame
Protective steel shields from inside of panel

25 Mounting System CAD Low perspective view of solar panel, 50 mm between panel frame and tank surface

26 Solar Sub-System Budget
Item Units Needed Cost per Unit Cost Weight (lb) Mounting System Steel Angle (ft) 10 $ $ 16.4 1/4" Threaded Rod (ft) 9 $ $ 0.9 Breakaway Nuts (25 pack) 1 $ $ 0.1 1/4" Nuts (100 pack) $ $ 0.2 1" Washers (100 pack) $ $ 3/8" PVC pipe (ft) 7 $ $ 4.2 1" Aluminum pipe (ft) 2.4 $ $ 1.15 Sealant Foam (can) $ $ 0.5 Panel templates 3 Free $ 15 Electrical Components Pump Controller $ $ 7.2 12 AWG wire (ft) 25 $ 5 Solar Panels $ 99.3 Total Cost (per system): $ Total Cost (2 systems) : $ 1,096.20 Total Weight (per system): lbs Total Weight (2 system): 300.1 lbs

27 Motor Sub-System Objectives:
The motor will provide adequate torque to spin the existing pump at ~60 rpm as long as there is adequate power from the solar array. The belt system will be simply designed and easily replaceable in country for low cost. The belt system sprag clutch (freewheel) will allow the community to pump with the flywheel without disconnecting the motor assembly. The motor system placement will be non-obtrusive.

28 Existing Pump Design

29 Preliminary Design 1: Direct Drive (Front Mount)
Advantages Simple mounting design Does not obstruct pump outlet pipe Discounted Because: Unreasonable precision necessary to keep motor shaft and pump shaft in alignment System would have to be disassembled to pump manually (invites damage, proper reassembly is unlikely) Accidental damage could cause misalignment and jeopardize the entire system

30 Preliminary Design 2: Direct Drive (Rear Mount)
Advantages Does not engage flywheel (leaves room for manual pumping) Eliminates slippage concern present with belts Discounted Because: Unreasonable precision necessary to keep motor shaft and pump shaft in alignment Support structure would obstruct pump outlet pipe Accidental damage could cause misalignment and jeopardize the entire system

31 Preliminary Design 3: Drive Wheel – Pump Wheel Spur Assembly
Advantages Relatively unobtrusive Eliminates alignment concerns present in direct drive systems Discounted Because: Irregular eccentricity of the flywheel means that the distance between the ground and the bottom of the wheel varies by ~3cm. This will cause any assembly attached to the wheel’s rim to oscillate considerably, placing undue stress on the system. Motor/Drive Wheel

32 Preliminary Design 3: Belt Drive (Along Rim of Wheel)
Advantages Does not obstruct pump wheel or outlet pipe Similar methods have been used frequently and with success Discounted Because: Large area assumed by the belt makes the system obtrusive Flat belts will walk off the pump wheel Safety concerns (fingers can get sucked between the belt and the flywheel

33 Motor Assembly General Description
Belt Drive Concept Two v-belt pulleys: One on the pump shaft, one on the motor shaft Motor is mounted on a sled that slides along a pair of parallel 80/20 rails; secured using set screws Sprag clutch (freewheel) connects motor to drive pulley

34 Power Requirement Calculations
According to a performance sheet provided by Grainger, the gear ratio of the 6Z416 is 28:1. Therefore the motor output torque, motor RPM and gearbox RPM can be calculated as follows: At this performance level, the manufacturer’s charts indicate that the motor will draw 2.54 amps (or 230 watts).

35 Belt Slip Calculations
To ensure that the belt will not slip when tensioned to 500 Newtons (250 Newtons on each half), the following calculations can be made. With the considered tension, the belt will be able to handle more than twice the torque load we require

36 Expected Performance Summary
Based on the Grainger performance curve for the 6Z416 motor, the motor is expected to perform as follows: Torque (ft-lbs) 22 RPM 65 Power (Mech, HP) 0.27 Current (Amps) 2.4 Power (Elec, Watts) 230

37 Design of the Motor Assembly Concerning:
Community Interaction: Mounting is unobtrusive (blocks neither the flywheel nor the outlet pipe) Disassembly is not required to turn the pump manually (function of the sprag clutch) Belt is replaceable in country Belt and pulleys can be enclosed to prevent injury Requires little maintenance Sustainability: Motor will power pump at 60rpm This is the approximate manual pump rate Places no extraneous stresses on the pump Use of nonferrous metals will forestall rust Parts are replaceable in country

38 System Maintenance Historically poor maintenance of bearings and pump components on existing system. The planned system will require minimal maintenance. Condition of the project is that community must train workers for scheduled, preventative maintenance, and reactive maintenance, such as replacing v-belt.

39 Motor Installation Installation Instructions:
Please note that numbers in parenthesis refer to the labels on the figure to the right. Drill screw holes through the 80/20 (4) rails and corresponding holes in the mounting sheet so that the rails will be mounted parallel in a vertical fashion. Drill 4 bolt holes (3/8”) in the four corners of the mounting sheet. Drill 4 bolt holes in the concrete flywheel stand corresponding to those in the mounting sheet (5). Press the mounting sheet against the concrete stand so that the bottom edge is as close to parallel with the ground as possible. Using one of the holes in the mounting sheet as a stencil, drill the first hole into the concrete and secure the mounting sheet to the concrete with a bolt and anchor (so that the mounting sheet is now fixed to the stand at that point). At this point, the mounting sheet may be pivoted around the bolt to reassume a vertical position. Follow the same procedure as stated in step 2 for the next 3 holes, beginning with the hole diagonal to the first. Mount the 80/20 rails on the mounting sheet using screws and the holes drilled in step 1. Drill 4 holes in the motor sled (2) corresponding to those in the motor and 4 holes for mounting the L-brackets (3). Mount the motor and L-brackets onto the sled. Unbolt and remove the pump flywheel from the pump shaft. Slide one pulley (8) over the pump shaft and secure with a set screw. Attach the sprag clutch to the motor shaft and bolt the second pulley (6) to the clutch. Place bolts loosely in the L-brackets so that the bolt head is facing inward. Slide the motor sled into the rails, so that the bolt heads run through the channels in the 80/20. With the motor at the top of the rails, fit the belt (7) over the pulleys. Push the motor down to tension the belt and tighten nuts over the bolts so that the sled is secure. Reassemble the flywheel.

40 Motor Installation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

41 Motor Sub-system Budget
Item Units Needed Weight Per Unit (lbs) Weight (lbs) Cost Per Unit Cost Dayton 6z416 1/2HP 90V DC Motor 2 33.85 67.7 $663.00 $1,326.00 80/ Rail (4 meter bar) 1 20.3 $80.00 3/8"x12"x24" Steel Sheet 5.1 $58.82 3/8"x24"x24" Aluminum Sheet 7.056 $192.44 6245K54 V-Belt Pulley (Zinc Diecast) 4 $10.53 $21.06 6186K146 V-Belt 48" $7.45 $14.90 Renold SB6 Sprag Clutch 3 6 $100.00 $200.00 Steel L-Brackets (2") 0.5 $10.00 80/20 Screw Set Total Weight: Total Cost: $

42 Tank Sub-System Objectives:
To create a tank capable of holding enough water to provide people with daily water needs and enough water for daily irrigation of agricultural gardens To manage over-flow so water is not wasted To reduce amount of time spent in line to draw water

43 Basic Design Concepts Ferrocement design
Concrete mixture reinforced by rebar Outlet pipe to 4 spigots for increased access to water Purge pipe (in case tank must be emptied) Overflow pipe (to deal with excess water) Inlet pipe (from pump)

44 Overall System Dimensions & Layout
To Tank Soak Pit Overall System Dimensions & Layout Tank Spigot stand Existing Trough Existing Soak Pit Pump Foundation Existing Spillway Pump

45 Tank Sizing Calculations
Maximum observed flowrate on existing pump was 27 L/min About to pump for the full time equivalent (FTE) of 5.5 hours a day Total water pumped (TWP) is 9,167 L This allows for water usage of 150 people and up to 600 m2 of garden area Personal water usage may increase, decreasing water available for gardening

46 Rebar Spacing Calculations
Axial Spacing Circumferential Spacing Max stress: 430 kPa Cross Section Area: 3.485*10-4m2 Safety Factor: 10 Rebar size: 6mm σy=250 MPa N>13 Spacing: 15 cm Max stress: 400 kPa Cross Section Area: 1.203*10-3m2 Safety Factor: 10 Rebar size: 6mm σy=250 MPa N~43 Spacing: 20cm

47 Obtaining Minimum Flow rates
Minimum flow rate is 12L/min (what they pump by hand already) A given geometry will dictate required head for minimum head Decision to use 1.5” NPT or metric equivalent to minimize losses 9” of head is required to provide minimum flow rate A full tank (~2.25m) provides 38L/min to 4 spigots Where “Klosses” is the loss factors for all components in the line. “f” is the Darcy friction factor. “L” is the piping length. “d” is the pipe diameter. “V” is the water velocity. “g” is the acceleration of gravity.

48 Summary of Leach Field The Leach field (soak pit) is a trench filled with gravel and lined with newspaper. The purpose is to allow water to soak easily and relatively quickly into the ground back to the water table. Both the purge pipe and overflow pipe will lead to the Leach field. It will be located about 10 meters away from the system to prevent erosion.

49 Leach Field Design A clean out pipe will empty the tank into a leach field Purge Trench Inlet and outlet pipes

50 Pipe Configuration Inflow pipe 4 Spigots Outflow pipe
Center support column Overflow pipe Purge pipe

51 Tank Overview Splash Pad (To prevent erosion) Base of tank

52 Dimensions

53 Spigot Details Nipple Valve 1½" Tee Outtake Pipe View

54 Structural Integrity of the Tank
Mechanical Failures Foundation Cracking Load testing for the foundation is being conducted through simulations and results show that it can support the predicted weight with a factor of safety of 10 (tank and water). Undermining of the Foundation by Runoff Gravel bed below the tank will allow for water to flow away from the tank without accumulating underneath it or dragging large amounts of soil away in the process. Gravel surrounding the foundation (and even with the ground) will prevent erosion around the tank. A concrete lip on the outer edge of the foundation (extending to a deeper depth than the rest of the foundation) will further prevent water from flowing underneath the tank. Rebar Corrosion Corrosion of the rebar is primarily affected by the diameter of the rebar. Using a smaller-sized rebar (~6.0mm) will mitigate this problem and increasing the number of rebar rods in the walls will preserve their strength. Water Pressure Breaking Walls Load testing for the walls is being conducted through simulations and results show that it can support several orders of magnitude more weight (water) than will be present.

55 Mechanical Failures Continued
Pipes Clog It is known that the water in the region is quite hard (high mineral content). The length of piping will be minimized and the diameter of the piping will be made as large as feasible to mitigate the chances of clogs and mineral deposit accumulation. The pipes will be designed to remain either wet or dry all the time, so as to minimize deposits. The tap-stand pipe will also be elevated above any silt-levels. The overflow pipe will contain mosquito-netting to prevent contamination. Cracking Around Water Pipes (swelling, people knocking the pipes & temperature changes) In all feasible situations, pipes will be buried or internalized to avoid mishandling (between the pump and tank, drainage from the tank, spigots for water use) and any pipes extending out of the tank (spigots) will be reinforced and made short enough to prevent damage to the tank should they be hit. Temperatures remain well above freezing for virtually the entire year so no additional insulation is necessary to prevent pipes from cracking or breaking. Roof Cave-in Load testing for the roof is being conducted through simulations to locate areas of large stress/strain and to determine if it will be able to support its own weight. To reinforce the roof the presence of a central support column (PVC pipe filled with concrete) should be able to help distribute the weight of the tank between the walls and the center. Structual analysis is provided in following slides People Cannot Access the Inside for Maintenance A hatch will be integrated into the roof of the tank to allow for access when cleaning and repairs are necessary. The hatch will be secured with a lock to prevent children from accessing it. Diameter of the manhole is 2 feet

56 Ansys Structural and Buckling Analysis
Displacement Max. 9.6E-5 m Axial Stress Max. 540 kPa Buckling Mode Factor of Safety: 6653 Hoop Stress Max. 312 kPa

57 Ansys Analysis Explained
Axisymmetric 2D non-reinforced concrete analysis Load gravitational acceleration hydrostatic water pressure 300lbs on roof center Structural Analysis results Maximum stresses calculated Max Axial stress occurs at wall-foundation joint. Will strengthen Majority of structure exposed to stress of ~300 kPa Buckling Analysis Factor of Safety is increased by roughly 3x by adding 2” central concrete column Roof buckles before walls buckle

58 Tank Module Costs

59 Community Ownership and Labor
Describe the help that community will be providing. The community will coordinate movement of materials to the site prior to the team’s arrival. Five community members that will later use the system have been recruited to assist with labor. The community will pay them. Implementation of the Phase I project experienced overwhelming community participation and assistance, even when not formally requested. Explain who will own the project once it’s completed. The wells are viewed as communal property of the community, and the retrofit system will also belong to the community. Members using the water will continue to pay for its use, and this money will be administered by an existing committee to ensure proper maintenance of the system, as well as for other community projects. Explain who will be overseeing maintenance once the team leaves and how repairs will be paid for. The existing community committee that oversees usage fees and maintenance of the well will continue to take care of the system. What education will be provided to the community? The Five community members that have been recruited to help build the project will be trained how to do routine preventative maintenance. A manual (with pictures) will also be given to these community members to illustrate reactive maintenance, as necessary. This project aims to facilitate gardening at select pumping sites, such as to set an example for other pump sites at the region – spreading the practice of gardening in the dry season to prevent famine.

60 Water Table Short-term impacts of water withdraw: Mou Bormetew
Pump site: Mou Bormetew Current Flow rate: 20 liters/ minute Current Daily water withdraw: ~3000 liters/day (estimate) Planned Flow rate from retrofitted pump: 20 liters/ minute Planned Daily water withdraw: liters/ day Pump Capabilities (see Figure A) Flow rate (m^3/hour) Stage 1 0.72 Stage 2 6.29 Stage 3 12.22 Well draw-down at three stages of water pumping

61 Water Table Short-term impacts of water withdraw: Nakar
Pump Site: Nakaar Current Flow rate: 20 liters/ minute Current Daily water withdraw: liters/ day (estimate) Planned Flow rate from retrofitted pump: 20 liters/ minute Planned Daily water withdraw: liters/ day Pump Capabilities (see Figure A) Flow rate (m^3/hour) Stage 1 0.75 Stage 2 3.6 Stage 3 5.14 Well draw-down at three stages of water pumping

62 Water Table Long-term sustainability of water withdraw
Local water table has been stable, despite rapid growth of groundwater pumps in the region. The national government has plans for implementing 30,000 acres of additional irrigated land area by 2015, largely from groundwater sources. The water recharge rate is stable at withdraw rates four times greater than the rate imposed by the proposed system. Well draw-down is stable at withdraw rates exceeding those of the proposed system.

63 Team Logistics Travel and Accommodations- both the assessment trip for this project and phase 1 team have stayed in these locations, and used this bus system, with great success. Arrival at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Airport Lodging in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, upon arrival (Day 1): Centre D’Accueil Notre Dame de Lorete Des Freres de la Sainte Famille 01 BP 3512 Ouagadougou 01 tel : (00226) fax : Bus to Dissin, with transfer in Djikologo, Burkina Faso. Lodging in Dissin, Burkina Faso (Days 3-19): Paroisse de Dissin BP 35, Diocèse de Diébougou Burkina Faso Return to Ouagadougou via Bus. Flight home (Day 20).

64 Safety & Emergency Plan - I
Travel Safety Information: Safety Plan Team members will never travel alone. Ideally, sub-teams of four members will travel together at all times. Some team members will also be able to use their cell phones in case of extreme emergency. A two-way radio will be given to each group so they can communicate with other groups. In case groups get separated or if there is an emergency, a central , accessible meeting location will be chosen every morning. Emergency Plan & Exit Strategy Describe the evacuation plan for medical emergencies, weather or political unrest. In the case of individual medical emergencies, each team member will be able to use his or her emergency evacuation insurance (which will be purchased before traveling) to reach the nearest adequate medical facility. If evacuation is not possible, team members will be able to access the medical facilities at the capital (Ouagadougou), which is about a 5-hour drive away. For immediate medical attention, the medical facilities at Dissin would be within an hour’s reach of any of the villages, and is minutes walking distance from the town center. There are also adequate medical facilities in Dano that are between those of Dissin and Ouagadougou in terms of location. Team members are already familiar with the exact location of the Dissin and Dano medical centers. Evacuation insurance also could be used in case of weather, political unrest, or other emergencies that could arise. In such instances where the safety of the entire team could be compromised, the team will coordinate via cell phone or two-way radio, meet in Dissin, and immediately drive to the safest airport (likely either in Bobo-Dioulasso or Ouagadougou) from which they could leave the country. Determine whether there are any State Department Warnings for this country. There are no State Department Warnings for Burkina Faso. Determine whether there are any other safety concerns for traveling at this time Chances of contracting meningitis fever are highest during the drier part of the year, from January to June. The rainy season begins in in May, at which point Malaria becomes a major concern. Preventative medications will be taken by each travel member, and the community clinic has capabilities of testing for, and treating Malaria. Each traveling member will be asked to receive vaccinations against Yellow Fever, Typhoid, Meningitis, and Hepatitis A.

65 Safety & Emergency Plan - II
On-the ground Contact Phone # for the travel team: In Ouagadougou: Mr. Louis Ouedraogo (NGO contact), 011 (226) / 011 (226) / 011 (226) , In Ouagadougou: Mr. Dieudonne Hien (consultant), 011 (226) , In Dissin: L’ abbe Thomas d’ Aquin Hien (Priest of Dissin): 011 (226) / 011 (226) / 011 (226) Nearest US Consulate Contact info: US Embassy, 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4, Ouagadougou. During business hours: (226) , after hours: (226) or (226) Nearest Hospital Contact Info: The town of Dissin has a medical hospital, and although it may not be US State Department approved, they take care of most medical needs of the area. The clinic is walk-in only. The Peace Corps uses a clinic in Bobo-Diloulasso in southwest Burkina Faso approximately 2.5 hours away by car. It is called St. Leopold and although several doctors there have varying specialties, the Peace Corps mostly uses Dr. Yameogo, who practices internal medicine. The phone number from within Burkina Faso is The capital, Ouagadougou, 5 hours away by car, has the most extensive medical facilities. One is a the Centre Medical-Social, which is a French Embassy Clinic. The number is It is located at Rue Nazi Boni, Ouagadougou. Project Safety Please refer to the Army Corps of Engineers Health and Safety Manual for any topics that are relevant to your trip. General guidelines for Electrical Work found at: Discuss what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) you will need. When working with live electrical circuits, we will need to use insulating (e.g. rubber) gloves. Also, safety goggles will be required for any heavy drilling or sawing. Discuss what dangerous and risky situations are possible during your trip and how you will be ensuring everyone’s safety. Proper dress and precaution must be taken for the heat and construction safety. One major concern will be malaria from mosquitoes, and students could get bacterial or protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever from the local water or food. Other major infectious diseases include schistosomiasis and meningococcal meningitis. All members traveling must get immunizations and be cautious of what is eaten within the community.

66 Project Team Name Role Year/ Academic Major E-mail Traveling
Hannam, Phil Student Project Leader Junior/Mech. Eng Yes Lovell, Dave, Ph.D, PE Faculty Advisor Professor - Civil Engineering Zimmermann, Johann, PE Principal Professional Advisor Engineering Contractor/ consultant Seremet, Chris, PE Professional Advisor Engineer - Catholic Relief Services No Abbot, Michele Logistics Sophomore/ Int. Business Abrams, Ellen Tank Sophomore/ Mech. Eng Bakalar, Matt Solar Leader Junior/ Electrical eng Canfield, Kelly Freshman/ Civil Eng. Crawford, Christina Motor Sophomore/ Envir. Davis, Joshua Dementyer, Artem Solar Junior/Bio. Eng. Devan, Michael Freshman/ Undecided Eng. Fine, Noam Freshman/ ECE Fleck, Greg Hadley, Marcus Sophmore/Chem. Eng Holian, Jill Sophomore/ Civil Jacobus, Headley Tank Leader Grad/Mech. Eng Ji, Helen Kusnick, Josh Sophmore/Mech. Eng Lederer, Anne Nguyen, Bao Freshman/ BioE Nguyen, Khiem Sophomore/ Civil Eng. Nguyen, Vince Peters, Mark Rebois, Dylan Motor Leader Freshman/ Mech. Eng Savard-McNicoll, Lea Logistics Leader Freshman/ Math & Econ Schaler, Ethan Shapiro, Aaron Freshman/ Biology Smith, Kevin Sophmore/Civil Eng. Some, Thierry Soukup, Peter Grad/MSEE Sun, Ann Freshman/Mech. Eng Vilarino, Martin

67 Total Project Budget

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